• nitric acid
  • The first breakthrough in the detection of arsenic poisoning was in 1775 when Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered a way to change arsenic trioxide to garlic-smelling arsine gas (AsH3), by treating it with nitric acid (HNO3) and combining it with zinc. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the reduction of As2O3 by carbon: 2 As2O3 + 3 C → 3 CO2 + 4 As In 1806, Valentin Rose took the stomach of a victim suspected of being poisoned and treated it with potassium carbonate (K2CO3), calcium oxide (CaO) and nitric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Louis Jacques Thénard first produced hydrogen peroxide in 1818 by reacting barium peroxide with nitric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aqua regia, a mixture consisting of hydrochloric and nitric acids, prepared by dissolving sal ammoniac in nitric acid, was described in the works of Pseudo-Geber, a 13th-century European alchemist. (wikipedia.org)
  • NaOCl
  • Low pH also decreases the solubility of some iron and arsenic species as well as increasing the adsorptive reactivity of arsenate, As(V). Additional oxidation of Fe+2 to Fe+3, also referred to as iron(II) and iron(III), is induced by the addition of sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, at the well head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although antimony (Sb) could give a false-positive test by forming stibine (SbH3) gas which decomposes on heating to form a similar black deposit, it would not dissolve in a solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), while arsenic would. (wikipedia.org)
  • chlorine dioxide
  • Very pure[citation needed] chlorine dioxide can also be produced by electrolysis of a chlorite solution: 2 NaClO2 + 2 H2O → 2 ClO2 + 2 NaOH + H2 High-purity chlorine dioxide gas (7.7% in air or nitrogen) can be produced by the gas-solid method, which reacts dilute chlorine gas with solid sodium chlorite: 2 NaClO2 + Cl2 → 2 ClO2 + 2 NaCl These processes and several slight variations have been reviewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorine can be further oxidized to other oxides and oxyanions including hypochlorite (ClO−, the active ingredient in chlorine bleach), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), chlorate (ClO− 3), and perchlorate (ClO− 4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Louis-Jacques
  • In 1809, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard tried to decompose dephlogisticated muriatic acid air by reacting it with charcoal to release the free element muriaticum (and carbon dioxide). (wikipedia.org)
  • Solvents
  • When considering the entire range of benefits over time, high-quality custom fiberglass that can be formulated to withstand a variety of acids, bases, chlorides, solvents, and oxidizers and outlast other popular materials of construction such as high-priced nickel alloys is a very cost-effective material. (beetleplastics.com)
  • plant
  • Visit any large wastewater treatment plant in the United States or Canada and chances are Schwing Bioset equipment, whether piston pumps or sliding frames, is handling the dewatered biosolids. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Industrial and municipal wastewater treatment generates odors that can be strong, persistent, and a nuisance to employees, residents, businesses, and industries located near the wastewater treatment plant. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Modified starch should not be confused with genetically modified starch, which refers to starch from genetically engineered plants, such as those that have been genetically modified to produce novel fatty acids or carbohydrates which might not occur in the plant species being harvested. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modification in "genetically modified" refers to the genetic engineering of the plant DNA, whereas in the term "Modified Starch" seen on mandatory ingredient labels it refers to the later processing or treatment of the starch or starch granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early attempts at implementing water chlorination at a water treatment plant were made in 1893 in Hamburg, Germany, and in 1897 the town of Maidstone, England was the first to have its entire water supply treated with chlorine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment process was conceived by Dr. John L. Leal, and the chlorination plant was designed by George Warren Fuller. (wikipedia.org)
  • bleach
  • US government regulations allow food processing equipment and food contact surfaces to be sanitized with solutions containing bleach, provided that the solution is allowed to drain adequately before contact with food, and that the solutions do not exceed 200 parts per million (ppm) available chlorine (for example, one tablespoon of typical household bleach containing 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, per gallon of water). (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern bleaches resulted from the work of 18th century scientists including Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who discovered chlorine, French scientists Claude Berthollet, who recognized that chlorine could be used to bleach fabrics and who first made sodium hypochlorite (Eau de Javel, or Javel water, named after a quarter in Paris where it was produced) and Antoine Germain Labarraque, who discovered the disinfecting ability of hypochlorites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium perborate as a laundry bleach had been used in Europe since the early twentieth century, but did not become popular in North America until the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The broad-spectrum effectiveness of bleach, particularly sodium hypochlorite, is owed to the nature of its chemical reactivity with microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleach, particularly sodium hypochlorite, has been shown to react with a microbe's heat shock proteins, stimulating their role as intra-cellular chaperone and causing the bacteria to form into clumps (much like an egg that has been boiled) that will eventually die off. (wikipedia.org)
  • The range of micro-organisms effectively killed by bleach (particularly sodium hypochlorite) is extensive, making it an extremely versatile disinfectant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • The chemical feed dosing system consists of a sodium hypochlorite module that oxidizes the arsenic from trivalent to pentavalent. (adedgetech.com)
  • A second chemical feed module uses hydrochloric acid to lower the pH and improve media life. (adedgetech.com)
  • Iron oxide adsorption treatment for arsenic in groundwater is a commonly practiced removal process which involves the chemical treatment of arsenic species such that they adsorb onto iron oxides and create larger particles that may be filtered out of the water stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two advantages of not using the chloride-based processes are that there is no formation of elemental chlorine, and that sodium sulfate, a valuable chemical for the pulp mill, is a side-product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common chemical theory at that time held that an acid is a compound that contains oxygen (remnants of this survive in the German and Dutch names of oxygen: sauerstoff or zuurstof, both translating into English as acid substance), so a number of chemists, including Claude Berthollet, suggested that Scheele's dephlogisticated muriatic acid air must be a combination of oxygen and the yet undiscovered element, muriaticum. (wikipedia.org)
  • With major production starting in the Industrial Revolution, hydrochloric acid is used in the chemical industry as a chemical reagent in the large-scale production of vinyl chloride for PVC plastic, and MDI and TDI for polyurethane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrochloric acid has been an important and frequently used chemical from early history and was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan around the year 800 AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since hydrochloric acid was already fully settled as an important chemical in numerous applications, the commercial interest initiated other production methods, some of which are still used today. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • As one illustration of our experiments with thisfcharacteristic of the slopv we have'foundthat due to its lactic acid content the vaverage raw slop has a hydrogen-ion concentration of approximately 4 pH. (google.com)
  • The treatment units have consistently lowered the arsenic concentration to non-detectable levels since they started up. (adedgetech.com)
  • Stable low concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution can be stored for a long time. (sodiumhypochloritegenerator.com)
  • One study has shown that Enterococcus faecalis was still present in the dentin after 40 minutes of exposure of 1.3% and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, whereas 40 minutes at a concentration of 5.25% was effective in E. faecalis removal. (wikipedia.org)
  • arsenic
  • AdEdge was contacted by EcoRiles in 2013 to design, manufacture, and commission an arsenic removal solution for the Quilicura municipalty.The AdEdge arsenic treatment solution consists of four WaterPOD containerized systems rated for a combined total of 1600 gpm (100 lps). (adedgetech.com)
  • Iron oxide adsorption is a water treatment process that is used to remove arsenic from drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adding a sample of tissue or body fluid to a glass vessel with zinc and acid would produce arsine gas if arsenic was present, in addition to the hydrogen that would be produced regardless by the zinc reacting with the acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • inorganic
  • Acid-treated starch (INS 1401), also called thin boiling starch, is prepared by treating starch or starch granules with inorganic acids, e.g. hydrochloric acid breaking down the starch molecule and thus reducing the viscosity. (wikipedia.org)
  • brine
  • Mixed oxidant solution is produced from electrolysis of sodium chloride brine (sodium chloride) and it's a mixture of disinfecting compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The old (pre-systematic) name muriatic acid has the same origin (muriatic means "pertaining to brine or salt", hence muriate means hydrochloride), and this name is still sometimes used. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • Since 1988, hydrochloric acid has been listed as a Table II precursor under the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances because of its use in the production of heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonate
  • A new industrial process developed by Nicolas Leblanc of Issoundun, France enabled cheap large-scale production of sodium carbonate (soda ash). (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Toxic cyanide is oxidized to cyanate (OCN−) that is not toxic, idealized as follows: CN− + OCl− → OCN− + Cl− Sodium hypochlorite is commonly used as a biocide in industrial applications to control slime and bacteria formation in water systems used at power plants, pulp and paper mills, etc., in solutions typically of 10-15% by weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • decompose
  • Chlorinated amino acids rapidly decompose, but protein chloramines are longer-lived and retain some oxidative capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • The wood-tar variety has been used for meat preservation, ship treatment, and such medical purposes as an anaesthetic, antiseptic, astringent, expectorant, and laxative, though these have mostly been replaced by modern formulations[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] It is also found naturally in gastric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • historically
  • Some creosote types were used historically as a treatment for components of seagoing and outdoor wood structures to prevent rot (e.g., bridgework and railroad ties, see image). (wikipedia.org)

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