• mice
  • Characteristics and contributions of defective, ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing viruses involved in a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndroms of mice. (naver.com)
  • We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. (hindawi.com)
  • HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE) mice, where human virus-infected monocyte-derived macrophages are stereotactically injected into the basal ganglia of CB17 severe combined immunodeficient mice, received daily intraperitoneal injections of CEP-1347. (jimmunol.org)
  • Also present in the testes of rats and humans are natural killer cells and Natural killer T cells have been found in rats and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • but studies in laboratory mice have shown that nelfinavir is able to suppress the growth of tumors in these animals, which represents a promising lead towards testing this drug in humans as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Deletion of 19 base pairs between the 5' long terminal repeat and the gag gene initiation codon of HIV-1 resulted in a virus markedly attenuated for replication in human T lymphocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bussing A, Stein GM, Pfuller U, Schietzel M. Induction of Fas ligand (CD95L) by the toxic mistletoe lectins in human lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Freshly isolated B lymphocytes from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in contrast to B cells from normal controls, were shown to induce viral expression in two cell lines: ACH- 2, a T cell line, and U1, a promonocytic cell line, which are chronically infected with HIV, as well as in autologous T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Shearer GM, Rehn TG and Garbarino CA. Cell mediated lympholysis to trinitrophenyl modified autologous lymphocytes: Effector cell specificity to modified cell surface components controlled by the H 2K and H 2D serological regions of the murine major histocompatibility complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • In almost all other viral infections of humans, virus either kills the host within a short period (this is relatively rare), is completely eliminated from the body (this is the case with most viral infections), or enters a state of microbiological latency (this often occurs with herpes simplex virus infections). (annals.org)
  • Although L. reuteri occurs naturally in humans, it is not found in all individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • 1996) "Fibroblast growth factor signalling in the hair growth cycle: expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor and ligand genes in the murine hair follicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Identification of target antigens for the human cytotoxic t cell response to epstein-barr virus (ebv): implications for the immune control of ebv-positive malignancies. (springer.com)
  • Specialized gamma delta T cells, (a small minority of T cells in the human body, more frequent in ruminants), have invariant T-cell receptors with limited diversity, that can effectively present antigens to other T cells and are considered to be part of the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Fibroblast growth factor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase TYK2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TYK2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene cluster controlling the biosynthesis of reuterin and cobalamin in the L. reuteri genome is a genomic island acquired from an anomalous source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Probable methyltransferase TARBP1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TARBP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • RISC-loading complex subunit TARBP2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TARBP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the CCR5 gene that encodes the CCR5 protein is located on the short (p) arm at position 21 on chromosome 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-mannosidase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAN2A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the mouse homolog of this gene have been shown to cause a systemic autoimmune disease similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Depletion of B cells in murine lupus: efficacy and resistance. (springer.com)
  • Treatment of murine CD5 − B cells with anti-Ig, but not LPS, induces surface CD5: two B-cell activation pathways. (springer.com)
  • SIV-specific antibodies bound to infected T-cells were stained with a FITC-labelled anti-human IgG and determined by flow cytometry. (nih.gov)
  • Production of tumor necrosis factor/cachectin by human B cell lines and tonsillar B cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It has been estimated that less than 2% of the human genome codes for proteins, but more than 90% of the human genome is transcribed in different cells ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tyk2 deficiency has more dramatic effects in human cells than in mouse cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1954 Discovery that sperm autoantibodies contribute to infertility, 1977 Billingham recognized that the testis is site of immune privilege Immune cells of the human testis are not as well characterized as those from rodents, due to the rarity of normal human testes available for experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are present in rat and human testes, where they constitute approximately 10 to 20% of the immune cells present, as well as mouse and ram testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T cells) and are part of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • extends
  • Blocking FGF5 in the human scalp extends the hair cycle, resulting in less hair fall, faster hair growth rate and increased hair growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • models
  • Animal models for retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency disease. (naver.com)
  • Tyk2 has broader and profound functions in humans than previously appreciated on the basis of analysis of murine models, which indicate that Tyk2 functions primarily in IL-12 and type I-IFN signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Type 1 and type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infectious, neoplastic and inflammatory diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protease inhibitors can cause a syndrome of lipodystrophy, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus type 2, and kidney stones. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • The technology has also been tested for treatment of prostate cancer, both in a dog model and in human prostate cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • These results demonstrate that CEP-1347 elicits anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective responses in an HIVE model of human disease and as such warrants further study as an adjunctive therapy for human disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • macrophages
  • We now demonstrate that CEP-1347 reduces the levels of secreted proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in HIV-1-infected human macrophages and attenuates dose-dependent neurotoxicity in rodent cortical neurons. (jimmunol.org)