• antigen
  • He was the first to show that tolerance was an active process involving metabolic activity in antigen specific B cells, and that it could be blocked by certain metabolic inhibitors. (scripps.edu)
  • A Phase I/IIb multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the anti-idiotypic antibody vaccine ACA125 that functionally imitates the tumor antigen CA125 in 119 patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • According to this theory, the variable antigen-binding regions of antibodies (Ab1) contain Id determinants that are immunogenic and induce the formation of Ab2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A subset of these antibodies is able to functionally mimic the three-dimensional structure of the original antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The agent-polymer-peptide complex may be delivered to target cells by, for example, a pre-targeting technique utilizing bispecific or multispecific antibodies or fragments, having at least one binding arm that recognizes the hapten and at least a second binding arm that binds specifically to a disease or pathogen associated antigen, such as a tumor associated antigen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Antigens can be large and complex substances, and any single antibody can only bind to a small, specific area on the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, an effective immune response often involves the production of many different antibodies by many different B cells against the same antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both naturally and artificially acquired immunity can be further subdivided depending on whether the host built up immunity itself by antigen as 'active immunity' and lasts long-term, sometimes lifelong. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B lymphocyte's antigen receptor is a membrane-bound version of the antibody it will secrete if activated. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When activated, a B lymphocyte's secreted antibodies enter the blood and other body fluids, where the bind the antigen and help destroy it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • mice also mounted significantly higher antibody responses to T-independent type 2 antigen. (frontiersin.org)
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an organism is exposed to a particular antigen (i.e. a protein on the surface of a bacterium) an immune response is stimulated and antibodies are generated to target that specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This will allow the pathogen to re-infect the host while the immune system generates new antibodies to target the newly identified antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variety generated of the surface lipoprotein antigen allows the bacterium to evade the host humoral immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • The difficulties in stimulating a reliable antibody response has led to the attempts to develop a vaccine that stimulates a response by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The ENAs consist of ribonucleoproteins and non-histone proteins, named by either the name of the donor who provided the prototype serum (Sm, Ro, La, Jo), or the name of the disease setting in which the antibodies were found (SS-A, SS-B, Scl-70). (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • Unlike vaccines, which require time to induce protective immunity and depend on the host's ability to mount an immune response, passive antibody can theoretically confer protection regardless of the immune status of the host. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • For example, the vaccine against hepatitis B does not elicit an antibody response in approximately 10% of vaccines, and the percentage of nonresponders is substantially higher in immunocompromised persons (1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Moreover, by combining the mRNA vaccines with therapies in clinical use (chemotherapy or anti-CTLA-4 antibody therapy), an even more effective anti-tumor response can be elicited. (wiley.com)
  • This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution. (abcam.com)
  • In 81 patients (68.1%), a specific anti-anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab3) response could be induced. (aacrjournals.org)
  • those patients who experience a strong therapeutic effect from Trastuzumab are those who are developing their own antibody immune response to the target HER-2. (dana.org)
  • The humoral immune response is crucial for protecting individuals from many infections and eliminating foreign substances. (frontiersin.org)
  • In T-independent immunity, the antibody response occurs directly after B cell activation in T cell deficient mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • The function of the bursa was discovered when it was surgically removed from neonatal chicks and this led to an impaired antibody response to Salmonella typhimurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein A has been shown to cripple humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity which in turn means that individuals can be repeatedly infected with S. aureus since they cannot mount a strong antibody response. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADCC is part of the adaptive immune response due to its dependence on a prior antibody response. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA vaccines elicit the best immune response when highly active expression vectors are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • Excessive level of BAFF causes abnormally high antibody production, results in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and many other autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Belimumab (Benlysta) is a monoclonal antibody developed by Human Genome Sciences and GlaxoSmithKline, with significant discovery input by Cambridge Antibody Technology, which specifically recognizes and inhibits the biological activity of B-Lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and is in clinical trials for treatment of Systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunosuppressive drugs can be classified into five groups: glucocorticoids cytostatics antibodies drugs acting on immunophilins other drugs In pharmacologic (supraphysiologic) doses, glucocorticoids, such as prednisone, dexamethasone, and hydrocortisone are used to suppress various allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies, also known as SS-A and SS-B, respectively, are commonly found in primary Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disorder that affects the exocrine glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-Ro antibodies are also found less frequently in other disorders including autoimmune liver diseases, coeliac disease, autoimmune rheumatic diseases, cardiac neonatal lupus erythematosus and polymyositis. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble
  • Such substances are known as soluble antibodies and perform important functions in countering infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower level of BAFF transcripts (or a higher level of soluble BAFF) show a higher risk of producing donor-specific antibodies in the investigated patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • All these ligands act as homotrimers (i.e. three of the same molecule) interacting with homotrimeric receptors, although BAFF has been known to be active as either a hetero- or homotrimer (can aggregate into 60-mer depending on the primary structure of the protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • helper
  • The laboratory conducts research on cancer vaccines focuses on augmenting CD4 "helper" T cell immunity using peptide epitopes. (dana.org)
  • Trastuzumab
  • Researchers have thought that the monoclonal antibody breast cancer treatment Trastuzumab works by interfering with processes that regulate tumor growth. (dana.org)
  • Our preliminary studies demonstrate that HER-2 specific humoral immunity occurs commonly in Trastuzumab-treated patients and that the appearance of HER-2 humoral immunity occurs more commonly in clinically responding patients. (dana.org)
  • The effects against solid tumors of trastuzumab and rituximab monoclonal antibodies have been shown in experiments with mice to involve ADCC as an important mechanism of therapeutic action. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • A clinical Phase I study in patients with recurrent ovarian carcinoma showed that 67% of the patients developed specific anti-anti-Id antibody (Ab3) directed against the vaccine. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anti-tumor antibody treatments have improved clinical outcomes for breast cancer and lymphoma patients. (dana.org)
  • The first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease causing organism is probably Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah ('A Treatise on Smallpox and Measles', translated 1848) written by the Islamic physician Al-Razi in the 9th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least one anti-APRIL monoclonal antibody has been announced to enter phase I clinical trials for multiple myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1888 Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin showed that the clinical effects of diphtheria were caused by diphtheria toxin and, following the 1890 discovery of an antitoxin-based immunity to diphtheria and tetanus by Emil Adolf von Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburō, antitoxin became the first major success of modern therapeutic immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential candidates for antibodies and early stage results from clinical trials have been announced. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Furthermore, the functionally important epitopes of the gp120 protein are masked by glycosylation, trimerisation and receptor-induced conformational changes making it difficult to block with neutralising antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this end, protein A plays a multifaceted role: By binding the Fc portion of antibodies, protein A renders them inaccessible to the opsonins, thus impairing phagocytosis of the bacteria via immune cell attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural (or native) protein A can be cultured in Staphylococcus aureus and contains the five homologous antibody binding regions described above and a C-terminal region for cell wall attachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant versions of protein A also contain the five homologous antibody binding domains but may vary in other parts of the structure in order to facilitate coupling to porous substrates Engineered versions of the protein are also available, the first of which was rProtein A, B4, C-CYS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein A is often coupled to other molecules such as a fluorescent dye, enzymes, biotin, colloidal gold or radioactive iodine without affecting the antibody binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • These active molecules seem to contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes to the affected area. (ahajournals.org)
  • Through these interactions in serum, where IgG molecules are bound in the wrong orientation (in relation to normal antibody function), the bacteria disrupts opsonization and phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin
  • Building on the observations of his predecessors Bostock, Blackley and Dunbar, Noon noted that hay fever patients "sometimes become cured" and that this was possibly because they "have had the good fortune to develop an active immunity against the toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • However, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils can also mediate ADCC, such as eosinophils killing certain parasitic worms known as helminths via IgE antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymorphic
  • Basically, the antibody paratope is polygenic, made up of three genes, V, D, and J. Each paratope locus is also polymorphic, such that during antibody production, one allele of V, one of D, and one of J is chosen. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunoglobulin
  • as human or animal blood plasma or serum, as pooled human immunoglobulin for intravenous (IVIG) or intramuscular (IG) use, as high-titer human IVIG or IG from immunized donors or from donors recovering from the disease, and as monoclonal antibodies (MAb). (wikipedia.org)