• myocytes
  • Background -The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ -release channel plays a key role in the excitation-contraction coupling of cardiac myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • The Ca 2+ transient from failing human myocytes is reduced in amplitude and prolonged in time course. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, cardiac myocytes were isolated from the left ventricle of explanted hearts from 6 organ donors (4 men and 2 women aged 46±9 years) and 6 explanted hearts from patients with terminal heart failure due to DCM (3 men and 3 women aged 48±10 years). (ahajournals.org)
  • This study demonstrates that Ang II in vivo, via the type 1 receptor, directly induces a shift to the fetal phenotype of cardiac myocytes and cardiac remodeling independent of blood pressure elevation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 Cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes synthesize and release Ang II, which is involved in mechanical stretch-induced hypertrophy of myocytes, thereby suggesting the important role of autocrine release of Ang II in cardiac hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, induced by hypertension or pressure overload by aortic coarctation, is accompanied not only by quantitative changes (increase in cardiac myocyte size) but also by qualitative changes, including a shift to the fetal phenotype of myocytes 5 12 13 14 15 and cardiac remodeling such as interstitial fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • We obtained direct evidence that Ang II, via the type 1 (AT 1 ) receptor, can induce the shift to the fetal phenotype of cardiac myocytes and cardiac remodeling independent of hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Histologically, Mybpc3-targeted knock-out hearts display structural rearrangements with cardiac myocyte disarray and increased interstitial fibrosis similar to patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, without obvious alterations in shape or size of single cardiac myocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac CT-1 expression is increased by hypoxia, where it protects cardiac myocytes from ischemic and reperfusion injury and apoptosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mechanical stretch of cardiac myocytes increases the expression of CT-1 and activates the JAK/STAT pathway, 9 providing a link from the biological properties of CT-1 to its potential role in remodeling in response to hemodynamic overload. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 In model systems, norepinephrine markedly increases the expression of CT-1 in cardiac myocytes in vitro and in vivo, via a cAMP response element in the 5′ flanking region of the CT-1 gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • Muscle cells (myocytes) are elongated cells ranging from several millimetres to about 10 centimetres in length and from 10 to 100 micrometres in width. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myocytes are long, tubular cells that develop from myoblasts to form muscles in a process known as myogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various specialized forms of myocytes: cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle cells, with various properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cardiac myocytes this forms a scalloped surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • ventricular myosin light
  • However, mice with ventricular myocyte-restricted knockout of gp130 using a ventricular myosin light chain 2 promoter that drives a Cre/lox recombination/knockout system from early in development have no cardiac abnormalities at birth, 6 indicating that the hypoplastic heart phenotype of generalized gp130 knockout mice 5 is likely secondary to hematologic or other noncardiac effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • genes
  • A low dose (200 ng/kg per minute) of Ang II was continuously infused into rats by osmotic minipump for 24 hours or 3 or 7 days to examine the effects on the expression of cardiac phenotype-related or fibrosis-related genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • We profiled the differential expression of genes between the psoas (red muscle) and the longissimus dorsi (white muscle), by co-hybridisation of Cy3 and Cy5 labelled cDNA derived from these two muscles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have developed a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray and have identified a number of candidate genes that could be involved in muscle phenotype determination, including several members of the casein kinase 2 signalling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following the discovery by Pollard and Korn (1973) of enzymes with myosin-like function in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a global range of divergent myosin genes have been discovered throughout the realm of eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wide variety of myosin genes found throughout the eukaryotic phyla were named according to different schemes as they were discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the human genome contains over 40 different myosin genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the different genes that regulate actin production in humans can cause muscular diseases, variations in the size and function of the heart as well as deafness. (wikipedia.org)
  • sarcomeric
  • 3 At the ventricular structural level, in-series sarcomeric assembly leads to "eccentric" hypertrophy and chamber dilatation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The first X-ray structures of Creatine Kinases, those of both mitochondrial types (sarcomeric-mtCK (in 1996) and ubiquitous mtCK (in 2000), forming highly four-symmetrical octameric structures, as well as that of cytosolic brain-type BB-CK (at 1.4 Angstoms, in 1999), forming symmetric dimers, have been solved by the T. Wallimann and W. Kabsch groups at ETH-Zürich and at MPI-Heidelberg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas MM-CK is expressed in sarcomeric muscle, that is, skeletal and cardiac muscle, MB-CK is expressed in cardiac muscle, and BB-CK is expressed in smooth muscle and in most non-muscle tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • thin filament
  • Cardiac TnT is the tropomyosin-binding subunit of the troponin complex, which is located on the thin filament of striated muscles and regulates muscle contraction in response to alterations in intracellular calcium ion concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the tropomyosin- binding and thin filament anchoring subunit of the troponin complex in cardiac muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal region of TnT constitutes part of the globular troponin complex domain, and participates in employing the calcium sensitivity of strong myosin crossbridge binding to the thin filament. (wikipedia.org)
  • This binding event removes the adjacent cTnI inhibitory regions from actin and stabilizes tropomyosin in its default "closed" position on the thin filament, allowing actin-myosin cross-bridging and muscle contraction to proceed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The availability of cTnI148-159 depends on the blocked-closed-open equilibrium of tropomyosin on actin, which can be impacted by any interactions involving the thin filament, including actin-myosin cross-bridging and length dependent activation (also known as stretch activation or the Frank Starling law of the heart). (wikipedia.org)
  • myocyte
  • Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a 201 amino acid 1 member of the interleukin (IL)-6 cytokine superfamily, which includes leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ciliary neurotrophic factor, IL-11, and oncostatin M. 2 Cardiotrophin-1 was discovered by Pennica et al 2 via expression cloning of mouse embryoid bodies, using a cardiac myocyte hypertrophy screen to identify positive clones. (ahajournals.org)
  • The cardiac myocyte protective effects were also appreciated early in the investigation of CT-1's biological properties. (ahajournals.org)
  • Instead, cardiac myocyte-restricted knockout of gp130 in adult mice leads to left ventricular dilatation, myocyte apoptosis, and failure when the left ventricle is subjected to increased wall stress, 6 highlighting the cardioprotective effects of gp130 signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • A muscle fiber , also technically known as a myocyte , is a single cell of a muscle. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • contractile
  • Type II, fast twitch muscle, has three major subtypes (IIa, IIx, and IIb) that vary in both contractile speed and force generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alterations in Ca 2+ homeostasis 1 and blunted β-adrenergic signal transduction 2 appear to play a key role in the deterioration of cardiac contractile function in heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • The observed changes are discussed in the context of their role in the contractile activity of striated muscles of mice under conditions of weightlessness. (hindawi.com)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster dorsal vessel, or heart, is a tubular structure comprised of a single layer of contractile cardiomyocytes, pericardial cells that align along each side of the heart wall, supportive alary muscles and, in adults, a layer of ventral longitudinal muscle cells. (jove.com)
  • Type II, fast twitch muscle, has three major kinds that are, in order of increasing contractile speed:Type IIa, which, like slow muscle, is aerobic, rich in mitochondria and capillaries and appears red when deoxygenated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle fibres are the individual contractile units within muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha actins, found in muscle tissues, are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Advancement to dilated cardiomyopathy may be more rapid in patients with TNNT2 mutations than in those with myosin heavy chain mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, no human disease has been reported with mutations in TNNI1. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • 1 Interestingly, all three muscle tissues recapitulate some aspects of ontogenesis when hyperplastic or hypertrophic growth is induced in adulthood as part of an adaptive response to some pathophysiological stimulus. (ahajournals.org)
  • TPM1 Isoform 1 is expressed in adult and fetal skeletal muscle and cardiac tissues, with higher expression levels in the cardiac tissues, whereas Isoform 10 is expressed in adult and fetal cardiac tissues, but not in skeletal muscle. (prospecbio.com)
  • These new myosins were collectively termed "unconventional myosins" and have been found in many tissues other than muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particular attention is given to a mounting strategy for semi-intact adult hearts that minimizes handling and optimizes the opportunity for maintaining the integrity of the cardiac tubes and the associated tissues. (jove.com)
  • This is opposed to other components or tissues in muscle such as tendons or perimysium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creatine kinase (CK)-also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phospho-creatine kinase-is an enzyme (EC 2.7.3.2) expressed by various tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In tissues and cells that consume ATP rapidly, especially skeletal muscle, but also brain, photoreceptor cells of the retina, hair cells of the inner ear, spermatozoa and smooth muscle, PCr serves as an energy reservoir for the rapid buffering and regeneration of ATP in situ, as well as for intracellular energy transport by the PCr shuttle or circuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • sarcoplasmic reticulum
  • When calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscles then combine with troponin, a chemical reaction, and thus muscular contraction, occurs. (wisegeek.com)
  • When calcium ions remain stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, no muscular contraction occurs and thus a muscle is said to be "resting" or in a relaxed state. (wisegeek.com)
  • The structure of skeletal muscles also consists of two membrane systems called the plasma or cell membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which are both involved in the contraction process. (wisegeek.com)
  • This depolarizes the muscle fiber membrane, and the impulse travels to the muscle's sarcoplasmic reticulum via the transverse tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Active transport moves calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 Therefore, both Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores 3 and reuptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) appear to be impaired. (ahajournals.org)
  • While the muscle fiber does not have a smooth endoplasmic cisternae , it contains a sarcoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • T tubules are the pathways for action potentials to signal the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium, causing a muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum, a specialized type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, forms a network around each myofibril of the muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • together these three components form the triads that exist within the network of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, in which each T tubule has two terminal cisternae on each side of it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum serves as reservoir for calcium ions, so when an action potential spreads over the T tubule, it signals the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium ions from the gated membrane channels to stimulate a muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Because respective alterations have been reported in human heart failure, we investigated isoform expression of the SR Ca 2+ -release channel in human hearts from patients with terminal heart failure (dilated cardiomyopathy [DCM], n=8) and nonfailing organ donors (NF, n=8). (ahajournals.org)
  • tropomyosin
  • The release of calcium ions triggers the troponin to change position, causing the tropomyosin to be pushed away, making way for myosin to be able to "reach" and interact with actin. (wisegeek.com)
  • In a relaxed muscle, tropomyosin blocks the attachment site for the myosin crossbridge, thus preventing contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IT arm is anchored to tropomyosin via adjacent segments of cTnT, so it is believed to move as a unit along with tropomyosin throughout the cardiac cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • These chemical reactions produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules that are used to power the movement of the myosin heads. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each thick filament is approximately 15 nm in diameter, and each is made of several hundred molecules of myosin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside the cardiac troponin complex the strongest interaction between molecules has been demonstrated for cTnI - TnC binary complex especially in the presence of Ca2+ ( KA = 1.5x10−8 M−1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The approximate stoichiometry of cMyBP-C along the thick filament is 1 per 9-10 myosin molecules, or 37 cMyBP-C molecules per thick filament. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most myosin molecules are composed of a head, neck, and tail domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple myosin II molecules generate force in skeletal muscle through a power stroke mechanism fuelled by the energy released from ATP hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypertrophy
  • Abstract Cardiac phenotypic modulation and remodeling appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, Ang II may play an important role in the modulation of cardiac performance in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cardiac hypertrophy is a major risk factor for heart failure in humans. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 2 Previous in vivo studies have shown that inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system regress cardiac hypertrophy induced by hypertension, 3 4 5 myocardial infarction, 6 and aortic coarctation, 7 thereby suggesting that angiotensin II (Ang II) may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16 17 These qualitative changes in cardiac hypertrophy appear to participate in the modulation of cardiac systolic and diastolic functions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Absence of cMyBP-C (Mybpc3-targeted knock-out mice) results in severe cardiac hypertrophy, increased heart-weight-to-body-weight-ratios, enlargement of ventricles, increased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and depressed diastolic and systolic function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microarray profiling has the potential to illuminate the molecular processes that govern the phenotypic characteristics of porcine skeletal muscles, such as hypertrophy or atrophy, and the expression of specific fibre types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • adult
  • An average adult male is made up of 42% of skeletal muscle and an average adult female is made up of 36% (as a percentage of body mass). (wikipedia.org)
  • CT-1 is also expressed in adult skeletal muscle, ovary, colon, prostate, and testis and in fetal kidney and lung. (ahajournals.org)
  • An average adult male is made up of 40-50 percent of skeletal muscle and an average adult female is made up of 30-40 percent. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Additionally, we perform labeling of F-actin and α-actinin in myosin-GFP expressing adult flies and of α-actinin and pericardin, a type IV extracellular matrix collagen, in wild type adult hearts. (jove.com)
  • amino acids
  • TPM1 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 304 amino acids (1-284 a.a.) and having a total molecular mass of 35kDa (Molecular weight on SDS-PAGE will appear higher). (prospecbio.com)
  • Cardiac, ventricular ELC is 21.9 kDa and composed of 195 amino acids (See human MYL3 sequences features here). (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal region of cardiac ELC is functionlly unique in that it is positively charged, being rich in Lysine residues (amino acids 4-14), with subsequent unique structure governed by Proline-Alanine repeats (amino acids 15-36). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse and bovine ssTnI each differs from human ssTnI in only four amino acids, and rhesus monkey ssTnI is identical to human in the amino acid sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • involuntary muscle
  • Smooth muscle or "involuntary muscle" consists of spindle shaped muscle cells found within the walls of organs and structures such as the esophagus, stomach, intestines, bronchi, uterus, ureters, bladder, and blood vessels. (wikibooks.org)
  • Cardiac muscle is also an "involuntary muscle" but it is striated in structure and appearance. (wikibooks.org)
  • Smooth muscle or "involuntary muscle" is found within the walls of organs and structures such as the esophagus, stomach, intestines, bronchi, uterus, urethra, bladder, blood vessels, and the arrector pili in the skin (in which it controls erection of body hair). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac muscle is also an "involuntary muscle" but is a specialized kind of muscle found only within the heart . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Untrained Twin, UT) underwent analyses of: (1) anthropometric characteristics and blood profiles, (2) markers of cardiovascular and pulmonary health, and (3) skeletal muscle size, strength, and power and molecular markers of muscle health. (springer.com)
  • myocardial infarction
  • Discussions of troponin often pertain to its functional characteristics[citation needed] and/or to its usefulness as a diagnostic marker[citation needed] or therapeutic target for various heart disorders in particular as a highly specific marker for myocardial infarction or heart muscle cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include conditions caused by a restricted blood supply to the muscle including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, and other heart muscle disease known as cardiomyopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNNT2
  • When TNNT2 is expressed in neonatal skeletal muscle, the alternative splicing of exon 5 exhibits a synchronized regulation to that in the heart in a species-specific manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiomyocytes
  • Activation of ErbB2/4 receptor tyrosine kinases in cardiomyocytes by neuregulin treatment is associated with improvement in cardiac function, supporting its use in human patients with heart failure despite the lack of a specific mechanism. (jove.com)
  • Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres that form the chambers of the heart, and have a single central nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the wall is taken up by bricks, which in cardiac muscle are individual cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes are the contracting cells which allow the heart to pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal cardiac
  • Phosphorylation is required for normal cardiac function and cMyBP-C stability, and overall phosphorylation levels of cMyBP-C are reduced in human and experimental heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 Mice with genetic ablation of gp130 have hypoplastic hearts, 5 which suggests a role for CT-1 or other IL-6-type cytokines in normal cardiac development. (ahajournals.org)
  • All of these cluster around two of the four EF-hand domains, suggesting that proper conformation in these regions is necessary for normal cardiac function. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • When the muscle cell is stimulated to contract by an action potential, calcium channels open in the sarcoplasmic membrane and release calcium into the sarcoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of this calcium attaches to troponin, which causes it to change shape, exposing binding sites for myosin (active sites) on the actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main difference is that the TnC subunit of troponin in skeletal muscle has four calcium ion-binding sites, whereas in cardiac muscle there are only three. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both cardiac and skeletal muscles, muscular force production is controlled primarily by changes in the intracellular calcium concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • An impulse from a nerve cell causes calcium release and brings about a single, short muscle contraction called a muscle twitch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, the cardiac troponin regulatory domain, cNTnC, is in a closed conformation in the apo state (no calcium bound). (wikipedia.org)
  • Though EF hand motifs are specialized to bind divalent ions such as calcium, cardiac ELC does not bind calcium at physiological levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In between these two layers can be several different types of ions, including calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinetics
  • Relative to ventricular essential light chain VLC-1, ALC-1 has an additional ~40 amino-acid N-terminal region that contains four to eleven residues that are critical for binding actin and modulating myosin kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • cMyBP-C appears to act as a brake on cardiac contraction, as loaded shortening, power and cycling kinetics all increase in cMyBP-C knockout mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have provided evidence for ELC as modulator of myosin crossbrige kinetics. (wikipedia.org)