• Aids
  • The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. (scielosp.org)
  • Infections HIV-2 and HIV-1 cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (scielosp.org)
  • HTLV has been isolated from peripheral blood T-lymphocytes from several patients with AIDS (1, 2), and a retrovirus, related to but clearly distinct from HTLV, has been isolated from cells from a lymph node of a patient with lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS) (3), a syndrome that may precede AIDS itself. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, HTLV nucleic acid sequences have been detected by nucleic acid hybridization in lymphocytes from two (6%) of 33 AIDS patients (4). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, antibodies to antigens expressed on the cell surface of HTLV-infected lymphocytes have been detected by an indirect immunofluorescent technique in sera from 19 (25%) of 75 AIDS patients (5), including patients with Kaposi's sarcoma alone (10/34), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia alone (7/30), or patients with both diseases (2/11). (cdc.gov)
  • Clinically, however, the diseases previously associated with HTLV in endemic areas do not resemble AIDS. (cdc.gov)
  • While the above serologic findings associate AIDS with antibody to HTLV-specific cell surface-associated antigens, such antibodies were identified in only about one quarter of the AIDS patients tested. (cdc.gov)
  • simplified Chinese: 王长怡), is an immunologist and astute organic chemist, best known for establishing a new platform in vaccines technology that employs designer peptide as key ingredients to be formulated into vaccines for the prevention and treatment of AIDS, HIV, Alzheimer disease, allergy and other emerging infectious diseases in both humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two Chinese haemophiliacs treated with locally produced factor Ⅷ was sero-negative.The first AIDS patient from abroad died in Beijing in 1985 was also sero-positive.In conclusion ,the data indicated that the Chinese haemophilics were exposed to LAV/HTLV-Ⅲ via imported factor Ⅷ from USA. (cnki.com.cn)
  • 1986) he and his colleagues 'provided clearcut evidence that the aetiology of AIDS and ARC was the new lymphotropic retrovirus, HTLV-III', no such data were presented. (duesberg.com)
  • Working there he published a number of papers in research journals, most notably on the identification of the Middle Eastern lineage of human retrovirus HTLV-1, genetic resistance to HIV/AIDS and interspecies transmission of retroviruses in non-human primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is best known for his role in the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the infectious agent responsible for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and in the development of the HIV blood test, and he has been a major contributor to subsequent HIV research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1986, he was awarded the Lasker, "For determining that the retrovirus now known as HIV-1 is the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 4, 1984, Gallo and his collaborators published a series of four papers in the scientific journal Science demonstrating that a retrovirus they had isolated, called HTLV-III in the belief that the virus was related to the leukemia viruses of Gallo's earlier work, was the cause of AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • A French team at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, France, led by Luc Montagnier, had published a paper in Science in 1983, describing a retrovirus they called LAV (lymphadenopathy associated virus), isolated from a patient at risk for AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because foreign virus antigens are expressed in these tumors, persons who are immunosuppressed such as AIDS or transplant patients are at higher risk for these types of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jacques Leibowitch (born August 1, 1942) is a medical doctor and clinical researcher known for his contributions to the knowledge and treatment of HIV and AIDS, starting with his initial designation of a human retrovirus as the cause of AIDS, and his ground-breaking use of triple combination therapy for the effective control of HIV in the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jacques Leibowitch noticed some intriguing similarities between AIDS and the pathology linked to HTLV (Human T Cell Leukemia Lymphoma Virus), the only known human retro-virus at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original name for HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, was HTLV-III. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of these names can cause some confusion, because the name HTLV-III was one of the names for HIV in early AIDS literature, but has since fallen out of use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of the virus itself occurred two years following the report of the first major cases of AIDS-associated illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time when How to Have Sex in an Epidemic was written, there was no consensus on the cause of AIDS, but two main theories existed: the "new agent theory," which was increasingly the scientific consensus, and the "multifactorial theory," which Callen, Berkowitz and Sonnabend adopted as their basis for sexual education around AIDS transmission prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new agent theory proposed that AIDS was caused by a single, previously unknown pathogen, likely a retrovirus similar to the Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). (wikipedia.org)
  • the majority of scientists are now in agreement that AIDS is caused by the transmission of the retrovirus HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the virus infects an Asian or Indian rhesus macaque, these non-African simian primates will also develop simian AIDS (SAIDS), as they, like humans (despite being an African-origin simian primate species), have not had a prolonged history with the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • study of SIVcpz in wild living chimpanzees suggests that infected chimpanzees experience an AIDS-like illness similar to HIV-1 infected humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simian (monkey-hosted) immunodeficiency viruses are a species of retrovirus in the Primate group of genus Lentivirus along with the human viruses HIV-1 and HIV-2 that cause AIDS, and a few other viruses that infect other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of SIV was made shortly after HIV-1 had been isolated as the cause of AIDS and led to the discovery of HIV-2 strains in West Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Bergeron L, Sodroski J (1992) Dissociation of unintegrated viral DNA accumulation from single-cell lysis induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (springer.com)
  • HTLV-1 has been associated with acute T-cell leukemia and a related, but clearly different, viral agent, HTLV-2, with 'hairy-cell' T-cell leukemia. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1989, a curious phenomenon was described: HIV-specific T-cell responses to the viral envelope and core proteins could be detected in antibody-positive and antigen-negative sexual partners of known HIV-positive men . (lww.com)
  • Her first applications and inventions in the field of immunological applications of Synthetic peptide were antibody screening immunoassays employing highly optimized synthetic viral peptide antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review focuses on the role of the immune response in controlling or limiting viral persistence in HAM/TSP patients, and the reason why some HTLV-1-infected people develop HAM/TSP whereas the majority remains asymptomatic carriers of the virus. (hindawi.com)
  • In 2004 A. Voevodin moved to Canada where, together with Prof. Preston Marx of Tulane University, New Orleans, USA, he wrote "Simian Virology", an encyclopedia of monkey and ape viruses and non-human primate models of human viral diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery was important s it established that products of the viral genome itself, rather than a cofactor or contaminant, were capable of killing human T cells and were therefore potentially capable of mediating the immunosuppressive effect of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once integrated, HTLV-1 continues to exist only as a provirus which can spread from cell to cell through a viral synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • So, an increase in numbers of HTLV-1-infected cells using cell division, by actions of accessory viral genes, especially tax, may provide an enhancement of infectivity tax expression induces proliferation, inhibits the apoptosis of HTLV-1-infected cells and, conversely, evokes the host immune response, including cytotoxic T cells, to kill virus-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each virion comprises a viral envelope and associated matrix enclosing a capsid, which itself encloses two copies of the single-stranded RNA genome and several enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 is composed of two copies of noncovalently linked, unspliced, positive-sense single-stranded RNA enclosed by a conical capsid composed of the viral protein p24, typical of lentiviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic Peptide
  • First was the development of a synthetic peptide based HIV 1 test and later an HIV 1,2 diagnostic test for blood screening, which received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approvals in 1989 and 1996, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her other inventions in this area include synthetic peptide-based blood screening diagnostics for HTLV I/II, HCV Hepatitis C virus, which has CE certification and has been sold in the global market through Organon Teknika /Biomerieux since 1991, and the SARS Coronavirus, as well as diagnostic tests for the differentiation of infected vs. vaccinated animals for Foot and mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum
  • OBJECTIVE Investigate the contribution of HIV-2 antibodies to negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results in serum samples from 2005 through 2008 in Cuba. (scielosp.org)
  • METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. (scielosp.org)
  • The present invention relates to the use of alpha (2) macroglobulin complexes isolated from the serum of a mammal. (patents.com)
  • The invention also relates to methods for making such complexes and compositions comprising alpha (2) macroglobulin complexes, isolated from the serum of a mammal, wherein such compositions are used in methods for the treatment and prevention of cancer and infectious disease. (patents.com)
  • A patient infected with HTLV can be diagnosed when antibodies against HTLV-1 are detected in the serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • single-stranded
  • The HTLV-1 genome is diploid, composed of two copies of a single-stranded RNA virus whose genome is copied into a double-stranded DNA form that integrates into the host cell genome, at which point the virus is referred to as a provirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Africans don't have the folate gene loss but they have blood differences in HLA antigens and Sickle Cell, the iron overload can also cause inflammation and retroviral expression. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Cloning of the Complete Gene for Carcinoembryonic Antigen: Analysis of Its Promotor Indicates a Region Conveying Cell Type-Specific Expression," Molecular and Cellular Biology 10(6): 2738-2748, 1990. (patentgenius.com)
  • The gag gene provides the basic physical infrastructure of the virus, and pol provides the basic mechanism by which retroviruses reproduce, while the others help HIV to enter the host cell and enhance its reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • As an aside, we declare pregnant mothers to be "HIV positive" as pregnancy causes the presence of retroviruses in the course of normal biological activity, and those harmless endogenous retroviruses react with what's generally called an "HIV" test. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Certain basic nutrients - Selenium, Folate, B12, B6, Choline are the most important - counteract hypomethylation of the cells and thereby calm the production of human endogenous retroviruses. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • The figure also divides the retroviruses into exogenous and endogenous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retroviruses can can exist as two different forms: endogenous which consist of normal genetic components and exogenous which are horizontally transferred genetic components that are usually infectious agents that cause disease i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • and a human T- lymphotropic virus test (ABBOTT PRISM HTLV-I/HTLV-II). (webwire.com)
  • 163246: Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus 1, 2 (HTLV-1. (labcorp.com)
  • Type 1 HTLV is irregularly distributed throughout the world, as opposed to type 2 virus, which is a new world virus, more common among Americans in North, Central, and South America. (labcorp.com)
  • Banda NK, Bernier J, Kurahara DK, Kurrie R, Haigwood N, Sekaly R-P, Finkel TH (1992) Cross-linking CD4 by human immunodeficiency virus gp120 primes T cells for activation-induced apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • Bozzette SA, McCutchan JA, Spector SA, Wright B, Richman DD (1993) A cross-sectional comparison of persons with syncytium- and non-syncytium-inducing human immunodeficiency virus. (springer.com)
  • Chirmule N, Kalyanaraman VS, Oyaizu N, Slade HB, Pahwa S (1990) Inhibition of functional properties of tetanus antigen-specific T-cell clones by envelope glycoprotein gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus. (springer.com)
  • This problem led to development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), with elevated sensitivity and specificity due to their ability to distinguish each virus' specific reactivity by using synthetic antigens that mimic specific immunodominant epitopes of the most immunogenic and persistent proteins. (scielosp.org)
  • HTLV-infected cells express specific virus structural and virus-induced cellular proteins. (cdc.gov)
  • Second, why do some HTLV-1-infected people develop consequent diseases such as ATL or HAM/TSP, whereas the majority remains asymptomatic carriers of the virus? (hindawi.com)
  • In 1982, Gallo received the prestigious Lasker Award: "For his pioneering studies that led to the discovery of the first human RNA tumor virus [the old name for retroviruses] and its association with certain leukemias and lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings have been significant in studying and understanding different characteristics of HIV and Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fisher showed in 1985 that molecular clones of HIV, contained within approximately 18kb of contiguous proviral DNA, were biologically active and generated cytopathic virus when introduced into primary human T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This term originated from studies of acutely transforming retroviruses in the 1950-60s, often called oncornaviruses to denote their RNA virus origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • HTLV induces the massive proliferation of one or several clones and their cancerization, whereas the other virus, the HIV virus tends to eradicate these cells without apparent discrimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the oncogenic properties of the virus were discovered early, a search for evidence of pathogenicity in humans started soon after discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, four types of HTLVs (human T-lymphotropic virus 1 [HTLV-I], human T-lymphotropic virus 2 [HTLV-II], HTLV-III, and HTLV-IV) and four types of STLVs (STLV-I, STLV-II, STLV-III, and STLV-V) have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus closely related to HTLV-I, also discovered by Robert Gallo and colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The family of Human T-lymphotropic virus (Figure 2) can be further categorized into four sub types. (wikipedia.org)
  • HTLV-III is similar to STLV-III (Simian T-lymphotropic virus 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in humans, SIV infections in their natural African simian non-human hosts appear in many cases to be non-pathogenic due to evolutionary adaptation of the hosts to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further studies indicated that HIV-2 is derived from the SIVsmm strain found in sooty mangabeys, whereas HIV-1, the predominant virus found in humans, is derived from SIV strains infecting chimpanzees (SIVcpz). (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Iron overload causes more serious infections than any 'retrovirus' due to feeding any opportunistic infections because all pathogens , bacteria like Tuberculosis , fungi and parasites like malaria love iron. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Infections with retroviruses other than HTLV have been associated with a variety of neoplastic diseases in animals including chickens, cats, cattle and gibbons. (cdc.gov)
  • adult
  • Editorial Note: HTLV agents are retroviruses that have recently been associated with certain types of adult T-cell lymphoreticular neoplasms of man (6). (cdc.gov)
  • Virology
  • Gallo is the director and co-founder of the Institute of Human Virology (IHV) at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland, established in 1996 in a partnership including the State of Maryland and the City of Baltimore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa
  • In African populations and in Blacks living outside of Africa such as in Brazil and in the United States, the frequency falls to less than 2% for the TT variant. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • However, HIV-2, initially restricted to West Africa, has spread to all continents. (scielosp.org)
  • Otherwise, these two pathological descriptions are present in both Africa and the Caribbean (see. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only human genotype that does not have a simian relative is A. It is thought that genotypes B, D, E, F and G originated in Africa from closely related STLV about 30,000 years ago, while the Asian genotype C is thought to have originated independently in Indonesia from the simians present there. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most likely route of transmission of HIV-1 to humans involves contact with the blood of chimps that are often hunted for bushmeat in Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • clones
  • sub.2 -microglobulin cDNA clones: A screening procedure for cDNA clones corresponding to rare mRNAs," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • Two methods, protoplast fusion and electroporation, proved successful and allowed Fisher to test whether molecular clones isolated from HIV-infected cultures could generate infectious retrovirus upon transfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • exogenous
  • Whilst at the NIH, Fisher developed approaches that allowed the successful introduction of exogenous DNA onto human blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • Each donated unit of blood must be tested for infectious diseases including hepatitis, HIV and other retroviruses. (webwire.com)
  • HTLV agents are the only presently known retroviruses associated with human diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • 2. AID leads to the appearance of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and certain other 'indicator' diseases which constitute the clinical syndrome, S. (duesberg.com)
  • Structural
  • HIV has several major genes coding for structural proteins that are found in all retroviruses as well as several nonstructural ("accessory") genes unique to HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISA
  • Duplicate sera reactive by ELISA were confirmed by HIV-2 Western blot, results interpreted according to WHO criteria. (scielosp.org)
  • 1984
  • Fisher was educated at the University of Birmingham where she was awarded a PhD in 1984 for research into antigens expressed during myelopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmission
  • Simian HTLV-1 genotypes are interspersed in between the human genotypes indicating frequent animal-human and human-animal transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission of HTLV-I is believed to occur by sexual contact, from mother to child via breastfeeding, and through exposure to contaminated blood, either through blood transfusion or sharing of contaminated needles. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Fisher moved from the US to the UK in 1987 to study human T cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Pathology findings, both in monkeys and in rare human casualties, led to the conclusion that the disorder was caused by inflammation of the brain and the spinal cord, particularly the afferent nerve roots, perhaps with neuroimmune etiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sporadic
  • Sporadic cases have also been described in nonendemic areas such as the United States and Europe, mainly in immigrants from an HTLV-1 endemic area. (hindawi.com)
  • There are two types: sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), which is more common, and hereditary inclusion body myopathy (hIBM). (wikipedia.org)
  • In sporadic inclusion body myositis [MY-oh-sigh-tis], two processes, one autoimmune and the other degenerative, appear to occur in the muscle cells in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • The invention further relates to a vaccine that comprises an immunostimulatory oligonucleotide and an antigen, and comprises a pharmaceutically. (google.fr)
  • Susceptibility
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate immunological features of the association between HTLV-1/Mtb in order to better understand the events leading to higher susceptibility to TB observed in HTLV-1 infected subjects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • similar
  • HIV-2 was more similar to the then-known SIV strains than to HIV-1, suggesting for the first time the simian origin of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • and activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and other antigen presenting cells to express costimulatory molecules and secrete cytokines, especially the Th1-like cytokines that are important in promoting the development of Th1-like T cell responses. (google.fr)
  • I. Preparation of antihuman chorionic gonadotropin-carboxypeptidase G.sub.2 and cytotoxicity of the conjugate against JAR choriocarcinoma cells invitro," British Journal of Cancer 53: 377-384, 1986. (patentgenius.com)
  • Hormonal Regulation of Chimeric Genes Containing the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Promoter Regulatory Region in Hepatoma Cells Infected by Murine Retroviruses," Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33): 17798-17808, 1988. (patentgenius.com)
  • The inflammation aspect is characterized by the cloning of T cells that appear to be driven by specific antigens to invade muscle fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of IL-2 allowed T cells, previously thought to be dead end cells, to be grown significantly in culture for the first time, opening research into many aspects of T cell immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, researchers discovered the presence of BLV positive cells in the human breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)