• Bacillus
  • Clostridium butyricum is a strictly anaerobic endospore-forming Gram-positive butyric acid producing bacillus subsisting by means of fermentation using an intracellularly accumulated amylopectin-like α-polyglucan (granulose) as a substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Paenibacillus comprises facultative anaerobic, endospore-forming bacteria originally included within the genus Bacillus and then reclassified as a separate genus in 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • its S. typhimurium infection is caused by consumption of eggs or poultry that are not adequately cooked or by other interactive human-animal pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) which can cause hemolytic-uremic syndrome Other common bacterial foodborne pathogens are: Bacillus cereus Escherichia coli, other virulence properties, such as enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC or EAgEC) Listeria monocytogenes Shigella spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin type
  • 6. A method of treating obsessive compulsive finger biting disorder in a human patient having the disorder, comprising local administration of a therapeutically effective amount of botulinum toxin type A to a hand muscle of said patient, thereby treating said obsessive compulsive finger biting disorder for between about one month and about five years. (google.es)
  • 7. A method of treating a human patient with obsessive compulsive finger biting disorder comprising local administration to base of each finger of the patient a therapeutically effective amount of botulinum toxin type A, thereby treating said obsessive compulsive finger biting disorder in said patient. (google.es)
  • No disease is associated with type G. The "gold standard" for determining toxin type is a mouse bioassay, but the genes for types A, B, E, and F can now be readily differentiated using quantitative PCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • These microscopic organisms are found in plants and animals as well as in the human body. (scribd.com)
  • Some bacteria convert nitrogen gas into complex compounds that can be used by other organisms and …Bacteria help ruminant animals, such as cattle, digest organic materials.Bacteria lack a membrane-bound nucleus and other internal structures and are therefore ranked among the unicellular life-forms called prokaryotes. (academicroom.com)
  • All living organisms on Earth are made up of one of two basic types of cells: eukaryotic cells, in which the genetic material is enclosed within a nuclear membrane, or prokaryotic cells, in which the genetic material is not separated from the rest of the cell. (academicroom.com)
  • In the late 1970s American microbiologist Carl Woese pioneered a major change in classification by placing all organisms into three domains-Eukarya, Bacteria (originally called Eubacteria), and Archaea (originally called Archaebacteria)-to reflect the three ancient lines of evolution. (academicroom.com)
  • The prokaryotic organisms that were formerly known as bacteria were then divided into two of these domains, Bacteria and Archaea. (academicroom.com)
  • Pattern formation and self-organization in microbial systems is an intriguing phenomenon, reflection social behaviors of bacteria that might provide insights into the evolutionary development of the collective action of cells in higher organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two very different groups of organisms that evolved from an ancient common ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • For about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Exogenous bacteria can also enter an enclosed ecosystem via ingestion of contaminated food.Food-borne diseases such as Salmonella poisoning are transmitted by food not properly cooked or by individuals infected with the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella can also be transmitted to humans via reptiles like turtles and iguanas, which are known carriers of pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • This type of injury most commonly occurs near the myotendinous junction (MTJ) of the superficial muscles working across two joints, such as the rectus femoris, semitendinousus and gastroenemius muscles. (google.com)
  • Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or spread from the injection site, causing paralysis of unintended muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin injection is commonly used for small and moderate degrees of infantile esotropia, acquired adult strabismus, and where it is a consequence of retinal detachment surgery, that is, in cases where there is good potential for binocular vision, so that the corrected alignment can be stabilized by motor fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • intestines
  • For example, harmless anaerobic bacteria, such as Lactobacilli acidophilus, live in our intestines, where they help to digest food, destroy disease-causing microbes, fight cancer cells, and give the body needed vitamins. (scribd.com)
  • It's a bacterium that attacks your intestines. (cbslocal.com)
  • strains
  • C. botulinum strains are genetically and physiologically heterogeneous and are classified into 4 groups. (omicsonline.org)
  • Certain strains produce two types of toxin, but in different proportions, and other contain two BoNT genes, one of them being mutated and silent. (omicsonline.org)
  • This theory is supported by the presence of integration sites flanking the toxin in some strains of C. botulinum. (wikipedia.org)
  • L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strains are responsible for 33 to 5% of sporadic human cases worldwide and for all major foodborne outbreaks in Europe and North America since the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbes
  • Some microbes cause disease in humans, plants, and animals. (scribd.com)
  • Indeed, the relationship between microbes and humans is delicate and complex. (scribd.com)
  • Most microbes belong to one of four major groups: bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa. (scribd.com)
  • Microbes belonging to the bacteria group are made up of only one cell. (scribd.com)
  • Disease can occur when microbes included in normal bacteria flora enter a sterile area of the body such as the brain or muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections caused by exogenous bacteria occurs when microbes that are noncommensal enter a host. (wikipedia.org)
  • These microbes can enter a host via inhalation of aerosolized bacteria, ingestion of contaminated or ill-prepared foods, sexual activity, or the direct contact of a wound with the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some types of microbes stay in the intestine, some produce a toxin that is absorbed into the bloodstream, and some can directly invade deeper body tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Freezing at 0 °F does inactivate microbes (bacteria, yeasts and molds). (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • 4. A non-cytotoxic agent for treating pain comprising a botulinum neurotoxin serotype A LH N fragment chemically coupled to a substance P peptide, wherein the substance P peptide is SEQ ID NO: 1, or a fragment of SEQ ID NO:1 that binds to a substance P receptor. (google.com)
  • infection
  • Cholera is a waterborne infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio chloerae, and is transmitted via food or water that is contaminated with fecal matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exogenous bacteria derived infection is primarilyfound in Africa, Asia, as well as Central and South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although clinical descriptions of L. monocytogenes infection in both animals and humans were published in the 1920s, it was not recognized as a significant cause of neonatal infection, sepsis and meningitis until 1952 in East Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • However, C. botulinum tolerates traces of oxygen due to the enzyme superoxide dismutase, which is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the laboratory, C. botulinum is usually isolated in tryptose sulfite cycloserine (TSC) growth medium in an anaerobic environment with less than 2% oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • intramuscular
  • The obsessions or compulsions can be eye poking, body rocking, finger biting, counting, checking and related disorders treated by low dose, intramuscular administration of a botulinum toxin. (google.es)
  • 1. A method of treating obsessive compulsive finger biting disorder in a human patient having the disorder, comprising local administration of a therapeutically effective amount of a botulinum toxin, by intramuscular, subcutaneous, subdermal or transdermal route, to an arm or a forearm of said patient, thereby treating said obsessive compulsive finger biting disorder in said patient. (google.es)
  • In 2010, the FDA approved intramuscular botulinum toxin injections for prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine headache. (wikipedia.org)
  • grows
  • C. botulinum is a lipase-positive microorganism that grows between pH of 4.8 and 7.0 and cannot use lactose as a primary carbon source, characteristics important for biochemical identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • fermentation
  • CBM 588 for clinical use is produced by submerged anaerobic fermentation followed by centrifugation, drying, blending and packaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a non-toxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fermentation by lactobacilli is introduced naturally, as these air-borne bacteria culture on raw cabbage leaves where they grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first phase, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter lead the fermentation, and begin producing an acidic environment that favors later bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills, the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, and the recovery of gold, palladium, copper and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology, and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Moreover, each BoNT type is subdivided into several subtypes based on nucleotide sequence variations of their genes. (omicsonline.org)
  • However, these integrations sites are degraded, indicating that the C. botulinum acquired the toxin genes quite far in the evolutionary past. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • It occurs mainly in cooked and processed foods due to competition with other biota in raw foods, and humans are the main cause of contamination as a substantial percentage of humans are persistent carriers of S. aureus. (wikipedia.org)
  • harmless
  • There are countless numbers of bacteria on Earth-most are harmless and many are even beneficial to humans. (scribd.com)
  • The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial particularly in the gut flora. (wikipedia.org)
  • favorable
  • Under conditions somewhat more favorable to motion, such as growth on a softer substrate, the bacteria engineer classes of chiral colony patterns in which the branches are thinner and curl in the same direction (Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram
  • Type H is considered the deadliest substance in the world - an injection of only 2-billionths of a gram (2 ng) can cause death to an adult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium, in the division Firmicutes, named after Joseph Lister. (wikipedia.org)
  • Latin
  • The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, which is the latinisation of the Greek βακτήριον (bakterion), the diminutive of βακτηρία (bakteria), meaning "staff, cane", because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped. (wikipedia.org)