• antigen
  • He was the first to show that tolerance was an active process involving metabolic activity in antigen specific B cells, and that it could be blocked by certain metabolic inhibitors. (scripps.edu)
  • A Phase I/IIb multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the anti-idiotypic antibody vaccine ACA125 that functionally imitates the tumor antigen CA125 in 119 patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • According to this theory, the variable antigen-binding regions of antibodies (Ab1) contain Id determinants that are immunogenic and induce the formation of Ab2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A subset of these antibodies is able to functionally mimic the three-dimensional structure of the original antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The agent-polymer-peptide complex may be delivered to target cells by, for example, a pre-targeting technique utilizing bispecific or multispecific antibodies or fragments, having at least one binding arm that recognizes the hapten and at least a second binding arm that binds specifically to a disease or pathogen associated antigen, such as a tumor associated antigen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Antigens can be large and complex substances, and any single antibody can only bind to a small, specific area on the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, an effective immune response often involves the production of many different antibodies by many different B cells against the same antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both naturally and artificially acquired immunity can be further subdivided depending on whether the host built up immunity itself by antigen as 'active immunity' and lasts long-term, sometimes lifelong. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Donor-specific antibodies bind with high affinity to the vascular endothelium of graft and activate complement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of an antibody to bind to its corresponding FcR is further modulated by the structure of the glycan(s) present at conserved sites within its Fc region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of antibodies to bind to FcRs helps to direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors recognize, and bind to, the Fc portion of an antibody, such as IgG, which has bound to the surface of a pathogen-infected target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, inducing the NK cell to release proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes, which causes the lysis of the infected cell to hinder the spread of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • titers
  • Homologous human hyperimmune globulins are antibody products that contain high titers of specific antibody. (docplayer.net)
  • Anti-oxidized LDL (oxLDL) antibodies are exceptional among the autoantibodies prevalent in atherosclerosis: on the one hand, a correlation was found between the existence and titers of anti-oxLDL antibodies and the extent of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) ( Table 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • neutralize
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • In addition, complement serum proteins, which are a part of the innate immune system, work with antibodies to lyse target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ENAs consist of ribonucleoproteins and non-histone proteins, named by either the name of the donor who provided the prototype serum (Sm, Ro, La, Jo), or the name of the disease setting in which the antibodies were found (SS-A, SS-B, Scl-70). (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • Excessive level of BAFF causes abnormally high antibody production, results in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and many other autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Belimumab (Benlysta) is a monoclonal antibody developed by Human Genome Sciences and GlaxoSmithKline, with significant discovery input by Cambridge Antibody Technology, which specifically recognizes and inhibits the biological activity of B-Lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and is in clinical trials for treatment of Systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunosuppressive drugs can be classified into five groups: glucocorticoids cytostatics antibodies drugs acting on immunophilins other drugs In pharmacologic (supraphysiologic) doses, glucocorticoids, such as prednisone, dexamethasone, and hydrocortisone are used to suppress various allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies, also known as SS-A and SS-B, respectively, are commonly found in primary Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disorder that affects the exocrine glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-Ro antibodies are also found less frequently in other disorders including autoimmune liver diseases, coeliac disease, autoimmune rheumatic diseases, cardiac neonatal lupus erythematosus and polymyositis. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble
  • The antibodies are soluble and do not require direct cell-to-cell contact between the pathogen and the B-cell to function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such substances are known as soluble antibodies and perform important functions in countering infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower level of BAFF transcripts (or a higher level of soluble BAFF) show a higher risk of producing donor-specific antibodies in the investigated patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Additionally, the development of CA125-specific antibodies (Ab1′) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of CA125-positive tumor cells was observed in 50.4% and 26.9% of patients, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The laboratory conducts research on cancer vaccines focuses on augmenting CD4 "helper" T cell immunity using peptide epitopes. (dana.org)
  • Adoptive T cell therapy is also being examined, a strategy that involves infusing high numbers of T cells into patients with active bulky malignancy. (dana.org)
  • Similarly, cell mediated immunity is active when the organisms' own T-cells are stimulated, and passive when T cells come from another organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased levels of BAFF may initiate aloreactive B cell and T cell immunity, therefore may promote allograft rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids suppress the cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This diminishes both B cell clone expansion and antibody synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the knowledge that natural killer cells are effectors of innate immunity, recent research has uncovered information on both activating and inhibitory NK cell receptors which play important functional roles, including self tolerance and the sustaining of NK cell activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this end, protein A plays a multifaceted role: By binding the Fc portion of antibodies, protein A renders them inaccessible to the opsonins, thus impairing phagocytosis of the bacteria via immune cell attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural (or native) protein A can be cultured in Staphylococcus aureus and contains the five homologous antibody binding regions described above and a C-terminal region for cell wall attachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • OIT also creates an increase in allergen-specific IgG4 antibodies and a decrease in allergen-specific IgE antibodies, as well as diminished mast cells and basophils, two cell types that are large contributors to allergic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADCC requires an effector cell which classically is known to be natural killer (NK) cells that typically interact with IgG antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the course of a few hours a complex forms between the antibody, target cell, and effector cell which leads to lysis of the cell membrane of the target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trastuzumab
  • Researchers have thought that the monoclonal antibody breast cancer treatment Trastuzumab works by interfering with processes that regulate tumor growth. (dana.org)
  • those patients who experience a strong therapeutic effect from Trastuzumab are those who are developing their own antibody immune response to the target HER-2. (dana.org)
  • Our preliminary studies demonstrate that HER-2 specific humoral immunity occurs commonly in Trastuzumab-treated patients and that the appearance of HER-2 humoral immunity occurs more commonly in clinically responding patients. (dana.org)
  • The effects against solid tumors of trastuzumab and rituximab monoclonal antibodies have been shown in experiments with mice to involve ADCC as an important mechanism of therapeutic action. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution. (abcam.com)
  • To address these issues, antibody gene transfer seeks to administer to patients the mAb-encoding nucleotide sequence, rather than the mAb protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All these ligands act as homotrimers (i.e. three of the same molecule) interacting with homotrimeric receptors, although BAFF has been known to be active as either a hetero- or homotrimer (can aggregate into 60-mer depending on the primary structure of the protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the functionally important epitopes of the gp120 protein are masked by glycosylation, trimerisation and receptor-induced conformational changes making it difficult to block with neutralising antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein A has been shown to cripple humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity which in turn means that individuals can be repeatedly infected with S. aureus since they cannot mount a strong antibody response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant versions of protein A also contain the five homologous antibody binding domains but may vary in other parts of the structure in order to facilitate coupling to porous substrates Engineered versions of the protein are also available, the first of which was rProtein A, B4, C-CYS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein A is often coupled to other molecules such as a fluorescent dye, enzymes, biotin, colloidal gold or radioactive iodine without affecting the antibody binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • These active molecules seem to contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes to the affected area. (ahajournals.org)
  • Through these interactions in serum, where IgG molecules are bound in the wrong orientation (in relation to normal antibody function), the bacteria disrupts opsonization and phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunoglobulin
  • as human or animal blood plasma or serum, as pooled human immunoglobulin for intravenous (IVIG) or intramuscular (IG) use, as high-titer human IVIG or IG from immunized donors or from donors recovering from the disease, and as monoclonal antibodies (MAb). (wikipedia.org)
  • colostrum
  • Passive immunity is also provided through colostrum and breast milk, which contain IgA antibodies that are transferred to the gut of the infant, providing local protection against disease causing bacteria and viruses until the newborn can synthesize its own antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Immunity is generally specific to a single organism or group of closely related organisms. (docplayer.net)
  • A clinical Phase I study in patients with recurrent ovarian carcinoma showed that 67% of the patients developed specific anti-anti-Id antibody (Ab3) directed against the vaccine. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunity involves both specific and nonspecific components. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is divided into two types: (a) Non-Specific innate immunity, a degree of resistance to all infections in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • b) Specific innate immunity, a resistance to a particular kind of microorganism only. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease causing organism is probably Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah ('A Treatise on Smallpox and Measles', translated 1848) written by the Islamic physician Al-Razi in the 9th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Before hybridoma technology was invented, Norman developed the splenic focus assay, which allowed analysis of the antibody production derived from single clones of B cells," said Nemazee. (scripps.edu)
  • Some products (e.g., washed or reconstituted red blood cells) contain a relatively small amount of antibody, and some (e.g., intravenous immune globulin and plasma products) contain a large amount. (docplayer.net)
  • In addition to blood products used for transfusion (e.g., whole blood, red cells, and platelets) there are three major sources of antibody used in human medicine. (docplayer.net)
  • Located in the rump of birds, this organ is full of stem cells and very active in young birds but atrophies after six months. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains a large number of plasma cells and is the main secretory body of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids also suppress the humoral immunity, causing B cells to express smaller amounts of IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coating of target cells with antibodies is sometimes referred to as opsonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The typical ADCC involves activation of NK cells by antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several laboratory methods exist for determining the efficacy of antibodies or effector cells in eliciting ADCC. (wikipedia.org)
  • After washing, effector cells expressing Fc receptor CD16 are co-incubated with the antibody-labelled target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • He has a longstanding interest in antitumor antibodies, having defined the required role of Fc receptor engagement in the laboratory of Jefffey Ravetch at the Rockefeller University. (dana.org)
  • pertussis
  • Maternal antibodies protect against some diseases more than others such as measles, rubella, and tetanus compared to the protection provided against polio, and pertussis. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-A β antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. (hindawi.com)
  • toxin
  • In 1888 Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin showed that the clinical effects of diphtheria were caused by diphtheria toxin and, following the 1890 discovery of an antitoxin-based immunity to diphtheria and tetanus by Emil Adolf von Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburō, antitoxin became the first major success of modern therapeutic immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Building on the observations of his predecessors Bostock, Blackley and Dunbar, Noon noted that hay fever patients "sometimes become cured" and that this was possibly because they "have had the good fortune to develop an active immunity against the toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • However, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils can also mediate ADCC, such as eosinophils killing certain parasitic worms known as helminths via IgE antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymorphic
  • Basically, the antibody paratope is polygenic, made up of three genes, V, D, and J. Each paratope locus is also polymorphic, such that during antibody production, one allele of V, one of D, and one of J is chosen. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • These products are made from the donated plasma of humans with high levels of the antibody of interest. (docplayer.net)
  • However, since hyperimmune globulins are from humans, they also contain other antibodies in lesser quantities. (docplayer.net)
  • Only a few other species besides humans transfer maternal antibodies before birth, including primates and lagomorphs (which includes rabbits and hares). (wikipedia.org)
  • donors
  • It is produced by combining (pooling) the IgG antibody fraction from thousands of adult donors in the United States. (docplayer.net)
  • Thus
  • Thus, it is not surprising that an association was found between the presence of anti-oxLDL antibodies and atherosclerosis and CVD. (ahajournals.org)