• intracellular
  • Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health studying tuberculosis resistance and susceptibility in animals have identified a gene in mice which plays a significant role in limiting the multiplication of intracellular pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes inside host cells. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Toxoplasma gondii (IPA: /ˈtɒksoʊˌplæzmə ˈɡɒndi.aɪ/) is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • This is a vascular disease that is commonly triggered by the involvement of change in temperature, which leads to syndromes including (first and second degree) burning pain, increased temperature, erythema and swelling, of mainly the hands and feet that are affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cysts of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm were also well known in ancient cultures mainly because of their presence in slaughtered and sacrificed animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition was documented so well mainly because of its presence in slaughtered and sacrificed animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It occurs in Central and South America, chiefly among the poorest strata of the population, who live in dwellings infested by transmitters of the disease (bloodsucking hemipterous insects, mainly triatomids). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hydatid cysts of E. granulosus develop in internal organs (mainly liver and lungs) of humans and intermediate hosts (herbivores such as sheep, horses, cattle, pigs, goats, and camels) as unilocular fluid-filled bladders. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chagas disease causes 21,000 deaths per year mainly in Latin America. (wikipedia.org)
  • tuberculosis
  • Wild boars can act as reservoirs for many important infectious diseases in domestic animals, such as classical swine fever, brucellosis and trichinellosis, and in humans, diseases such as hepatitis E, tuberculosis, leptospirosis and trichinellosis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It is estimated that 8 million people are infected with tuberculosis annually with approximately 2 million of those dying from the lung disease per year. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The researchers suggest that the human equivalent of Ipr1 might be a gene described as SP110 and may play a significant role in determining tuberculosis susceptibility in people. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Igor Kramnik, assistant professor of immunology and infectious disease at the Harvard School of Public Health and senior author of the study said, The findings are encouraging and highlight the role of genetic function in determining whether a person has a high risk of developing tuberculosis. (rxpgnews.com)
  • causes
  • Trypanosoma brucei gambiense causes the diseases in west and central Africa, whereas Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense has a limited geographical range and is responsible for causing the disease in east and southern Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • eradicate
  • As the tsetse fly is the main vector of transmission, making the fly immune to the disease by altering its genome could be the main component in an effort to eradicate the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • affect humans
  • In 1978, having identified a successful treatment for a type of worms affecting horses, Campbell realised that similar treatments might be useful against related types of worms that affect humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their habit of ingesting blood, ticks are vectors of at least twelve diseases that affect humans and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyme Disease
  • The black legged tick, a carrier of Lyme disease, when not feeding, spends its time burrowed in soil absorbing moisture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The natural environmental controls that used to keep the tick populations in check are disappearing, and warmer and wetter climates are allowing the ticks to breed and grow at an alarming rate, resulting in an increase in Lyme disease, both in existing areas and in areas where it has not been seen before. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to their role in transmitting Lyme disease, ixodid ticks, particularly the North American I. scapularis, have been studied using geographic information systems to develop predictive models for ideal tick habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • giardiasis
  • Giardiasis, popularly known as beaver fever, is a parasitic disease caused by Giardia lamblia. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the CDC, "Those at greatest risk are travelers to countries where giardiasis is common, people in child care settings, those who are in close contact with someone who has the disease, people who swallow contaminated drinking water, backpackers or campers who drink untreated water from lakes or rivers, people who have contact with animals who have the disease, and men who have sex with men. (wikipedia.org)
  • domestic
  • Changes of human habitation to suburban areas, increased use of lands for agricultural purposes, increased hunting activities and consumption of wild boar meat have increased the chances of exposure of wild boars to domestic animals and humans. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Changes of human habitation to suburban areas owing to growing world populations, increased use of lands for agricultural purposes, and deforestation have all increased chances of contact exposure of wild boars to humans and domestic animals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In addition, recreational hunting of wild boars and consumption of wild boar meats in some regions of the world further provided ample opportunities for direct human contacts with wild boars, and thus created an ideal environment for the transmission of pathogens between wild boars and domestic swine, and between wild boars and humans ( Gibbs 1997 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It is estimated that 75% of the emerging diseases of humans originate in domestic or wild animals. (tropicalmedicine2016.com)
  • and Brugia pahangi and Brugia patei infect domestic cats, dogs and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • El Nino is an extreme weather pattern that is often responsible for increased precipitation, resulting in increased flooding, creating a more promising breeding ground for a plethora of vectors that both carry and cause infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another result of the warming oceans are stronger hurricanes, which will wreck more havoc on land, and in the oceans, and create more opportunities for vectors to breed and infectious diseases to flourish. (wikipedia.org)
  • These winds can carry vectors tens of thousands of kilometers, resulting in an introduction of new infectious agents to regions that have never seen them before, making the humans in these regions even more susceptible. (wikipedia.org)
  • ingestion
  • Gravid proglottids or released eggs are shed in the feces and, following their ingestion by a human or ungulate host, an oncosphere larva is released that penetrates the intestinal epithelium into the lamina propria. (jimmunol.org)
  • Among
  • In extreme situations such as in Assam, India, a number of mortality among children is attributed to this disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Diagnosis basically relies on a combination of postmortem analyses, clinical signs displayed by the animals, and response to drenching. (wikipedia.org)