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  • cells
  • Siva protein is a zinc-containing intracellular ligand of the CD4 receptor that promotes HIV-1 envelope-induced apoptosis in T-lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 18 , 19 NF-κB activity can also be elevated by several stress factors in human pancreatic cancer cells, such as hypoxia, acidosis, nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines. (wiley.com)
  • Whereas some cells (for example, cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers, CNS neurons) last a lifetime, others (for example, epithelial and glandular cells, erythrocytes) have limited life-spans, at the end of which they are genetically programmed for self-destruction by apoptosis, usually to be replaced by others formed by mitosis from surviving cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Apoptosis also plays an essential role in morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis by eliminating transitory organs and tissues (for example, pronephros and mesonephros) and cells formed in excess of bodily needs during embryogenesis, as well as cells that have been damaged or virally infected. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nevertheless, these JCV-infected cells show a low level of apoptosis, at both the early and late stages of infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These data show how parallel apoptotic pathways act together to suppress MYC-induced transformation, and how mutant MYC proteins, by selectively disabling a p53-independent pathway, enable tumour cells to evade p53 action during lymphomagenesis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cells become resistant to oxidant-induced apoptosis when Cys to Ala cofilin mutants are over-expressed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, over-expression of wild-type cofilin causes a 2-fold increase in the sensitivity of cells to oxidant-induced apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Factors that regulate the induction of apoptosis of tumour cells are potential candidates for therapeutic intervention for the majority of cancers. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However we show that some observed effects, which appear to support the hypothesis that OPG prevents TRAIL-induced apoptosis of tumour cells, may be due to variation of the TRAIL response of sub-clones of tumour cells, even within a cloned population. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Increased expression levels of the Ifi202 mRNA and nuclear localization of p202 protein in immune cells are associated with the development of autoimmunity in certain strains of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using in B6.Nba2 lupus susceptible mice as the animal model, researchers were able to show increased expression of Ifi202 inhibits p53-mediated apoptosis of splenic B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of p202 in cells decreased the p53 mediated apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A novel gene constitutively expressed in human lymphoid cells is inducible with interferon-gamma in myeloid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through her work with two genera of retroviruses, Quackenbush determined mutations to Gammaretrovirus (feline leukemia virus) makes them less lethal, and Epsilretrovirus (walleye dermal sarcoma virus) contains sequences that encode for cyclin proteins, leading to the proliferation of normal cells and eventually giving a means for cancer cells to become abundant Her most notable work focuses on feline leukemia virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • TIGAR is a recently discovered enzyme that primarily functions as a regulator of glucose breakdown in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of this protein also protects cells from DNA damaging reactive oxygen species and provides some protection from DNA damage-induced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD47 interacts with signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), an inhibitory transmembrane receptor present on myeloid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of CD47 with TSP-1 increases proliferation of human U87 and U373 astrocytoma cells but not normal astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of several stem cell markers, including c-Myc, is elevated in CD47-null endothelial cells and a human T cell line lacking CD47. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jurkat cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) incubated with the monoclonal antibody Ad22 results in apoptosis within 3 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such signaling event is the introduction of granzyme B, which can activate initiator caspases, into cells targeted for apoptosis by killer T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) extract has been shown to inhibit the activation of caspase 3 in B-amyloid treated human neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It exerts its biological functions through binding to signalling proteins of the MAPKK level of the MAPK pathway, therefore eliciting a regulatory role in the function of this pathway which mediates proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino Acid Seq
  • For example, its active site contains a cysteine residue (Cys-163) and histidine residue (His-121) that stabilize the peptide bond cleavage of a protein sequence to the carboxy-terminal side of an aspartic acid when it is part of a particular 4-amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • BAG1 is an anti-apoptotic protein that functions through interactions with a variety of cell apoptosis and growth related proteins including BCL-2, Raf-protein kinase, steroid hormone receptors, growth factor receptors and members of the heat shock protein 70 kDa family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK10 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through its phosphorylation and nuclear localization, this kinase plays regulatory roles in the signaling pathways during neuronal apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-arrestin 2, a receptor-regulated MAP kinase scaffold protein, is found to interact with, and stimulate the phosphorylation of this kinase by MAP kinase kinase 4 (MKK4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 can phosphorylate, and inhibit the activity of this kinase, which may be important in preventing neuronal apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tribbles homolog 1 is a protein kinase that in humans is encoded by the TRIB1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like TRIB2 and TRIB3, TRIB1 has recently been considered as a potential allosteric drug target Tribbles-1 is one of three members of the Tribbles subfamily, which is a part of the CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family, of the protein kinase superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • This protein family is of great clinical importance currently because mutations in this domain have been identified in multiple human disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, mutations affecting the RING Finger do not significantly affect apoptosis, indicating that the BIR domain is sufficient for the protein's function. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • 20 Accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests an important role for NF-κB in the regulation of apoptosis, cell adhesion and oncogenesis. (wiley.com)
  • BRCA1 encodes a tumour suppressor protein that plays pivotal roles in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, and transcriptional regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCAR1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report that two common mutant MYC alleles derived from human Burkitt's lymphoma uncouple proliferation from apoptosis and, as a result, are more effective than wild-type MYC at promoting B cell lymphomagenesis in mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anti-tumour molecule since its activity is specific for tumour cell populations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results highlight potential limitations of experiments designed to test contribution of factors affecting intrinsic apoptosis susceptibility using cloned tumour cell populations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The vector of anti-survivin T cell receptor (TCR) is constructed for the engineering of T cell to target Human survivin. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Normally, TIGAR manufacture by the body is activated by the p53 tumour suppressor protein after a cell has experienced a low level of DNA damage or stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as its most well known role in apoptosis, FADD has also been seen to play a role in other processes including proliferation, cell cycle regulation and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of TSP-1 to CD47 influences several fundamental cellular functions including cell migration and adhesion, cell proliferation or apoptosis, and plays a role in the regulation of angiogenesis and inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • instead, Tribbles proteins function as scaffold proteins, which bind their substrates to localize them to or from their function Expression of Tribbles-1 is highly variable, constantly changing with respect to time and cell-type, which suggests a large amount of regulation that exists in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytochrome
  • Upon binding cytochrome c and dATP, this protein forms an oligomeric apoptosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In intrinsic activation, cytochrome c from the mitochondria works in combination with caspase-9, apoptosis-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), and ATP to process procaspase-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the development of lung cancer NCI-H460, the overexpression of XIAP not only inhibits caspase, but also stops the activity of cytochrome c (Apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • SuperFamily
  • Studying modifiers of apoptotic responses, such as members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily, may give clues as to how induction of apoptosis in tumours could be maximized to enhance the benefit of treatment regimes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2001
  • Viral regulatory and accessory proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Akari H, Bour S, Kao S, Adachi A, Strebel K (November 2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Through the different domains of this protein, the function of NBEAL1 is predicted to be involved in the following cellular mechanisms: vesicle trafficking, membrane dynamics, receptor signaling, pre-mRNA processing, signal transduction and cytoskeleton assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bcl2
  • Disruption of apoptosis through enforced expression of Bcl2, or loss of either Bim or p53 function, enables wild-type MYC to produce lymphomas as efficiently as mutant MYC. (diva-portal.org)
  • progression
  • This research investigated the role of retroviral cyclin (RV-cyclin) in sarcoma progression in walleyes as a comparable study to human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • The activated GR complex up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus or represses the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins in the cytosol (by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress, and bacterial and viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • PHACTR1 is an actin and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding protein that binds actin and regulates the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • AMPK)-related kinase, has been shown to mediate var- ious cellular functions, including proliferation, spliceo- Results some assembly, gene expression, carcinogenesis, MPK38 kinase activity is increased by Smads2/3/4 but 9-13 apoptosis, and metabolism , although its exact phy- decreased by Smad7 siological functions still remain to be determined. (deepdyve.com)
  • The proteasomes form a pivotal component for the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) and corresponding cellular Protein Quality Control (PQC). (wikipedia.org)
  • The AP-1 subunit Jun was identified as a novel oncoprotein of avian sarcoma virus, and Fos-associated p39 protein was identified as the transcript of the cellular Jun gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • MMP-9 is believed to be involved in cellular apoptosis, and is similarly downregulated, which may help to propagate the effects of diabetic retinopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • Fermentation increases the digestibility of soy (especially its proteins), nutrient absorption from soy (including absorption of phytonutrient isoflavones like genistein and daidzein), and the concentration of bioactive peptides (formed during the breakdown of soy proteins during fermentation). (whfoods.org)
  • furthermore, proteins are digested into peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • The induction of tolerogenic DCs is mediated through the VPAC1 receptor and protein kinase A, and correlates with the inhibition of IκB phosphorylation and of NF-κBp65 nuclear translocation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because Smad 2, 3, 4, and 7 have previously been shown to interact with murine protein serine-threonine kinase 38 (MPK38), an AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase that has been implicated in obesity-associated metabolic defects, we investigated whether Smad proteins regulate metabolic processes via MPK38. (deepdyve.com)
  • Smads2/3/4 increased, but Smad7 decreased, MPK38-mediated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1)/transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/p53 signaling. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cell Death and Disease (2018) 9:471 Page 2 of 13 apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1), and murine molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of meta- protein serine-threonine kinase 38 (MPK38)/maternal bolic homeostasis by TGF-β signaling remain poorly 1,7,8 embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) , suggesting understood. (deepdyve.com)
  • parameters by differentially regulating MPK38 activity in MPK38/MELK, an AMP‐activated protein kinase HFD-induced obese mice. (deepdyve.com)
  • In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). (wikipedia.org)
  • modulates
  • Deposition of matricellular proteins modulates growth factor signaling and contributes to the spatial and temporal regulation of the reparative response. (jci.org)
  • negatively
  • Activity of ABL1 protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, and deletion of the SH3 domain turns ABL1 into an oncogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from the "leucine zipper" and the "basic region" which are important for dimerization and DNA-binding, the c-jun protein contains three short regions, which consist of clusters of negatively charged amino acids in its N-terminal half that are important for transcriptional activation in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of Type I IFN has been shown experimentally to inhibit tumor growth in animals, but the beneficial action in human tumors has not been widely documented. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • Membrane lipids also form a matrix in which membrane proteins reside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional roles of lipids are in fact many: They serve as regulatory agents in cell growth and adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crawford (2010) in his chapter Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human brain evolution reported, with regard to the language of lipids, that the importance of the increased complexity of these lipids was brought about by aerobic metabolism, whereby the simple language of prokaryotes, with only a few words, was developed into a vocabulary of over 1,000 words of eukaryote cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteolytic
  • The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ubiquitin-labeled protein as degradation substrate, unfold the protein to linear, open the gate of 20S core particle, and guide the substate into the proteolytic chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • This unique structure design prevents random encounter between proteolytic active sites and protein substrate, which makes protein degradation a well-regulated process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteolytic capacity of 20S core particle (CP) can be activated when CP associates with one or two regulatory particles (RP) on one or both side of alpha rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • spatial and temporal
  • To meet such complicated demands in biological process via spatial and temporal proteolysis, protein substrates have to be recognized, recruited, and eventually hydrolyzed in a well controlled fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunodeficiency virus
  • In contrast, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is resistant to silencing in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The initial human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by polyclonal activation of both T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes with the release of inflammatory cytokines. (hindawi.com)
  • mechanisms
  • It is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. (abcam.com)
  • These changes can result from chemical modifications to DNA and chromatin, or can be caused by changes to several regulatory mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Shikonin attenuated ConA-induced liver injury by reducing apoptosis and autophagy through the inhibition of the JNK pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • Later on it has been characterized as a gene playing a role in ER stress-induced cell death, being a target of ATF4 that plays a role in ER-mediated cell death via promoting protein dephosphorylation of eIF2α and reversing translational inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • signaling pathways
  • Smads2/3/4 stimulate MPK38- dependent ASK1/TGF-β/p53 signaling pathways, whereas have focused on the regulatory role of Smad phosphor- ylation in the TGF-β signaling pathway. (deepdyve.com)
  • Additional stu- Smad7 inhibits these signaling pathways through differ- dies are required to investigate the effect of Smad proteins ential regulation of MPK38 activity. (deepdyve.com)
  • MPK38 Given that MPK38 interacts with and phosphorylates and its interacting partner Smad3 have recently been Smad proteins, leading to the activation of TGF-β signal- shown to serve as components of a multi-protein complex ing , we reasoned that Smad proteins would affect MPK38 linking ASK1 and TGF-β signaling pathways, which are activity through direct interaction and phosphorylation. (deepdyve.com)
  • murine
  • We used human glioma lines containing BRAF V600E (adult high-grade: AM-38, DBTRG, PLGG: BT40), or wild-type BRAF (pediatric high-grade: SF188, SF9427, SF8628) and isogenic systems of KIAA1549:BRAF -expressing NIH/3T3 cells and BRAF V600E -expressing murine brain cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tolerogenic DCs have been generated in the presence of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , the active form of vitamin D 3 , and of vitamin D 3 analogues from both human blood monocytes and murine bone marrow and shown to induce Treg ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • interaction
  • According to the protein interaction and topological characteristics of this multisubunit complex, the 19S regulatory particle is composed of a base and a lid subcomplex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein functions are supported by its tertiary structure and its interaction with associating partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Consequently, AduPARE1A infection sensitized cells to gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in the combined treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HIV-1 Tat protein is released from HIV-infected cells and is found circulating in the blood of HIV-1-infected patients [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in maintaining peripheral tolerance through the induction/activation of regulatory T cells (Treg). (jimmunol.org)
  • In human somatic cells, the cell cycle lasts about 18 hours, and the G1 phase takes up about 1/3 of that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is injected into cells, whose "inner machinery" uses the DNA to synthesize the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way of enhancing protein expression is by optimising the codon usage of pathogenic mRNAs for eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These biochemical signals among cells, since contact and modification of membranes in multicellular organisms formed the bases of adaptation to terrestrial environments, and their alterations are important in the mechanism of apoptosis, carcinogenesis and degenerative diseases, as well as for understand some problems discussed regarding human evolution (as Aquatic ape hypothesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmids
  • Human being hCOX2 plasmids had been obtained from Teacher R. Kulmacz (College or university of Texas Wellness Science Middle at Houston). (cancercurehere.com)
  • autoimmune
  • Such protein accumulation may contribute to the pathogenesis and phenotypic characteristics in neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory responses and autoimmune diseases, and systemic DNA damage responses leading to malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • The RPA-2.10 antibody reacts with human CD2, an approximately 50 kDa glycoprotein, and a member of the Ig superfamily. (tonbobio.com)
  • immune
  • Hepatitis is caused by many factors including alcohol, viruses, drugs, immune injury, and idiopathic factors and has remained a serious human health problem throughout the world [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Mutations
  • The combination of homozygote lethality and dosage compensation in heterozygotes may explain why POU4F1 mutations have not been identified in any human disease, whereas diseases are associated with several other members of the POU domain transcription factor class. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In addition to sensory neurons, in rodents and birds (and presumably humans) Brn3a is expressed in multiple sites in the central nervous system, including the spinal cord, midbrain superior colliculus, red nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, inferior olivary nucleus, habenula, and retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • Recently the role of Tat, the transactivator protein of HIV-1, which plays critical and complex roles in both the HIV-1 replication cycle and the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection, is the object of research. (hindawi.com)
  • However, an opposite effect was observed on complex formation between MPK38 and its positive regulator zinc-finger-like protein 9 (ZPR9). (deepdyve.com)