• aromatic
  • It can also be used as the synthetic solvent for polyamide, polyimide and polysulfone resin as well as the extraction solvents for aromatic hydrocarbon and butadiene extraction solvents and solvents for synthesizing chlorofluoroaniline. (chemicalbook.com)
  • used as an ornamental stone since the Upper Palaeolithic Sub-bituminous coal, whose properties range between those of lignite and those of bituminous coal (It is used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation and is also an important source of light aromatic hydrocarbons for the chemical synthesis industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • atom
  • As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 91 nm wavelength. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by electromagnetic force, while planets and celestial objects are held by gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation, Dirac equation or even the Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the oxidative half-reaction, the reduced cofactor reacts with molecular oxygen to form a C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate, which transfers an oxygen atom to ornithine. (jove.com)
  • CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 In a second stage, additional hydrogen is generated through the lower-temperature, exothermic, water gas shift reaction, performed at about 360 °C: CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 Essentially, the oxygen (O) atom is stripped from the additional water (steam) to oxidize CO to CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • steam
  • Currently the dominant technology for direct production is steam reforming from hydrocarbons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon dioxide can be separated from natural gas with a 60-70% efficiency for hydrogen production and from other hydrocarbons to varying degrees of efficiency.Specifically, bulk hydrogen is usually produced by the steam reforming of methane or natural gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can deliver benefits for an oil refinery because it is more efficient than separate hydrogen, steam and power plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. (wikipedia.org)
  • fuels
  • Here, we provide a brief overview of an alternative mid- to long-term option, namely, the capture and conversion of CO 2 , to produce sustainable, synthetic hydrocarbon or carbonaceous fuels, most notably for transportation purposes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Considering all of this, it becomes obvious that our energy supply for the foreseeable future will surely be based on fossil-derived hydrocarbon fuels, with the unavoidable production of CO 2 . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The Henry H. Storch Award, co-sponsored by the Division of Fuel Chemistry of the ACS and Elsevier Ltd., is given annually to recognize an individual in the field of fuel science for an exceptional contribution to the research on the chemistry and utilization of hydrocarbon fuels. (nacatsoc.org)
  • yield
  • anaerobic digestion - the biological degradation of organic materials in the absence of oxygen to yield methane gas (that may be combusted to produce energy) and stabilised organic residues (that may be used as a soil additive). (wikipedia.org)
  • additive
  • Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • comprises
  • 10. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the combining step c) comprises the step of adding to the solution of bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions obtained in step b) an electron donor. (google.es)
  • wherein
  • 3. A process as claimed in claim 2 , wherein said hydration of step b) is catalysed by means of an enzyme capable of catalysing the hydration of dissolved CO 2 into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. (google.es)
  • 7. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the hydrogen fuel cell also generates, in step d), water that is recycled and used in the catalysing step b). (google.es)
  • ultraviolet
  • The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C (932 °F). Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and with high oxygen mix are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine, compared to the highly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, which uses an ammonium perchlorate composite. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • The asymmetrical shape of the molecule arises from a tendency of the four electron pairs in the valence shell of oxygen to arrange themselves symmetrically at the vertices of a tetrahedron around the oxygen nucleus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • adsorption
  • c) passing a hydrocarbon feedstream comprising hydrocarbons to said adsorption zone after adsorption of said material at desorption conditions to desorb said material from said adsorbent and produce at least a portion of said first stream. (google.com)
  • synthetic
  • Capturing CO2 is most effective at point sources, such as large fossil fuel or biomass energy facilities, industries with major CO2 emissions, natural gas processing, synthetic fuel plants and fossil fuel-based hydrogen production plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • greenhouse
  • Gaseous CO 2 emissions from processes such as hydrocarbon reforming are transformed into carbonate or bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions by the enzymatic system in order to prevent their contribution to the greenhouse effect. (google.es)
  • Predictions of harmful climatic effects due to future increases in hydrocarbon use and minor greenhouse gases like CO2 do not conform to current experimental knowledge. (oism.org)
  • ammonia
  • Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water has a very high specific heat capacity of 4.1814 J/(g·K) at 25 °C - the second highest among all the heteroatomic species (after ammonia), as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ/mol or 2257 kJ/kg at the normal boiling point), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • degrees
  • On Titan, where temperatures are around 90 Kelvin (minus 290 degrees Fahrenheit), a methane-based organism would have to use a substance that is liquid as its medium for living processes, but not water itself. (spacefellowship.com)
  • petrol
  • As demand for motor spirit grew, engineers and chemists found that more severe heating of the higher boiling points hydrocarbons broke them down, or 'cracked' them, into smaller, lower boiling hydrocarbons more suitable for petrol production. (world-petroleum.org)
  • chemically
  • Chemically, water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen, having the formula H 2 O. It is chemically active, reacting with certain metals and metal oxides to form bases, and with certain oxides of nonmetals to form acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • water
  • While liquid water is widely regarded as necessary for life, there has been extensive speculation published in the scientific literature that this is not a strict requirement. (spacefellowship.com)
  • They take up simple substances such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, as well as inorganic nutrients and produce biological molecules needed for life from the inorganic substances. (scribd.com)
  • Because of hydrogen bonding between water molecules, the latent heats latent heat, heat change associated with a change of state or phase (see states of matter). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When there is enough oxygen, hydrocarbons can be burnt to form CO 2 and water vapour, releasing HEAT. (world-petroleum.org)
  • The accepted IUPAC name of water is oxidane or simply water,or its equivalent in different languages, although there are other systematic names which can be used to describe the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simplest systematic name of water is hydrogen oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other systematic names for water include hydroxic acid, hydroxylic acid, and hydrogen hydroxide, using acid and base names. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polarized form of the water molecule, H+ OH− , is also called hydron hydroxide by IUPAC nomenclature. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20/30/10 standard - 20 mg/l Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), 30 mg/l Suspended Solids (SS), 10 units of E. coli: the water quality standard for greywater use in toilets, laundry and surface irrigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • The new hydrogen findings are consistent with conditions that could produce an exotic, methane-based life form, but do not definitively prove its existence, said Darrell Strobel, a Cassini interdisciplinary scientist based at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md., who authored the paper on hydrogen. (spacefellowship.com)
  • One form of the fuel known as RP-1 is burned with liquid oxygen as rocket fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • This lack of acetylene is important because that chemical would likely be the best energy source for a methane-based life on Titan, said Chris McKay, an astrobiologist at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., who proposed a set of conditions necessary for this kind of methane-based life on Titan in 2005. (spacefellowship.com)
  • Here, the distribution of current consumption of energy sources is noted. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Currently Kung and his research group are focused on the synthesis of novel nanomaterials for catalytic applications to minimize energy consumption and environmental impact and on new lithium-ion battery technologies, such as new forms of electrodes for improved electrical energy storage. (nacatsoc.org)
  • The environmental effects of rapid expansion of the nuclear and hydrocarbon energy industries are discussed. (oism.org)
  • The energy isn't stored directly, but the work-product of consuming energy (pumping away heat) is stored, having the equivalent effect on daytime consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interest in storing power from these intermittent sources grows as the renewable energy industry begins to generate a larger fraction of overall energy consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • Depending on the quality of the feedstock (natural gas, rich gases, naphtha, etc.), one ton of hydrogen produced will also produce 9 to 12 tons of CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • gases
  • An alkali anion exchange membrane (AAEM) is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct anions while being impermeable to gases such as oxygen or hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • production and consumption
  • Resource efficiency reflects the understanding that current, global, economic growth and development can not be sustained with the current production and consumption patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Resource efficiency is the reduction of the environmental impact from the production and consumption of these goods, from final raw material extraction to last use and disposal. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4,5 Thus in an ideal scenario, there should be a balance between CO 2 production and consumption, but unfortunately this has been disrupted. (rsc.org)