• Centers for Diseas
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • outbreaks
  • WHO advises that travellers to countries with known outbreaks of avian influenza should avoid, if possible, poultry farms, contact with animals in live bird markets, entering areas where poultry may be slaughtered, or contact with any surfaces that appear to be contaminated with faeces from poultry or other animals. (who.int)
  • previous influenza
  • More recent investigations, mainly based on original medical reports from the period of the pandemic, found that the viral infection itself was not more aggressive than any previous influenza, but that the special circumstances (malnourishment, overcrowded medical camps and hospitals, poor hygiene) promoted bacterial superinfection that killed most of the victims typically after a somewhat prolonged death bed. (wikipedia.org)
  • China
  • Claude Hannoun, the leading expert on the 1918 flu for the Pasteur Institute, asserted the former virus was likely to have come from China, mutating in the United States near Boston and spreading to Brest, France, Europe's battlefields, Europe, and the world using Allied soldiers and sailors as main spreaders. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a direct relationship with viruses found in Russia, Mongolia and China. (wikipedia.org)
  • August 3, 2005 WHO said it was following closely reports from China that at least 38 people have died and more than 200 others have been made ill by a swine-borne virus in Sichuan Province. (wikipedia.org)
  • Donor nations pledge US$1.85 billion to combat bird flu at the two-day International Pledging Conference on Avian and Human Influenza held in China. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1968
  • That same month, the virus entered California from returning Vietnam War troops but did not become widespread in the United States until December 1968. (wikipedia.org)
  • among humans
  • If this were to occur, community level spread is unlikely as the virus does not have the ability to transmit easily among humans. (who.int)
  • illness
  • WHO encourages countries to continue strengthening influenza surveillance, including surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) and to carefully review any unusual patterns, ensure reporting of human infections under the IHR (2005), and continue national health preparedness actions. (who.int)
  • Laboratory
  • Research in his laboratory showed that the virus induces high levels of chemicals called cytokines when it infects a type of white blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malik became known worldwide when his laboratory was the first to isolate the virus, a novel coronavirus (CoV), now known as SARS-CoV. (wikipedia.org)