• impaired glucose t
  • In patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and no history of T2DM, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and undiagnosed T2DM are common and strong predictors of poor prognosis ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • subcutaneous
  • In conclusion, GIP in combination with hyperinsulinemia and slight hyperglycemia increased adipose tissue blood flow, glucose uptake, and FFA re-esterification, thus resulting in increased TAG deposition in abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Seven human subjects scheduled for elective surgery for benign lesions or cancer provided consent for removal of samples of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat and/or cancerous tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • But the results suggest that contaminant levels in serum or even subcutaneous fat do not necessarily indicate concentrations and patterns in other kinds of adipose tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow (yellow bone marrow), intermuscular (Muscular system) and in the breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fat in the lower body, as in thighs and buttocks, is subcutaneous and is not consistently spaced tissue, whereas fat in the abdomen is mostly visceral and semi-fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • One of the main regulators of gene expression in fat is the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), which is a fatty acid- and eicosanoid-dependent nuclear receptor that plays key roles in the development and maintenance of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human chromogranin A (hCHGA) gene is known to be homologous with a portion of mouse chromosome 12 (between Igh-C and D12Pas1 in different species), rat chromosome 6, and bovine chromosome 21 ( 75 ). (physiology.org)
  • The hCHGA gene is located on chromosome 14q32.12, which spans 12,192 bp and gives rise to a transcript of 2,041 bp that encodes a 439-amino acid (aa) mature protein ( 85 ). (physiology.org)
  • Group XVI phospholipase A2 also commonly known as adipocyte phospholipase A2 (AdPLA) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G16 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 4, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDK4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of this gene is regulated by glucocorticoids, retinoic acid and insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mature protein encoded by the PDK4 gene contains 294 amino acids in its sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • ANGPTL8 (also known as lipasin, originally Betatrophin) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C19orf80 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene for betatrophin lies on mouse chromosome 9 (gene symbol: Gm6484) and on human chromosome 19 (gene symbol: C19orf80). (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction of glucose and lipogenic gene expression is assumed to be managed by the increasing concentration of an unknown glucose metabolite through the activity of glucokinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans it is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene and it is produced in adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOR1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human ADIPOR1 genome location and ADIPOR1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly
  • Interestingly, marrow adipose tissue response to exercise approximates that of WAT exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as MAT volume as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone stained with the lipid binder osmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Pancreastatin (PST) is a regulatory peptide containing 49 amino acids, first isolated from porcine pancreas. (physiology.org)
  • Arabic numbers denote amino acids in the mature protein (minus signal peptide). (physiology.org)
  • Like all proteins, the unique amino acid arrangement in the primary sequence of GLUT4 are what allow it to transport glucose across the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes are grouped into three classes based on their amino acid sequences, mechanism of reaction, method of catalysis and their structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose undergoes the Maillard reaction, non-enzymatic browning, with amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adiponectin is a 244-amino-acid-long polypeptide (protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • adiponectin
  • CONCLUSIONS Low plasma adiponectin levels are independently associated with increased risk of T2DM in patients with MI and added significantly to the predictive value of blood glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein hormone which is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adiponectin is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adiponectin is secreted from adipose tissue (and also from the placenta in pregnancy) into the bloodstream and is very abundant in plasma relative to many hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circulating adiponectin concentrations increase during caloric restriction in animals and humans, such as in patients with anorexia nervosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • This observation is surprising, given that adiponectin is produced by adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a recent study suggests that adipose tissue within bone marrow, which increases during caloric restriction, contributes to elevated circulating adiponectin in this context. (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, two receptors have been identified with homology to G protein-coupled receptors, and one receptor similar to the cadherin family: Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) Adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) T-cadherin - CDH13 These have distinct tissue specificities within the body and have different affinities to the various forms of adiponectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreas
  • One of these peptides, PST inhibits the rapid phase of insulin release when the rat pancreas is stimulated with glucose ( 11 ). (physiology.org)
  • In the profusion rat pancreas, PST can inhibit not only glucose-induced insulin release but also insulin release in response to arginine, tolbutamide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin (CCK-8) ( 11 ). (physiology.org)
  • As we eat and glucose levels increase, insulin is released from the pancreas and into the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a reduced response to insulin, the beta cells of the pancreas secrete increasing amounts of insulin in response to the continued high blood glucose levels resulting in hyperinsulinemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • When carbohydrates are consumed, digested, and absorbed the pancreas senses the subsequent rise in blood glucose concentration and releases insulin to promote an uptake of glucose from the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the beta-cells of the pancreas, glucose enters through the GLUT 2 receptors (process described below). (wikipedia.org)
  • The glucose that goes in the bloodstream after food consumption also enters the beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatic
  • These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Additionally, central resistin promotes the activation of the serine kinases Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, enhances the serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, and increases the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in the hypothalamus and key peripheral insulin-sensitive tissues. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Analysis of their adipose tissue morphology revealed increases in both adipocyte size and number in most depots. (wikipedia.org)
  • As activity increases and it begins to pump faster, the cardiac muscles begin to oxidize glucose at a higher rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, GLUT4 transporters are inserted and become available for transporting glucose, and glucose absorption increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose in the body increases after food consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide
  • The hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is secreted from the earlier (proximal) part of the small intestine in lower amounts after isomaltulose than for sucrose ingestion, whereas the hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from later (distal) parts of the small intestine in higher amounts with isomaltulose compared with sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, adipose tissue is known to secrete various metabolites, hormones and cytokines that may play a role in causing hyperinsulinemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of its slow digestion, isomaltulose occurs more distally in the human small intestine than does sucrose, as evidenced by their different incretion hormones responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • One proposed mechanism for how the hormone works is that growth hormones affects insulin signaling thereby decreasing insulin sensitivity and in turn down regulating fatty acid synthase expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • At the cell surface, GLUT4 permits the facilitated diffusion of circulating glucose down its concentration gradient into muscle and fat cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate cannot diffuse back out of cells, which also serves to maintain the concentration gradient for glucose to passively enter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • 6 ) provided provocative evidence that, indeed, myocardial lipid accumulation occurs in vivo in humans, specifically among individuals with DM and in those with insulin resistance. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Optimum AdPLA activity occurs in relatively basic conditions, between pH 7 and 9, to facilitate formation of a histidine-water complex and subsequent fatty acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The first evidence for this distinct glucose transport protein was provided by David James in 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria such as Clostridium do so by using the enzyme to dissolve collagen and hyaluronic acid, the protein and saccharides, respectively, that hold tissues together. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also evidence suggesting that acylation stimulating protein (ASP) promotes the aggregation of triglycerides in adipose cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • myocardial
  • In humans, there are emerging yet limited data for myocardial lipid accumulation. (onlinejacc.org)
  • In coronary artery disease (CAD), glucose is an important source of energy and preserved myocardial glucose uptake is essential for the viability of jeopardized myocardium. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Myocardial glucose uptake was measured with [ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy- d -glucose positron emission tomography in ischemic (evaluated by single-photon emission tomography and coronary angiography) and nonischemic regions during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp before and after a 16-week intervention period with rosiglitazone ( n = 27) or placebo ( n = 27). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Rosiglitazone increased myocardial glucose uptake from 20.6 ± 11.8 to 25.5 ± 12.4 μmol · 100 g −1 · min −1 ( P = 0.038 vs. baseline, P = 0.023 vs. placebo) in ischemic regions and from 21.7 ± 12.1 to 28.0 ± 12.7 μmol · 100 g −1 · min −1 ( P = 0.014 vs. baseline, P = 0.003 vs. placebo) in nonischemic regions. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The increase in myocardial glucose uptake was partly explained by the suppression of free fatty acid levels during clamp. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Rosiglitazone therapy significantly increased insulin sensitivity and improved myocardial glucose uptake in type 2 diabetic patients with CAD. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that rosiglitazone therapy may facilitate myocardial glucose storage and utilization in these patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It has been suggested that myocardial glucose uptake in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) is similar to that of healthy subjects ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In some studies, myocardial glucose uptake has been noted to differ between groups ( 7 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, rosiglitazone treatment restores myocardial glucose uptake during ischemia and thus protects myocardium from ischemic injury ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • concentrations
  • Despite this potential, there has been little study defining POP concentrations in live human intra-abdominal fat. (hindawi.com)
  • This also means that muscle cells are able to take in more glucose as its intracellular concentrations decrease. (wikipedia.org)
  • triglycerides
  • It is a water-soluble enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoproteins, such as those found in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), into two free fatty acids and one monoacylglycerol molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • inert
  • Adipose tissue is not an inert cell mass contributing only to the storage of fat, but a sophisticated ensemble of cellular components with highly specialized and complex functions. (nature.com)