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  • Centers for Diseas
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • Before joining the WHO in 2005, Fukuda was Chief of the Epidemiology Unit, Influenza Branch at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • H1N1
  • H1N1 viruses can be divided into those that normally infect people and those that normally infect animals. (who.int)
  • Flu vaccines are based on predicting which "mutants" of H1N1, H3N2, H1N2, and influenza B will proliferate in the next season. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past ten years, H3N2 has tended to dominate in prevalence over H1N1, H1N2, and influenza B. Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2 has increased from 1% in 1994 to 12% in 2003 to 91% in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • swine
  • Swine influenza viruses have the ability to bind both types of sialic acid receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • August 3, 2005 WHO said it was following closely reports from China that at least 38 people have died and more than 200 others have been made ill by a swine-borne virus in Sichuan Province. (wikipedia.org)
  • Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus (SIV) control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • dengue virus
  • A major aspect of his DPhil dissertation was the paradoxical role that antibodies may play in facilitating rather than blocking the entry of viruses such as the West Nile virus and the dengue virus into macrophages, the first line defense cells of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutralizing antibodies were isolated against SARS, cytomegalovirus, avian influenza and dengue virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1968
  • That same month, the virus entered California from returning Vietnam War troops but did not become widespread in the United States until December 1968. (wikipedia.org)
  • pigs
  • Until recently, it was thought that pigs were required as an intermediate host for transmission of AIV to humans ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Experimental infections of chickens and pigs with highly and low pathogenic influenza viruses will be performed, the virus tissue distribution and cytokine profile will be compared. (ugent.be)
  • A continuing concern is that many animals, such as pigs, have a shorter lifespan than humans, meaning that their tissues age at a quicker rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • Should such an influenza pandemic emerge, the vaccine may provide early limited protection in the months before a vaccine tailored to the pandemic strain of the virus could be developed and produced. (drugs.com)
  • Influenza vaccine Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 Paul, William E. Fundamental Immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pandemic influenza vaccine challenge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Values for preventing influenza-related morbidity and vaccine adverse events in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human monoclonal antibodies and vaccine design: Taking advantage of his studies on human memory B cells (16), Lanazvecchia developed novel and robust methods to immortalize human memory B cells and to preserve single plasma cells in culture (17, 18). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unusually potent antibodies that neutralize human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were isolated and their epitopes mapped to a pentameric glycoprotein complex, which is currently tested as a candidate vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The methods to isolate human monoclonal antibodies developed by Lanzavecchia have realized a long-sought goal: the full exploitation of the human immune response for serotherapy and vaccine design. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Research in his laboratory showed that the virus induces high levels of chemicals called cytokines when it infects a type of white blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malik became known worldwide when his laboratory was the first to isolate the virus, a novel coronavirus (CoV), now known as SARS-CoV. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Although the level of antibodies seen in the remaining individuals did not reach that level, current scientific information on other influenza vaccines suggests that less than optimal antibody levels may still have the potential to help reduce disease severity and influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths. (drugs.com)
  • With the support of FDA, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and other government agencies, sanofi pasteur and other manufacturers are working to develop a next generation of influenza vaccines for enhanced immune responses at lower doses, using technologies intended to boost the immune response. (drugs.com)
  • Alexander DJ (2008) Avian influenza manual for diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, 6th edition. (springer.com)
  • In collaboration with his colleague Federica Sallusto, Lanzavecchia helped solve this fundamental problem when he discovered that human monocytes could be induced to differentiate in vitro into "immature" dendritic cells that resemble those that function as sentinels in peripheral tissues (8), contributing to the rapid advancement of the field in the late nineties and paving the way for the use of antigen-loaded dendritic cells as vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • SARS
  • Subsequently, he found the natural reservoir of SARS coronavirus like virus in Chinese horseshoe bat and renewed the interest of bats as the source of novel microbes causing emerging infectious diseases . (wikipedia.org)
  • H7N7
  • Because H7N7 viruses have caused disease in mammals, including horses, seals, and humans, on several occasions in the past, they may be unusual in their zoonotic potential and, thus, form a pandemic threat to humans. (pnas.org)
  • Case finding of H7N7 infections in humans was initiated under the auspices of the Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare, and Sport (The Hague, The Netherlands). (pnas.org)
  • among humans
  • If this were to occur, community level spread is unlikely as the virus does not have the ability to transmit easily among humans. (who.int)
  • respiratory
  • Influenza-like illnesses were generally mild, but a fatal case of pneumonia in combination with acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred also. (pnas.org)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. (wikipedia.org)
  • China
  • At least one person, an elderly woman in Jiangxi Province, China, died of pneumonia in December 2013 from the H10N8 strain, the first human fatality confirmed to be caused by that strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In November and December human cases of H5N6 were reported in China. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a direct relationship with viruses found in Russia, Mongolia and China. (wikipedia.org)