• viral
  • Bergeron L, Sodroski J (1992) Dissociation of unintegrated viral DNA accumulation from single-cell lysis induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (springer.com)
  • HTLV-1 has been associated with acute T-cell leukemia and a related, but clearly different, viral agent, HTLV-2, with 'hairy-cell' T-cell leukemia. (cdc.gov)
  • Her first applications and inventions in the field of immunological applications of Synthetic peptide were antibody screening immunoassays employing highly optimized synthetic viral peptide antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the last several years, researchers have shown that several key factors are important in HTLV-I-associated neurologic disease including high HTLV-I proviral load and a strong immune response to HTLV-I. Here, we review pathophysiological findings on HAM/TSP and focus on viral-host immune responses to the virus in HTLV-I infected individuals. (springer.com)
  • In 1989, a curious phenomenon was described: HIV-specific T-cell responses to the viral envelope and core proteins could be detected in antibody-positive and antigen-negative sexual partners of known HIV-positive men . (lww.com)
  • In 2004 A. Voevodin moved to Canada where, together with Prof. Preston Marx of Tulane University, New Orleans, USA, he wrote "Simian Virology", an encyclopedia of monkey and ape viruses and non-human primate models of human viral diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery was important s it established that products of the viral genome itself, rather than a cofactor or contaminant, were capable of killing human T cells and were therefore potentially capable of mediating the immunosuppressive effect of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once integrated, HTLV-1 continues to exist only as a provirus which can spread from cell to cell through a viral synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each virion comprises a viral envelope and associated matrix enclosing a capsid, which itself encloses two copies of the single-stranded RNA genome and several enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 is composed of two copies of noncovalently linked, unspliced, positive-sense single-stranded RNA enclosed by a conical capsid composed of the viral protein p24, typical of lentiviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progress in testing methodology has enabled detection of viral genetic material, antigens, and the virus itself in bodily fluids and cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1960s HIV-2, a viral variant found in West Africa, is thought to have transferred to people from sooty mangabey monkeys in Guinea-Bissau. (wikipedia.org)
  • tropical spastic par
  • HTLV-1, a human type C retrovirus, is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, tropical spastic paraparesis, and other demyelinating and neoplastic conditions. (labcorp.com)
  • Identity of HTLV-1 associated tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (letter). (ajtmh.org)
  • In light of the lack of toxicity and lack of immunogenicity of the antibody observed in the present study and the role for IL-15 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, clinical trials should be performed using the humanized version of Mikβ1 in groups of patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and refractory celiac disease. (pnas.org)
  • myelopathy
  • Skin manifestations in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM): xerosis and erythema. (ajtmh.org)
  • Abe M, Umehara F, Kubota R, Moritoyo T, Izumo S, Osame M (1999) Activation of macrophages/microglia with the calcium-binding proteins MRP14 and MRP8 is related to the lesional activities in the spinal cord of HTLV-I associated myelopathy. (springer.com)
  • Akizuki S, Setoguchi M, Nakazato O, Yoshida S, Higuchi Y, Yamamoto S, Okajima T (1988) An autopsy case of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy. (springer.com)
  • Akizuki S, Yoshida S, Setoguchi M, Higuchi Y, Yamamoto S, Nakazato O, Okajima T (1989) The neuropathology of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy. (springer.com)
  • Al-Fahim A, Cabre P, Kastrukoff L, Dorovini-Zis K, Oger J (1999) Blood mononuclear cells in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy: lymphocytes are highly activated and adhesion to endothelial cells is increased. (springer.com)
  • immunological
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate immunological features of the association between HTLV-1/Mtb in order to better understand the events leading to higher susceptibility to TB observed in HTLV-1 infected subjects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Large numbers of epidemiological, virological, immunological, and clinical studies on HTLV-I- and HTLV-I-associated diseases have been published, although the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP remains to be fully understood. (springer.com)
  • IL-15 and its private receptor subunit, IL-15Rα, are components of an immunological synapse that develops between antigen-presenting cells and effector NK and CD8 T cells ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • reactivity
  • The major immune reactivity appears to be directed against p41, the presumed envelope antigen of the virus. (sciencemag.org)
  • METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. (scielosp.org)
  • The two HIV-2-positive samples showed well defined reactivity to gp160, p53, p55 and p34 of HIV-1. (scielosp.org)
  • This problem led to development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), with elevated sensitivity and specificity due to their ability to distinguish each virus' specific reactivity by using synthetic antigens that mimic specific immunodominant epitopes of the most immunogenic and persistent proteins. (scielosp.org)
  • diseases
  • Each donated unit of blood must be tested for infectious diseases including hepatitis, HIV and other retroviruses. (webwire.com)
  • In addition, antibodies to antigens expressed on the cell surface of HTLV-infected lymphocytes have been detected by an indirect immunofluorescent technique in sera from 19 (25%) of 75 AIDS patients (5), including patients with Kaposi's sarcoma alone (10/34), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia alone (7/30), or patients with both diseases (2/11). (cdc.gov)
  • Infections with retroviruses other than HTLV have been associated with a variety of neoplastic diseases in animals including chickens, cats, cattle and gibbons. (cdc.gov)
  • HTLV agents are the only presently known retroviruses associated with human diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinically, however, the diseases previously associated with HTLV in endemic areas do not resemble AIDS. (cdc.gov)
  • simplified Chinese: 王长怡), is an immunologist and astute organic chemist, best known for establishing a new platform in vaccines technology that employs designer peptide as key ingredients to be formulated into vaccines for the prevention and treatment of AIDS, HIV, Alzheimer disease, allergy and other emerging infectious diseases in both humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. (scielosp.org)
  • The main objectives of his laboratory are to pursue how perturbations in the self-renewal machinery contribute to human diseases and to use the findings to aid the development of more effective treatment therapies. (stanford.edu)
  • Abnormalities of IL-15 expression have been described in patients with select lymphoid malignancies and autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as in diseases associated with human T cell lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I) ( 3 , 8 , 11 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our efforts to inhibit the actions of IL-15 for the therapy of autoimmune diseases and HTLV-I-associated disorders have focused on the Mikβ1 monoclonal antibody that interacts with the IL-2/IL-15Rβ (CD122) receptor subunit ( 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and some other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • HTLV has been isolated from peripheral blood T-lymphocytes from several patients with AIDS (1, 2), and a retrovirus, related to but clearly distinct from HTLV, has been isolated from cells from a lymph node of a patient with lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS) (3), a syndrome that may precede AIDS itself. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, HTLV nucleic acid sequences have been detected by nucleic acid hybridization in lymphocytes from two (6%) of 33 AIDS patients (4). (cdc.gov)
  • While the above serologic findings associate AIDS with antibody to HTLV-specific cell surface-associated antigens, such antibodies were identified in only about one quarter of the AIDS patients tested. (cdc.gov)
  • Infections HIV-2 and HIV-1 cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (scielosp.org)
  • An extracorporeal apparatus and methods for treatment of HIV (Human Immuno-deficiency Virus) infections and AIDS. (google.ca)
  • Working there he published a number of papers in research journals, most notably on the identification of the Middle Eastern lineage of human retrovirus HTLV-1, genetic resistance to HIV/AIDS and interspecies transmission of retroviruses in non-human primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is best known for his role in the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the infectious agent responsible for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and in the development of the HIV blood test, and he has been a major contributor to subsequent HIV research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1986, he was awarded the Lasker, "For determining that the retrovirus now known as HIV-1 is the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • A French team at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, France, led by Luc Montagnier, had published a paper in Science in 1983, describing a retrovirus they called LAV (lymphadenopathy associated virus), isolated from a patient at risk for AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because foreign virus antigens are expressed in these tumors, persons who are immunosuppressed such as AIDS or transplant patients are at higher risk for these types of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of the virus itself occurred two years following the report of the first major cases of AIDS-associated illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the virus infects an Asian or Indian rhesus macaque, these non-African simian primates will also develop simian AIDS (SAIDS), as they, like humans (despite being an African-origin simian primate species), have not had a prolonged history with the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • study of SIVcpz in wild living chimpanzees suggests that infected chimpanzees experience an AIDS-like illness similar to HIV-1 infected humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of SIV was made shortly after HIV-1 had been isolated as the cause of AIDS and led to the discovery of HIV-2 strains in West Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there are 33.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.7 million new HIV infections per year and 2 million annual deaths due to AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV is an acronym for human immunodeficiency virus, which is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • The case was published in two medical journals at the time, and Hennigar has been quoted in numerous publications saying that he believes Ardouin probably had AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are tropic for CD4 lymphocytes and can be transmitted by sexual contact, IV drug use, blood products, transplacentally, and through breast milk. (labcorp.com)
  • Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. (labcorp.com)
  • Callahan KM, Rowell JF, Soloski MJ, Machamer CE, Siliciano RF (1993) HIV-1 envelope protein is expressed on the surface of infected cells before its processing and presentation to class II- restricted T lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • HTLV infects and immortalizes* T-helper lymphocytes, and the virus can be isolated from infected patients by co-cultivation of their lymphocytes with uninfected human T-lymphocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • In the above studies, the reported low frequency of detecting HTLV sequences may reflect depletion of infected T-helper lymphocytes, since patients initially positive for such sequences have had negative tests several months later (4). (cdc.gov)
  • Afonso PV, Ozden S, Prevost MC, Schmitt C, Seilhean D, Weksler B, Couraud PO, Gessain A, Romero IA, Ceccaldi PE (2007) Human blood-brain barrier disruption by retroviral-infected lymphocytes: role of myosin light chain kinase in endothelial tight-junction disorganization. (springer.com)
  • virus
  • The ABBOTT PRISM HIV O Plus test (Human Immunodeficiency Virus Types 1 and 2 (E. coli, B. megaterium, Recombinant) Antigen and Synthetic Peptide) can be used by laboratory professionals to screen individual donations of blood for antibodies to HIV-1 (anti-HIV-1) Groups M and O and /or antibodies to HIV-2 (anti-HIV-2). (webwire.com)
  • Type 1 HTLV is irregularly distributed throughout the world, as opposed to type 2 virus, which is a new world virus, more common among Americans in North, Central, and South America. (labcorp.com)
  • Epidemiology of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus. (labcorp.com)
  • Antibodies to adult T-cell leukemia-virus-associated antigen (ATLA) in sera from patients with ATL and controls in Japan: A nation-wide seroepidemiologic study. (labcorp.com)
  • Banda NK, Bernier J, Kurahara DK, Kurrie R, Haigwood N, Sekaly R-P, Finkel TH (1992) Cross-linking CD4 by human immunodeficiency virus gp120 primes T cells for activation-induced apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • Structural components of murine leukemia virus released as soluble antigens in cell culture. (springer.com)
  • Bozzette SA, McCutchan JA, Spector SA, Wright B, Richman DD (1993) A cross-sectional comparison of persons with syncytium- and non-syncytium-inducing human immunodeficiency virus. (springer.com)
  • Chirmule N, Kalyanaraman VS, Oyaizu N, Slade HB, Pahwa S (1990) Inhibition of functional properties of tetanus antigen-specific T-cell clones by envelope glycoprotein gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus. (springer.com)
  • HTLV-infected cells express specific virus structural and virus-induced cellular proteins. (cdc.gov)
  • Her other inventions in this area include synthetic peptide-based blood screening diagnostics for HTLV I/II, HCV Hepatitis C virus, which has CE certification and has been sold in the global market through Organon Teknika /Biomerieux since 1991, and the SARS Coronavirus, as well as diagnostic tests for the differentiation of infected vs. vaccinated animals for Foot and mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and its causative agent, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), are endemic in Southwestern Japan, the Caribbean islands, Central/South America, and Intertropical Africa. (springer.com)
  • Monoclonal integration of human T-cell leukemia provirus in all primary tumors of adult T-cell leukemia suggests causative role of human T-cell leukemia virus in the disease. (ajtmh.org)
  • Retrovir is the brand name for zidovudine [formerly called azidothymidine (AZT)], a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue active against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (sidasante.com)
  • Intragenic cis-acting art gene-responsive sequences of the human immunodeficiency virus," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • In 1982, Gallo received the prestigious Lasker Award: "For his pioneering studies that led to the discovery of the first human RNA tumor virus [the old name for retroviruses] and its association with certain leukemias and lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fisher showed in 1985 that molecular clones of HIV, contained within approximately 18kb of contiguous proviral DNA, were biologically active and generated cytopathic virus when introduced into primary human T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This term originated from studies of acutely transforming retroviruses in the 1950-60s, often called oncornaviruses to denote their RNA virus origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus which causes enzootic bovine leukosis in cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the oncogenic properties of the virus were discovered early, a search for evidence of pathogenicity in humans started soon after discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gag gene provides the basic physical infrastructure of the virus, and pol provides the basic mechanism by which retroviruses reproduce, while the others help HIV to enter the host cell and enhance its reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in humans, SIV infections in their natural African simian non-human hosts appear in many cases to be non-pathogenic due to evolutionary adaptation of the hosts to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • While human immunodeficiency virus has a limited number of subtypes, SIV is now known to infect a few dozen species of non-human primates, and distinct strains are often associated with each species, or with a set of closely related species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further studies indicated that HIV-2 is derived from the SIVsmm strain found in sooty mangabeys, whereas HIV-1, the predominant virus found in humans, is derived from SIV strains infecting chimpanzees (SIVcpz). (wikipedia.org)
  • Visna virus (also known as visna-maedi virus, maedi-visna virus and ovine lentivirus) from the genus Lentivirus and subfamily Orthoretrovirinae, is a "prototype" retrovirus that causes encephalitis and chronic pneumonitis in sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • MV virus can infect sheep of any age but clinical symptoms rarely occur in sheep less than two years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1900s Researchers estimate that some time in the early 1900s a form of simian immunodeficiency virus, SIV, was transmitted to humans in central Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukemia
  • HTLV-2 was first isolated from a patient with T-lymphocytic hairy cell leukemia but has not been unequivocally proven to be a pathogen. (labcorp.com)
  • This latter observation may reflect the fact that the monoclonal T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia leukemic cells of the patients did not produce IL-2 or IL-15 or require their actions for cell survival. (pnas.org)
  • HTLV's role in leukemia was clarified when Kiyoshi Takatsuki and other Japanese researchers, puzzling over an outbreak of a rare form of leukemia, later independently found the same retrovirus, and both groups showed HTLV to be the cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, a similar HTLV-associated leukemia was identified by the Gallo group in the Caribbean. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide
  • The peptide compositions comprise peptides having amino acid sequences corresponding to transmembrane and external segments of the envelope protein of HTLV-I/HTLV-II and mixtures thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The peptide compositions are highly immunoreactive with antibodies to HTLV in sera. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The detection method includes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), and other forms of immunoassay procedures such as enzyme immuno blotting assay on nitrocellulose paper and an agglutination assay using the peptide composition as the antigen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • First was the development of a synthetic peptide based HIV 1 test and later an HIV 1,2 diagnostic test for blood screening, which received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approvals in 1989 and 1996, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partnering with distributor, Organon Teknika/Biomerieux, UBI's peptide antigen based HCV blood screening test was a success in Europe in early 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • The subgroup HTLV-II also induces T-cell proliferation in vitro, but its role in disease is unclear. (sciencemag.org)
  • Zidovudine is an inhibitor of the in vitro replication of some retroviruses including HIV. (sidasante.com)
  • The relationship between in vitro susceptibility of HIV to zidovudine and the inhibition of HIV replication in humans or clinical response to therapy has not been established. (sidasante.com)
  • This refinement allowed cell-fate to be mapped in vitro and provided a system in which potential factors that shape the human T cell repertoire could be experimentally tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990
  • In 1990, the US Food and Drug Administration certified the first assay for HIV-2 diagnosis and in 1991, the first combined HIV-1/2 system, enabling simultaneous antibody screening for both retroviruses. (scielosp.org)
  • Cloning of the Complete Gene for Carcinoembryonic Antigen: Analysis of Its Promotor Indicates a Region Conveying Cell Type-Specific Expression," Molecular and Cellular Biology 10(6): 2738-2748, 1990. (patentgenius.com)
  • She established the first human thymus organ cultures in 1990, based on studies pioneered by Owen and Jenkinson in the mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1990, researchers presented evidence they found DNA sequences very similar to the human HTLV-II retrovirus in some CFS patients, at a conference in Kyoto, Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • Editorial Note: HTLV agents are retroviruses that have recently been associated with certain types of adult T-cell lymphoreticular neoplasms of man (6). (cdc.gov)
  • 1988
  • Hormonal Regulation of Chimeric Genes Containing the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Promoter Regulatory Region in Hepatoma Cells Infected by Murine Retroviruses," Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33): 17798-17808, 1988. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1984
  • Fisher was educated at the University of Birmingham where she was awarded a PhD in 1984 for research into antigens expressed during myelopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Through collaboration, his group pioneered and organized a team to use single cell genomics to understand complex tissue hierarchy in normal and malignant cells present in human breast, colon and head and neck cancer tumors. (stanford.edu)
  • Structural
  • HIV has several major genes coding for structural proteins that are found in all retroviruses as well as several nonstructural ("accessory") genes unique to HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • findings
  • Recent findings suggest that HTLV-2 may be associated with a number of other leukemias and lymphomas. (labcorp.com)
  • citation needed] Pathology findings, both in monkeys and in rare human casualties, led to the conclusion that the disorder was caused by inflammation of the brain and the spinal cord, particularly the afferent nerve roots, perhaps with neuroimmune etiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • This disease corresponds to two clinical entities caused by the same Maedi is a form that results in a chronic progressive pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • This product contains human sourced and/or potentially infectious components. (webwire.com)
  • Two methods, protoplast fusion and electroporation, proved successful and allowed Fisher to test whether molecular clones isolated from HIV-infected cultures could generate infectious retrovirus upon transfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • Biopsy specimens were obtained from abnormal and normal skin samples of seropositive individuals in an attempt to detect HTLV-1 in tissue samples by a polymerase chain reaction. (ajtmh.org)
  • Reverse transcriptase is actually a combination of two enzymes: a polymerase that assembles the new DNA copy and an RNase that degrades the source RNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Africa
  • However, HIV-2, initially restricted to West Africa, has spread to all continents. (scielosp.org)
  • The only human genotype that does not have a simian relative is A. It is thought that genotypes B, D, E, F and G originated in Africa from closely related STLV about 30,000 years ago, while the Asian genotype C is thought to have originated independently in Indonesia from the simians present there. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most likely route of transmission of HIV-1 to humans involves contact with the blood of chimps that are often hunted for bushmeat in Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukemias
  • Part one describes representative examples of the chronic leukemias of lymphoid origin, while part two (to be published in an upcoming issue) will discuss chronic leukemias of myeloid origin. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • autoimmune
  • In sporadic inclusion body myositis [MY-oh-sigh-tis], two processes, one autoimmune and the other degenerative, appear to occur in the muscle cells in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • The expression of IL-15Rα and associated IL-15 are coordinately induced on antigen-presenting cells through the stimulation of Toll-like and IFN receptors. (pnas.org)
  • After listening to a talk by biologist David Baltimore and further stimulation from his virologist colleague, Robert Ting, concerning the work of the late Howard Temin, Gallo became interested in the study of retroviruses, and made their study the primary activity of his lab. (wikipedia.org)