• Obesity
  • Obesity, which is caused by abnormalities in lifestyles, such as diet, nutrition, and physical activity, is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. (hindawi.com)
  • Although these models of type 1 diabetes are useful for investigating the effect of high glucose conditions on immune responses without obesity, they are not suitable for investigation of autoimmune reactivity to β cells, which is known to be a major mechanism in the causation of type 1 diabetes in humans. (hindawi.com)
  • Increased dopamine signaling, particularly through the dopamine D2 receptor, can attenuate and in some cases reverse obesity in diet-induced obese animals, seasonally obese animals (squirrels, Syrian hamsters, etc.), and overweight/obese humans ( 4 ). (blogspot.com)
  • In 2008, MC4R mutations were reported to be associated with inherited human obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs used to treat obesity are called anorectics and generally include drugs that follow the general definition of a stimulant, but other drugs such as CB1 receptor antagonists exist in this class too. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactions
  • The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. (abnova.com)
  • these reactions produce racemic mixtures in which the R stereoisomer predominates, for instance by a R/S ratio of 80%/20% for both 13-HODE and 9-HODE in human liver microsomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • For example, hypersensitivity to abacavir, a drug used for treating of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, has been proposed to be associated with allele 57:01 of HLA-B gene (terms HLA-B 57:01 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Components: We offer pre-designed sets of 3 different target-specific siRNA oligo duplexes of human MLXIP gene. (mybiosource.com)
  • THC exposure in rats during the prenatal developmental phase may cause epigenetic changes in gene expression, but there is limited knowledge about the risk for psychiatric disorders because of ethical barriers to studying the developing human brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (53kDa), also known as EP2, is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the human gene PTGER2: it is one of four identified EP receptors, the others being EP1, EP3, and EP4, which bind with and mediate cellular responses to PGE2 and also, but with lesser affinity and responsiveness, certain other prostanoids (see Prostaglandin receptors). (wikipedia.org)
  • The PTGER2 gene is located on human chromosome 14 at position p22.1 (i.e. 14q22.1), contains 2 introns and 3 exons, and codes for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) of the rhodopsin-like receptor family, Subfamily A14 (see rhodopsin-like receptors#Subfamily A14). (wikipedia.org)
  • Melanocortin 4 receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC4R gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also known as connexin 43 (Cx43), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA1 gene on chromosome 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe
  • Another GWAS performed in 2012 identified twenty SNPs located ~190 Kb downstream of MC4R in association with severe antipsychotic-induced weight gain. (wikipedia.org)
  • From most to least severe, there is Class I, Class II, and Class III (defined above).There is also market withdrawal which occurs when a drug does not violate FDA regulation but has a known, minor default. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • The non-selective melanocortin receptor agonist afamelanotide (NDP-α-MSH) has been found to induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rodent brain via activation of the MC4 receptor and mediate "intense" neurogenesis and cognitive recovery in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • Further research is needed to determine whether doses of rapamycin that achieve an anti-tumor effect in mice are similarly effective in humans, and whether giving a dose that would be sufficient for an anti-tumor effect would cause unacceptable levels of immune suppression or toxicity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • At higher doses, it can induce psychosis, breakdown of skeletal muscle, seizures and bleeding in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abortion
  • In A, B and C v Ireland (2010), the European Court of Human Rights found that Ireland had violated the European Convention on Human Rights by failing to provide an accessible and effective procedure by which a woman can have established whether she qualifies for a legal abortion under Irish law. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of cases related to whether an abortion was permissible in cases of fatal foetal abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • maternal
  • While animal studies cannot take into account factors that could influence the effects of cannabis on human maternal exposure, such as environmental and social factors, a 2011 review of rodent studies by Campolongo et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • Immunosuppressant Drug Prevents Tobacco Induced Lung Cancer in Mice ( BETHESDA Md. April 1 2007--Rapamyci. (bio-medicine.org)
  • BETHESDA, Md., April 1, 2007--Rapamycin, an FDA-approved drug normally used to help prevent the body from rejecting organ and bone marrow transplants and also used to coat cardiac stents, was highly effective in preventing the development of tobacco-related lung tumors in mice. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These studies suggested that Akt and mTOR are important elements in the formation and maintenance of tobacco-carcinogen induced lung tumors, and that targeting these proteins and the cellular pathway that they are associated with may be a realistic tactic for lung cancer chemoprevention. (bio-medicine.org)
  • mice
  • clearly demonstrated that STZ both directly and indirectly induces suppressive effect on lymphocytes in mice [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In a study published in the April 1, 2007 issue of Clinical Cancer Research, researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, found that mice that were administered rapamycin one week after exposure to a very common tobacco-specific carcinogen showed a 90 percent decrease in the number of tumors, a 74 percent decrease in tumor size, and fewer abnormalities within their cancer cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Importantly, the levels of rapamycin achieved in mice were comparable to those in humans. (bio-medicine.org)
  • EP2 expression in fibroblasts from the lungs of mice with Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and humans with Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is greatly reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • illicit drug
  • Among current drinkers overall, any illicit drug use and marijuana use increased between 2002 and 2014 and between 2002 and 2015, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Any illicit drug use among current drinkers increased between 2002 and 2014 for those ages 15-20 and 26-34 and for non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics. (nih.gov)
  • Non-Hispanic Blacks and those ages 15-17 had the highest prevalence of any illicit drug use and marijuana use over the study periods. (nih.gov)
  • There was an overall decline in the prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol abuse (2002-2015), alcohol dependence (2002-2015), and illicit drug abuse (2002-2014) among current drinkers. (nih.gov)
  • The percentage of females who needed treatment for illicit drug use decreased between 2002 and 2014 among non-Hispanic others and those ages 15-25 and 35-44, increased among those ages 26-34, and remained stable among all other groups. (nih.gov)
  • The treatment gap for illicit drug use decreased among non-Hispanic Whites and those ages 26-44 but increased among non-Hispanic Blacks. (nih.gov)
  • lungs
  • For example, P. vivax infections induce a greater inflammatory response in the lungs than is observed in P. falciparum infections, and progressive alveolar capillary dysfunction is observed after the treatment of vivax malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • fewer
  • When you look at D2 receptors in the human brain, the more fat a person carries, the fewer D2 receptors are available for binding dopmaine** ( 11 ). (blogspot.com)
  • dosage
  • CONCLUSIONS: Minimizing the risks of benzodiazepine therapy among pregnant or lactating women involves using drugs that have established safety records at the lowest dosage for the shortest possible duration, avoiding use during the first trimester, and avoiding multidrug regimens. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The incidence of fetal masculinization of female external genitalia varies with the drug and dosage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmaceutical dextroamphetamine sulfate is available as both a brand name and generic drug in a variety of dosage forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • latent
  • Drugs are not used singly (except in latent TB or chemoprophylaxis), and regimens that use only single drugs result in the rapid development of resistance and treatment failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • consumption
  • Most studies through 2013 linking development of the fetus and cannabis show effects of consumption during the gestational period, but abnormalities in the endocannabinoid system during the phase of placental development are also linked with problems in pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • I believe the evidence as a whole shows that chronic consumption of foods with an excessive reward value causes abnormalities in parts of the brain that regulate body fatness, metabolism and reward/motivation. (blogspot.com)
  • chromosome
  • In human, MHC is also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, which consists more than 200 genes on chromosome 6 and can be categorized into three subgroups: class I, class II, and class III. (hindawi.com)
  • Protein
  • Human CYP2C9 full-length ORF ( AAH20754.1, 1 a.a. - 162 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (abnova.com)
  • This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and its expression is induced by rifampin. (abnova.com)
  • 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. (mybiosource.com)
  • That is, following agonist-induced activation, the other prostaglandin (as well as most types of G protein coupled receptors) quickly become desensitized, often internalized, and whether or not internalized, incapable of activating their G protein targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • Malaria has placed the strongest known selective pressure on the human genome since the origination of agriculture within the past 10,000 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The reason why chemotherapy is not fully effective is that many drugs cannot penetrate into brain tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is based on the hypothesis that highly rewarding drugs or foods eventually cause the brain to become desensitized to food reward, creating a vicious cycle in which people seek out more and more food reward to reach the same level of reward signaling in the brain. (blogspot.com)
  • Glutamate (the conjugate base of glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and especially prominent in the human brain where it is the body's most prominent neurotransmitter, the brain's main excitatory neurotransmitter, and also the precursor for GABA, the brain's main inhibitory neurotransmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamate is also used by the brain to synthesize GABA (γ-Aminobutyric acid), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system, which plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system and is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is a possibility that two human-specific "fixed" amino acid substitutions, D71G in GRIN3A and R727H in GRIN3B, are specifically associated with human brain function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical
  • For clinical examination, blood specimens from humans usually consist of peripheral blood, and therefore, the diabetic rat is a valuable experimental model for application to laboratory test. (hindawi.com)
  • Given that rapamycin is relatively inexpensive and FDA-approved for other indications, we are designing clinical trials in humans to address these questions and hope to have these answers in the near future. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The drugs are listed using their single letter abbreviations (in the order given above, which is roughly the order of introduction into clinical practice). (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into the psychotic disorder of schizophrenia, involves multiple animal models as a tool, including in the pre-clinical development of drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnancy
  • A report prepared for the Australian National Council on Drugs concluded cannabis and other cannabinoids are contraindicated in pregnancy as they may interact with the endocannabinoid system. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • For each of the compounds tested it was found that DNA methylation was inhibited at the same concentrations that were required to induce virus expression. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • For instance, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) was observed to induce GJA1 expression via the Smad and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, resulting in trophoblast cell differentiation into the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Although L. reuteri occurs naturally in humans, it is not found in all individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modelling of schizophrenia in animals can range from attempts to imitate the full extent of symptoms found in schizophrenia, to more specific modelling which investigate the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more comprehensive list of drug recalls worldwide can be found here: List of withdrawn drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • By contrast, blockade of postsynaptic acetylcholine muscarinic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum exacerbates drug-induced stereotypy, exemplifying how different acetylcholine receptors can also have opposing effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Class II recalls refer to drugs that induce temporary and/or medically reversible health effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sons of DES mothers have displayed side effects like genital abnormalities, non-cancerous Epididymal Cysts, and infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • excessive
  • Drugs used to treat sleep disorders such as excessive daytime sleepiness are called eugeroics and include notable stimulants such as modafinil. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Is fetal acidosis in the human fetus maternogenic during labor? (biomedsearch.com)
  • The first drugs reported to cause fetal masculinization were the androgens methandriol and methyltestosterone in the mid 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • methamphetamine
  • While dextromethamphetamine is a more potent drug, racemic methamphetamine is sometimes illicitly produced due to the relative ease of synthesis and limited availability of chemical precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methamphetamine is known to possess a high addiction liability (i.e., a high likelihood that long-term or high dose use will lead to compulsive drug use) and high dependence liability (i.e. a high likelihood that withdrawal symptoms will occur when methamphetamine use ceases). (wikipedia.org)
  • As methamphetamine is associated with a high potential for misuse, the drug is regulated under the Controlled Substances Act and is listed under Schedule II in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • ADRs induced by several drugs have been shown to have significant associations with specific alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we summarized the alleles of HLA genes which have been proposed to have association with ADRs caused by different drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • Conservation of reading frames and splice sites of GluR genes between chimpanzees and humans is complete, suggesting no gross structural changes after humans diverged from the human-chimpanzee common ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • When rapamycin was administered one week after NNK, the every-other-day regimen was well tolerated and produced the best results in terms of tumor cell multiplication (90 percent reduction), cell abnormalities (changes in appearance, shape, etc.), and size (74 percent decrease). (bio-medicine.org)
  • known
  • The rate of spontaneous mutations that confer resistance to an individual drug are well known: 1 mutation for every 107 cell divisions for EMB, 1 for every 108 divisions for STM and INH, and 1 for every 1010 divisions for RMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • These drugs are listed here either because they are not very effective (e.g., clarithromycin) or because their efficacy has not been proven (e.g., linezolid, R207910). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is rarely prescribed due to concerns involving human neurotoxicity and potential for recreational use as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant, among other concerns, as well as the availability of safer substitute drugs with comparable treatment efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • In general, SCA occurs as a result of an acute transient trigger that leads to ventricular tachycardia and/or fibrillation in the setting of an underlying cardiovascular abnormality that forms an arrhythmogenic substrate (Figure 1). (acc.org)
  • Rodents
  • Rodents that are accustomed to eating human junk food will endure foot shocks and extreme temperatures to obtain it, even when regular chow is freely available in unlimited quantity ( 14 ). (blogspot.com)
  • nasal
  • Levomethamphetamine is available as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug for use as an inhaled nasal decongestant in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • In the US only, streptomycin is no longer considered a first line drug by ATS/IDSA/CDC because of high rates of resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance mutations appear spontaneously and independently, so the chances of them harbouring a bacterium that is spontaneously resistant to both INH and RMP is 1 in 108 x 1 in 1010 = 1 in 1018, and the chances of them harbouring a bacterium that is spontaneously resistant to all four drugs is 1 in 1033. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • If the change is in the gamete, that is, the sperm or egg that join to form a zygote that grows into a human being, the protective mutation will be inherited. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • Investigation of immunological abnormalities in various diabetic rat models is useful for elucidating complicated mechanisms in the pathophysiology of diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • Muscle
  • There is an increased risk that statin (cholesterol-reducing drugs) will cause myopathy (muscle weakness) in individuals with MADD. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Each extreme has its limitations, with whole-syndrome modelling often failing due to the complexity and heterogeneous nature of schizophrenia, and antipsychotic-specific modelling being often not useful for discovering drugs with unique mechanisms of action. (wikipedia.org)