• Centers for Diseas
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • Before joining the WHO in 2005, Fukuda was Chief of the Epidemiology Unit, Influenza Branch at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The animal organ, probably from a pig or baboon could be genetically altered with human genes to trick a patient's immune system into accepting it as a part of its own body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA sequence of the Qinghai virus reveals that three of its eight genes are almost identical to those of a virus isolated from a chicken in Shantou in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other five genes resemble those of viruses found in southern China earlier in 2005, which belong to the "Z genotype" virus circulating across east Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • dengue virus
  • A major aspect of his DPhil dissertation was the paradoxical role that antibodies may play in facilitating rather than blocking the entry of viruses such as the West Nile virus and the dengue virus into macrophages, the first line defense cells of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutralizing antibodies were isolated against SARS, cytomegalovirus, avian influenza and dengue virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • H1N1
  • Flu vaccines are based on predicting which "mutants" of H1N1, H3N2, H1N2, and influenza B will proliferate in the next season. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past ten years, H3N2 has tended to dominate in prevalence over H1N1, H1N2, and influenza B. Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2 has increased from 1% in 1994 to 12% in 2003 to 91% in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • pigs
  • A continuing concern is that many animals, such as pigs, have a shorter lifespan than humans, meaning that their tissues age at a quicker rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Research in his laboratory showed that the virus induces high levels of chemicals called cytokines when it infects a type of white blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malik became known worldwide when his laboratory was the first to isolate the virus, a novel coronavirus (CoV), now known as SARS-CoV. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Although the level of antibodies seen in the remaining individuals did not reach that level, current scientific information on other influenza vaccines suggests that less than optimal antibody levels may still have the potential to help reduce disease severity and influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths. (drugs.com)
  • With the support of FDA, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and other government agencies, sanofi pasteur and other manufacturers are working to develop a next generation of influenza vaccines for enhanced immune responses at lower doses, using technologies intended to boost the immune response. (drugs.com)
  • Alexander DJ (2008) Avian influenza manual for diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, 6th edition. (springer.com)
  • In collaboration with his colleague Federica Sallusto, Lanzavecchia helped solve this fundamental problem when he discovered that human monocytes could be induced to differentiate in vitro into "immature" dendritic cells that resemble those that function as sentinels in peripheral tissues (8), contributing to the rapid advancement of the field in the late nineties and paving the way for the use of antigen-loaded dendritic cells as vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • SARS
  • Subsequently, he found the natural reservoir of SARS coronavirus like virus in Chinese horseshoe bat and renewed the interest of bats as the source of novel microbes causing emerging infectious diseases . (wikipedia.org)
  • Professor Peiris and his team of scientists and doctors were strategically placed to face the challenges of the Avian influenza virus outbreak, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus outbreak and, currently, the Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1968
  • That same month, the virus entered California from returning Vietnam War troops but did not become widespread in the United States until December 1968. (wikipedia.org)
  • among humans
  • If this were to occur, community level spread is unlikely as the virus does not have the ability to transmit easily among humans. (who.int)
  • nasopharyngeal
  • His nasopharyngeal swab taken on 9 December tested positive for enterovirus/ rhinovirus and negative for influenza virus. (who.int)
  • More complex tests include: Auscultation (to detect abnormal breath sounds) Chest x-ray White blood cell differential, Nasopharyngeal virus detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Nasopharyngeal culture and Throat virus detection by RT-PCR. (hubpages.com)
  • novel
  • Comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of three avian coronaviruses reveals a novel group 3c coronavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • The study showed that 45 percent of individuals who received the 90 microgram, two-dose regimen developed antibodies at a level that is expected to reduce the risk of getting influenza. (drugs.com)
  • Hemagglutinin is the major antigen of the virus against which neutralizing antibodies are produced, and influenza virus epidemics are associated with changes in its antigenic structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most striking examples are antibodies with exceptional breadth, being able to neutralize all influenza A viruses and even four different paramyxoviruses (18,19). (wikipedia.org)
  • China
  • At least one person, an elderly woman in Jiangxi Province, China, died of pneumonia in December 2013 from the H10N8 strain, the first human fatality confirmed to be caused by that strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In November and December human cases of H5N6 were reported in China. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a direct relationship with viruses found in Russia, Mongolia and China. (wikipedia.org)