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  • degenerative
  • Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal injuries, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, bone tumours, and congenital limb deformities. (wikipedia.org)
  • marrow
  • MSCs are historically harvested through bone marrow aspiration, which does not require invasive surgical intervention or cartilage extraction from other sites as required by other cell-based strategies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within these spaces are bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • sesamoid bones
  • Acute or chronic injures to the sesamoid bones or their associated tendon and joint capsule apparatus may cause pain, limping and difficulty wearing shoes, all aggravated by even a simple activity like walking. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • In the human body at birth, there are over 270 bones, but many of these fuse together during development, leaving a total of 206 separate bones in the adult, not counting numerous small sesamoid bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • trabecular
  • Some studies show that 80% of those who sustained ACL tears had concomitant bone bruises (subchondral trabecular microfracture). (drlintner.com)
  • As far as short bones are concerned, trabecular alignment has been studied in the vertebral pedicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerves
  • The histological features of cartilage call attention to the fact that cartilage has a little capacity to repair itself owing to the lack of a blood supply, nerves, or lymphangion. (hindawi.com)
  • Genetic
  • Careers requiring repetitive or intense motion can increase the risk of developing cartilage problems, but there are several other risk factors, including age, weight and genetic predisposition. (cartilage.org)
  • femur
  • The trabeculae are aligned towards the mechanical load distribution that a bone experiences within long bones such as the femur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its surface is smooth, coated with cartilage in the fresh state, except over an ovoid depression, the fovea capitis, which is situated a little below and behind the center of the head, and gives attachment to the ligament of head of femur. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • During the immobilization period, isometric exercises, such as straight leg raises, are commonly used to restore muscle loss without disturbing the cartilage of the affected joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • collagen
  • Its matrix is mostly made up of a composite material incorporating the inorganic mineral calcium phosphate in the chemical arrangement termed calcium hydroxylapatite (this is the bone mineral that gives bones their rigidity) and collagen, an elastic protein which improves fracture resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The collagen of bone is known as ossein. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • Stress fractures occur when an athlete applies abnormal repetitive stress to normal bone or applies normal repetitive stress to a weakened bone. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • layer
  • Modified (flattened) osteoblasts become the lining cells that form a protective layer on the bone surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In the laboratory the cartilage cells are separated from the rest of the material and cultured for three to four weeks. (thephysiotherapysite.co.uk)
  • Autologous cartilage is the gold standard for cartilage seed cells in regenerative medicine [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Bones support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone is formed by the hardening of this matrix around entrapped cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The columns are metabolically active, and as bone is reabsorbed and created the nature and location of the cells within the osteon will change. (wikipedia.org)