• protein
  • In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose) supplementation. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Actin, alpha skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • One key transcription factor that activates skeletal actin gene expression is Serum Response Factor ("SRF"), a protein that binds to specific sites on the promoter DNA of the actin gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The particular protein degradation pathway which seems to be responsible for much of the muscle loss seen in a muscle undergoing atrophy is the ATP-dependent ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing on mice showed that it blocked the activity of a protein present in the muscle that is involved in muscle atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myogenic factor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYF5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers expressed the complementary DNA (cDNA) of the murine MyoD protein in a different cell lines (fibroblast and adipoblast) and found MyoD converted them to myogenic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAX3
  • Satellite cells in the head musculature have a unique developmental program, and are Pax3-negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human PAX3 gene is located in the 2q36.1 chromosomal region, and contains 10 exons within a 100 kb region. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other mammalian species, including mouse, the longest mRNAs correspond to the human PAX3c and PAX3d isoforms, which consist of the first 8 or 9 exons of the PAX3 gene, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Q+ and Q- isoforms of PAX3 are generally co-expressed in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the PAX3 target genes, there is one group associated with muscle development and a second group associated with neural and melanocyte development. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • When the present thesis was initiated, studies on satellite cells in human skeletal muscle relied on the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) as a marker for satellite cell identification. (diva-portal.org)
  • It has been reported that large-diameter myelinated axons have chronaxie times ranging from 50 to 100 µs and 30 to 200 µs, and neuronal cell bodies and dendrites have chronaxie times ranging from 1 to 10 ms or even up to 30 ms. The chronaxie times of grey matter were reported as being 380 +/- 191 ms and 200±700 ms. Interpretations of chronaxie times are further confounded by additional factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Glucocorticoids, a class of medications used to treat allergic and other inflammatory conditions can induce muscle atrophy by increasing break-down of muscle proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are liver disease, and starvation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, diseases such as cancer and AIDS induce a body wasting syndrome called "cachexia", which is notable for the severe muscle atrophy seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are congestive heart failure and liver disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, Myf5 is a master regulator of muscle development, possessing the ability to induce a muscle phenotype upon its forced expression in fibroblastic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by week 8 of human fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, we have shown that CD34 + PCs from human fetal aorta adventitia possess a robust regenerative capacity in mouse models of peripheral limb ischemia and ischemic below-knee ulcers in diabetic mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Satellite cells proliferate following muscle trauma and form new myofibers through a process similar to fetal muscle development. (wikipedia.org)
  • myotubes
  • After several cell divisions, the satellite cells begin to fuse with the damaged myotubes and undergo further differentiations and maturation, with peripheral nuclei as in hallmark. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • Some evidence shows that Myf5 and MyoD are responsible for the development of separate muscle lineages, and are not expressed concurrently in the same cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing into fallopian tubes and other female reproductive tract tissues in male embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Karolinska Institutet
  • We have seen how a healthy 70-year-old has accumulated more than 1,000 mutations in each stem cell in the muscle, and that these mutations are not random, but there are certain regions that are better protected," says Maria Eriksson, professor in the Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at Karolinska Institutet. (medicalxpress.com)
  • fiber
  • They have the potential to provide additional myonuclei to their parent muscle fiber, or return to a quiescent state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The myofibrils are composed of actin and myosin filaments, repeated in units called sarcomeres, which are the basic functional units of the muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Every single organelle and macromolecule of a muscle fiber is arranged to ensure form meets function. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the muscle fiber does not have a smooth endoplasmic cisternae , it contains a sarcoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cross the muscle fiber from one side to the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The different fiber arrangements produce broad categories of skeletal muscle architectures including longitudinal, pennate, unipennate, bipennate, and multipennate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of these different architectures, the tension a muscle can create between its tendons varies by more than simply its size and fiber-type makeup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Longitudinal architecture The fascicles of longitudinally arranged, parallel, or fusiform muscles run parallel to the axis of force generation, thus these muscles on a whole function similarly to a single, large muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, each term specific to muscle cells has a counterpart that is used in the terminology applied to other types of cells: The sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum, a specialized type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, forms a network around each myofibril of the muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcolemma is the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber and receives and conducts stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each muscle fiber contains myofibrils, which are very long chains of sarcomeres, the contractile units of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve fiber is a long process projecting far from the neuron's body that carries nerve impulses away from the central nervous system toward the peripheral effector organs (mainly muscles and glands). (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta motor neurons target both types of muscle fiber and there are two types known as static and dynamic. (wikipedia.org)
  • MyoD is also an important effector for the fast-twitch muscle fiber (types IIA, IIX, and IIB) phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Activated satellite cells also begin expressing muscle-specific filament proteins such as desmin as they differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure and integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • SRF may bring a number of other proteins to the promoter of skeletal actin, such as andogen receptor, and thereby contribute to induction of skeletal actin gene expression by androgenic (often termed "anabolic") steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • pericytes
  • However, difficulties in isolating and expanding bona-fide pericytes from accessible human tissues have so far precluded clinical applications. (ahajournals.org)
  • tissues
  • Inflammation (from Latin inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • capacity
  • On the one hand, we would want to understand how to safely keep the thymus active, and on the other hand establish methodologies to regularly eliminate CMV-specific immune cells and thus free up capacity. (fightaging.org)
  • Expression
  • Eventual loss of ability to walk (usually by the age of 12) Skeletal deformities (including scoliosis in some cases) Trouble getting up from lying or sitting position According to Lewis P. Rowland, in the anthology Gene Expression In Muscle, if a boy is affected with DMD, the condition can be observed clinically from the moment he takes his first steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altered activation of PI3K and SREBP-1c may explain the defective regulation of miR-1 and miR-133a expression in response to insulin in muscle of type 2 diabetic patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • RhoA expression is negatively regulated by miR-133a in bronchial smooth muscles (BSM)and miR-133a downregulation causes an upregulation of RhoA, resulting in an augmentation of contraction and BSM hyperresponsiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skeletal alpha actin expression is induced by stimuli and conditions known to cause muscle formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skeletal actin itself, when expressed, causes expression of several other "myogenic genes", which are essential to muscle formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in Na+ channel isoform expression and spontaneous activity in muscle called fibrillation can also result in muscle atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, during its brief window of expression in the embryo it is also expressed in nonsomitic paraxial mesoderm that goes on to form the muscles of the head, according to studies done on zebrafish. (wikipedia.org)
  • This expression is eventually repressed to prevent extraneous muscle formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sustained MyoD expression is necessary for retaining the expression of muscle-related genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the "master controller" MyoD has become active, SETDB1 is required to maintain MyoD expression within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • scoliosis
  • We ascertained a nuclear family in which three of four siblings were affected with an unclassified autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by severe weakness, respiratory impairment, scoliosis, joint contractures, and an unusual combination of dystrophic and myopathic features on muscle biopsy. (springer.com)
  • Multiminicore disease (MmD) is an autosomal recessive congenital myopathy characterized by predominantly axial and proximal muscle weakness, frequently in conjunction with progressive scoliosis and respiratory difficulties. (springer.com)
  • cytoplasm
  • The cell membrane is called the sarcolemma with the cytoplasm known as the sarcoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • A neuron consists of a cell body with a nucleus and cytoplasm, from which long thin hair-like parts arise. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • For example, in the human genome there are three known miR-133 genes: miR-133a-1, miR-133a-2 and miR-133b found on chromosomes 18, 20 and 6 respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Nemaline Myopathy Human ACTA1 genome location and ACTA1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disuse
  • Disuse atrophy of muscles and bones, with loss of mass and strength, can occur after prolonged immobility, such as extended bedrest, or having a body part in a cast (living in darkness for the eye, bedridden for the legs etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The consequence of this coactivator/corepressor recruitment is silenced promoting regions on muscle genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor cells
  • We investigated the therapeutic activity and mechanistic targets of saphenous vein-derived pericyte progenitor cells (SVPs) in a mouse myocardial infarction (MI) model. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 Clinical trials showed that administration of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (PCs) improves left ventricular (LV) function in patients with coronary artery disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Still, the existence of these separate "MyoD-dependent" and "Myf5-dependent" subpopulations has been disputed, with some claiming that these MRFs are indeed coexpressed in muscle progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • impair
  • Emerging research over the last decade suggests NSAID's may actually impair the very thing that all bodybuilders hold dear, namely, muscle gain. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • voluntary
  • Play media The main symptom of DMD, a progressive neuromuscular disorder, is muscle weakness associated with muscle wasting with the voluntary muscles[citation needed] being first affected, especially those of the hips, pelvic area, thighs, shoulders, and calves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle action can be classified as being either voluntary or involuntary. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Dystrophin is important to maintain the muscle fiber's cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • When muscle cells undergo injury, quiescent satellite cells are released from beneath the basement membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum serves as reservoir for calcium ions, so when an action potential spreads over the T tubule, it signals the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium ions from the gated membrane channels to stimulate a muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane of a myocyte has several specialized regions, which may include the intercalated disk and the transverse tubular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane is covered by a lamina coat which is approximately 50 nm wide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Already in 1907 Lapicque was using a linear first-order approximation of the cell membrane, modeled using a single-RC equivalent circuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferate
  • When the first studies defined the four phases of the cell cycle using radioactive labeling techniques, it was discovered that not all cells in a population proliferate at similar rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • contractile
  • Type II, fast twitch muscle, has three major subtypes (IIa, IIx, and IIb) that vary in both contractile speed and force generated. (wikipedia.org)