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  • commonly
  • Clostridium ramo´sum a species found in human and animal infections and feces and commonly isolated from clinical specimens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This type of injury most commonly occurs near the myotendinous junction (MTJ) of the superficial muscles working across two joints, such as the rectus femoris, semitendinousus and gastroenemius muscles. (google.com)
  • Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or spread from the injection site, causing paralysis of unintended muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin injection is commonly used for small and moderate degrees of infantile esotropia, acquired adult strabismus, and where it is a consequence of retinal detachment surgery, that is, in cases where there is good potential for binocular vision, so that the corrected alignment can be stabilized by motor fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • wound
  • These microbes can enter a host via inhalation of aerosolized bacteria, ingestion of contaminated or ill-prepared foods, sexual activity, or the direct contact of a wound with the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wound infection by C novyi and many other clostridium species cause gas gangrene Spontaneous infection is mostly associated with predisposing factors of hematologic or colorectal malignancies and with diabetes mellitus, although Gram-negative organisms, including Escherichia coli, may lead to a gas gangrene-like syndrome in diabetic patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Exogenous bacteria can also enter an enclosed ecosystem via ingestion of contaminated food.Food-borne diseases such as Salmonella poisoning are transmitted by food not properly cooked or by individuals infected with the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella can also be transmitted to humans via reptiles like turtles and iguanas, which are known carriers of pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • sporogenes
  • C. sporogenes is often used as a surrogate for C. botulinum when testing the efficacy of commercial sterilisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. sporogenes is the only species of bacteria known to synthesize 3-indolepropionic acid in vivo at levels which are subsequently detectable in the blood stream of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • intestines
  • For example, harmless anaerobic bacteria, such as Lactobacilli acidophilus, live in our intestines, where they help to digest food, destroy disease-causing microbes, fight cancer cells, and give the body needed vitamins. (scribd.com)
  • It's a bacterium that attacks your intestines. (cbslocal.com)
  • strains
  • C. botulinum strains are genetically and physiologically heterogeneous and are classified into 4 groups. (omicsonline.org)
  • This theory is supported by the presence of integration sites flanking the toxin in some strains of C. botulinum. (wikipedia.org)
  • L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strains are responsible for 33 to 5% of sporadic human cases worldwide and for all major foodborne outbreaks in Europe and North America since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbes
  • Disease can occur when microbes included in normal bacteria flora enter a sterile area of the body such as the brain or muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections caused by exogenous bacteria occurs when microbes that are noncommensal enter a host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, the relationship between microbes and humans is delicate and complex. (scribd.com)
  • Most microbes belong to one of four major groups: bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa. (scribd.com)
  • Microbes belonging to the bacteria group are made up of only one cell. (scribd.com)
  • Some types of microbes stay in the intestine, some produce a toxin that is absorbed into the bloodstream, and some can directly invade deeper body tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Freezing at 0 °F does inactivate microbes (bacteria, yeasts and molds). (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • 4. A non-cytotoxic agent for treating pain comprising a botulinum neurotoxin serotype A LH N fragment chemically coupled to a substance P peptide, wherein the substance P peptide is SEQ ID NO: 1, or a fragment of SEQ ID NO:1 that binds to a substance P receptor. (google.com)
  • infection
  • Cholera is a waterborne infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio chloerae, and is transmitted via food or water that is contaminated with fecal matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exogenous bacteria derived infection is primarilyfound in Africa, Asia, as well as Central and South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although clinical descriptions of L. monocytogenes infection in both animals and humans were published in the 1920s, it was not recognized as a significant cause of neonatal infection, sepsis and meningitis until 1952 in East Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • It occurs mainly in cooked and processed foods due to competition with other biota in raw foods, and humans are the main cause of contamination as a substantial percentage of humans are persistent carriers of S. aureus. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • However, C. botulinum tolerates traces of oxygen due to the enzyme superoxide dismutase, which is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the laboratory, C. botulinum is usually isolated in tryptose sulfite cycloserine (TSC) growth medium in an anaerobic environment with less than 2% oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • The infant gut may be colonized when the composition of the intestinal microflora (normal flora) is insufficient to competitively inhibit the growth of C. botulinum and levels of bile acids (which normally inhibit clostridial growth) are lower than later in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • intramuscular
  • The obsessions or compulsions can be eye poking, body rocking, finger biting, counting, checking and related disorders treated by low dose, intramuscular administration of a botulinum toxin. (google.es)
  • 1. A method of treating obsessive compulsive finger biting disorder in a human patient having the disorder, comprising local administration of a therapeutically effective amount of a botulinum toxin, by intramuscular, subcutaneous, subdermal or transdermal route, to an arm or a forearm of said patient, thereby treating said obsessive compulsive finger biting disorder in said patient. (google.es)
  • In 2010, the FDA approved intramuscular botulinum toxin injections for prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine headache. (wikipedia.org)
  • grows
  • C. botulinum is a lipase-positive microorganism that grows between pH of 4.8 and 7.0 and cannot use lactose as a primary carbon source, characteristics important for biochemical identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • fermentation
  • CBM 588 for clinical use is produced by submerged anaerobic fermentation followed by centrifugation, drying, blending and packaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a non-toxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fermentation by lactobacilli is introduced naturally, as these air-borne bacteria culture on raw cabbage leaves where they grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first phase, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter lead the fermentation, and begin producing an acidic environment that favors later bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills, the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, and the recovery of gold, palladium, copper and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology, and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • These microscopic organisms are found in plants and animals as well as in the human body. (scribd.com)
  • Pattern formation and self-organization in microbial systems is an intriguing phenomenon, reflection social behaviors of bacteria that might provide insights into the evolutionary development of the collective action of cells in higher organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two very different groups of organisms that evolved from an ancient common ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • For about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • tetanus
  • A significant amount of prominent diseases are induced by exogenous bacteria such as gonorrhea, meningitis, tetanus, and syphilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactic Acid Bac
  • and lactic acid bacteria have been found to be major contributors to muscle food spoilage, depending on the product type and the conditions surrounding the product. (asmscience.org)
  • German pronunciation: [ˈzaʊ.ɐˌkʁaʊt] ( listen)) is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2004 genomic study found an unexpectedly large diversity of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut, and that previous studies had oversimplified this diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains
  • In the early 1960's, as also reported by Johnson (2007), methicillin, a type of penicillin antibiotic was introduced and was effective against these strains of Staphylococcus areus that were resistant to penicillin. (studymode.com)
  • L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strains are responsible for 33 to 5% of sporadic human cases worldwide and for all major foodborne outbreaks in Europe and North America since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theory is supported by the presence of integration sites flanking the toxin in some strains of C. botulinum. (wikipedia.org)
  • intestine
  • Some types of microbes stay in the intestine, some produce a toxin that is absorbed into the bloodstream, and some can directly invade deeper body tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogenic exogenous bacteria can enter a closed biological system and cause disease such as Cholera, which is induced by a waterborne microbe that infects the human intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • in the intestine, it uses tryptophan to synthesize indole and subsequently 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA) - a type of auxin (plant hormone) - which serves as a potent antioxidant within the human body and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • favorable
  • Under conditions somewhat more favorable to motion, such as growth on a softer substrate, the bacteria engineer classes of chiral colony patterns in which the branches are thinner and curl in the same direction (Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • The morphotype transition are both inheritable - the identity is maintained during LB growth and even through sporulation/germination, and reversible - for example the reverse transitions from chiral to ordinary branching occur on harder substrates (when higher bacteria densities are required to produce sufficient amounts of lubrication). (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Moreover, I am PI Infrastructure project of the Collaborative Research Center / Transregio 124 Pathogenic fungi and their human host: Networks of Interaction - FungiNet. (fairdomhub.org)
  • sugars
  • It has a long shelf life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid that forms when the bacteria ferment the sugars in the cabbage. (wikipedia.org)
  • symbiotic
  • Remarkably, the DNA of the tiny bacterium Buchnera aphidicola (which is distantly related to E. coli but entered into a symbiotic partnership with the aphid around 200 million years ago) has a GC content of only 26%, making its DNA look almost like a two-letter code (A and T, with the occasional G or C). (blogspot.ca)
  • Indole-3-propionate (IPA), a deamination product of tryptophan formed by symbiotic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Infections can range from simple to complex ones that can be fatal or debilitating, but because of the continuous researches and studies to protect the human race, antibiotics were discovered. (studymode.com)
  • lethal
  • Botulinum is the most acutely lethal toxin known, with an estimated human median lethal dose (LD50) of 1.3-2.1 ng/kg intravenously or intramuscularly and 10-13 ng/kg when inhaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • injection
  • Replacement of strabismus surgery with less invasive procedures began in Alan B Scott's San Francisco lab with his development of botulinum toxin injection treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin injection is commonly used for small and moderate degrees of infantile esotropia, acquired adult strabismus, and where it is a consequence of retinal detachment surgery, that is, in cases where there is good potential for binocular vision, so that the corrected alignment can be stabilized by motor fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or spread from the injection site, causing paralysis of unintended muscles. (wikipedia.org)