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  • viral
  • Bergeron L, Sodroski J (1992) Dissociation of unintegrated viral DNA accumulation from single-cell lysis induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (springer.com)
  • HTLV-1 has been associated with acute T-cell leukemia and a related, but clearly different, viral agent, HTLV-2, with 'hairy-cell' T-cell leukemia. (cdc.gov)
  • Her first applications and inventions in the field of immunological applications of Synthetic peptide were antibody screening immunoassays employing highly optimized synthetic viral peptide antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989, a curious phenomenon was described: HIV-specific T-cell responses to the viral envelope and core proteins could be detected in antibody-positive and antigen-negative sexual partners of known HIV-positive men . (lww.com)
  • In 2004 A. Voevodin moved to Canada where, together with Prof. Preston Marx of Tulane University, New Orleans, USA, he wrote "Simian Virology", an encyclopedia of monkey and ape viruses and non-human primate models of human viral diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery was important s it established that products of the viral genome itself, rather than a cofactor or contaminant, were capable of killing human T cells and were therefore potentially capable of mediating the immunosuppressive effect of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once integrated, HTLV-1 continues to exist only as a provirus which can spread from cell to cell through a viral synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each virion comprises a viral envelope and associated matrix enclosing a capsid, which itself encloses two copies of the single-stranded RNA genome and several enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 is composed of two copies of noncovalently linked, unspliced, positive-sense single-stranded RNA enclosed by a conical capsid composed of the viral protein p24, typical of lentiviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progress in testing methodology has enabled detection of viral genetic material, antigens, and the virus itself in bodily fluids and cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1960s HIV-2, a viral variant found in West Africa, is thought to have transferred to people from sooty mangabey monkeys in Guinea-Bissau. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactivity
  • METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. (scielosp.org)
  • The two HIV-2-positive samples showed well defined reactivity to gp160, p53, p55 and p34 of HIV-1. (scielosp.org)
  • This problem led to development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), with elevated sensitivity and specificity due to their ability to distinguish each virus' specific reactivity by using synthetic antigens that mimic specific immunodominant epitopes of the most immunogenic and persistent proteins. (scielosp.org)
  • The major immune reactivity appears to be directed against p41, the presumed envelope antigen of the virus. (sciencemag.org)
  • Serum
  • OBJECTIVE Investigate the contribution of HIV-2 antibodies to negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results in serum samples from 2005 through 2008 in Cuba. (scielosp.org)
  • The present invention relates to the use of alpha (2) macroglobulin complexes isolated from the serum of a mammal. (patents.com)
  • The invention also relates to methods for making such complexes and compositions comprising alpha (2) macroglobulin complexes, isolated from the serum of a mammal, wherein such compositions are used in methods for the treatment and prevention of cancer and infectious disease. (patents.com)
  • A patient infected with HTLV can be diagnosed when antibodies against HTLV-1 are detected in the serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. (scielosp.org)
  • Infections HIV-2 and HIV-1 cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (scielosp.org)
  • HTLV has been isolated from peripheral blood T-lymphocytes from several patients with AIDS (1, 2), and a retrovirus, related to but clearly distinct from HTLV, has been isolated from cells from a lymph node of a patient with lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS) (3), a syndrome that may precede AIDS itself. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, antibodies to antigens expressed on the cell surface of HTLV-infected lymphocytes have been detected by an indirect immunofluorescent technique in sera from 19 (25%) of 75 AIDS patients (5), including patients with Kaposi's sarcoma alone (10/34), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia alone (7/30), or patients with both diseases (2/11). (cdc.gov)
  • Clinically, however, the diseases previously associated with HTLV in endemic areas do not resemble AIDS. (cdc.gov)
  • While the above serologic findings associate AIDS with antibody to HTLV-specific cell surface-associated antigens, such antibodies were identified in only about one quarter of the AIDS patients tested. (cdc.gov)
  • Viruses of a third subgroup of human T-lymphotropic retroviruses, collectively designated HTLV-III, have been isolated from cultured cells of 48 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (sciencemag.org)
  • simplified Chinese: 王长怡), is an immunologist and astute organic chemist, best known for establishing a new platform in vaccines technology that employs designer peptide as key ingredients to be formulated into vaccines for the prevention and treatment of AIDS, HIV, Alzheimer disease, allergy and other emerging infectious diseases in both humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two Chinese haemophiliacs treated with locally produced factor Ⅷ was sero-negative.The first AIDS patient from abroad died in Beijing in 1985 was also sero-positive.In conclusion ,the data indicated that the Chinese haemophilics were exposed to LAV/HTLV-Ⅲ via imported factor Ⅷ from USA. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Working there he published a number of papers in research journals, most notably on the identification of the Middle Eastern lineage of human retrovirus HTLV-1, genetic resistance to HIV/AIDS and interspecies transmission of retroviruses in non-human primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is best known for his role in the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the infectious agent responsible for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and in the development of the HIV blood test, and he has been a major contributor to subsequent HIV research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1986, he was awarded the Lasker, "For determining that the retrovirus now known as HIV-1 is the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • A French team at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, France, led by Luc Montagnier, had published a paper in Science in 1983, describing a retrovirus they called LAV (lymphadenopathy associated virus), isolated from a patient at risk for AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because foreign virus antigens are expressed in these tumors, persons who are immunosuppressed such as AIDS or transplant patients are at higher risk for these types of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of the virus itself occurred two years following the report of the first major cases of AIDS-associated illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the virus infects an Asian or Indian rhesus macaque, these non-African simian primates will also develop simian AIDS (SAIDS), as they, like humans (despite being an African-origin simian primate species), have not had a prolonged history with the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • study of SIVcpz in wild living chimpanzees suggests that infected chimpanzees experience an AIDS-like illness similar to HIV-1 infected humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simian (monkey-hosted) immunodeficiency viruses are a species of retrovirus in the Primate group of genus Lentivirus along with the human viruses HIV-1 and HIV-2 that cause AIDS, and a few other viruses that infect other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of SIV was made shortly after HIV-1 had been isolated as the cause of AIDS and led to the discovery of HIV-2 strains in West Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there are 33.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.7 million new HIV infections per year and 2 million annual deaths due to AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV is an acronym for human immunodeficiency virus, which is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • The case was published in two medical journals at the time, and Hennigar has been quoted in numerous publications saying that he believes Ardouin probably had AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Each donated unit of blood must be tested for infectious diseases including hepatitis, HIV and other retroviruses. (webwire.com)
  • HTLV agents are the only presently known retroviruses associated with human diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Abnormalities of IL-15 expression have been described in patients with select lymphoid malignancies and autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as in diseases associated with human T cell lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I) ( 3 , 8 , 11 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our efforts to inhibit the actions of IL-15 for the therapy of autoimmune diseases and HTLV-I-associated disorders have focused on the Mikβ1 monoclonal antibody that interacts with the IL-2/IL-15Rβ (CD122) receptor subunit ( 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • These techniques have application in the identification of a wide variety of infectious diseases like HIV, Hepatitis B, Herpes type 2, feline immunodeficiency disease. (mybiosource.com)
  • virus
  • The ABBOTT PRISM HIV O Plus test (Human Immunodeficiency Virus Types 1 and 2 (E. coli, B. megaterium, Recombinant) Antigen and Synthetic Peptide) can be used by laboratory professionals to screen individual donations of blood for antibodies to HIV-1 (anti-HIV-1) Groups M and O and /or antibodies to HIV-2 (anti-HIV-2). (webwire.com)
  • Type 1 HTLV is irregularly distributed throughout the world, as opposed to type 2 virus, which is a new world virus, more common among Americans in North, Central, and South America. (labcorp.com)
  • Banda NK, Bernier J, Kurahara DK, Kurrie R, Haigwood N, Sekaly R-P, Finkel TH (1992) Cross-linking CD4 by human immunodeficiency virus gp120 primes T cells for activation-induced apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • Bozzette SA, McCutchan JA, Spector SA, Wright B, Richman DD (1993) A cross-sectional comparison of persons with syncytium- and non-syncytium-inducing human immunodeficiency virus. (springer.com)
  • Chirmule N, Kalyanaraman VS, Oyaizu N, Slade HB, Pahwa S (1990) Inhibition of functional properties of tetanus antigen-specific T-cell clones by envelope glycoprotein gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus. (springer.com)
  • HTLV infects and immortalizes* T-helper lymphocytes, and the virus can be isolated from infected patients by co-cultivation of their lymphocytes with uninfected human T-lymphocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • HTLV-infected cells express specific virus structural and virus-induced cellular proteins. (cdc.gov)
  • Retrovir is the brand name for zidovudine [formerly called azidothymidine (AZT)], a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue active against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (sidasante.com)
  • Intragenic cis-acting art gene-responsive sequences of the human immunodeficiency virus," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • Her other inventions in this area include synthetic peptide-based blood screening diagnostics for HTLV I/II, HCV Hepatitis C virus, which has CE certification and has been sold in the global market through Organon Teknika /Biomerieux since 1991, and the SARS Coronavirus, as well as diagnostic tests for the differentiation of infected vs. vaccinated animals for Foot and mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1982, Gallo received the prestigious Lasker Award: "For his pioneering studies that led to the discovery of the first human RNA tumor virus [the old name for retroviruses] and its association with certain leukemias and lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fisher showed in 1985 that molecular clones of HIV, contained within approximately 18kb of contiguous proviral DNA, were biologically active and generated cytopathic virus when introduced into primary human T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This term originated from studies of acutely transforming retroviruses in the 1950-60s, often called oncornaviruses to denote their RNA virus origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vast majority of human and animal viruses do not cause cancer, probably because of longstanding co-evolution between the virus and its host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the host restriction for human viruses makes it unethical to experimentally transmit a suspected cancer virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two mechanisms differ in their biology and epidemiology: direct tumor viruses must have at least one virus copy in every tumor cell expressing at least one protein or RNA that is causing the cell to become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the oncogenic properties of the virus were discovered early, a search for evidence of pathogenicity in humans started soon after discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gag gene provides the basic physical infrastructure of the virus, and pol provides the basic mechanism by which retroviruses reproduce, while the others help HIV to enter the host cell and enhance its reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus strains from two of these primate species, SIVsmm in sooty mangabeys and SIVcpz in chimpanzees, are believed to have crossed the species barrier into humans, resulting in HIV-2 and HIV-1 respectively, the two human immunodeficiency viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in humans, SIV infections in their natural African simian non-human hosts appear in many cases to be non-pathogenic due to evolutionary adaptation of the hosts to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • While human immunodeficiency virus has a limited number of subtypes, SIV is now known to infect a few dozen species of non-human primates, and distinct strains are often associated with each species, or with a set of closely related species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further studies indicated that HIV-2 is derived from the SIVsmm strain found in sooty mangabeys, whereas HIV-1, the predominant virus found in humans, is derived from SIV strains infecting chimpanzees (SIVcpz). (wikipedia.org)
  • Visna virus (also known as visna-maedi virus, maedi-visna virus and ovine lentivirus) from the genus Lentivirus and subfamily Orthoretrovirinae, is a "prototype" retrovirus that causes encephalitis and chronic pneumonitis in sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • MV virus can infect sheep of any age but clinical symptoms rarely occur in sheep less than two years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1900s Researchers estimate that some time in the early 1900s a form of simian immunodeficiency virus, SIV, was transmitted to humans in central Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are tropic for CD4 lymphocytes and can be transmitted by sexual contact, IV drug use, blood products, transplacentally, and through breast milk. (labcorp.com)
  • Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. (labcorp.com)
  • Callahan KM, Rowell JF, Soloski MJ, Machamer CE, Siliciano RF (1993) HIV-1 envelope protein is expressed on the surface of infected cells before its processing and presentation to class II- restricted T lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • In the above studies, the reported low frequency of detecting HTLV sequences may reflect depletion of infected T-helper lymphocytes, since patients initially positive for such sequences have had negative tests several months later (4). (cdc.gov)
  • Peptide
  • The peptide compositions comprise peptides having amino acid sequences corresponding to transmembrane and external segments of the envelope protein of HTLV-I/HTLV-II and mixtures thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The peptide compositions are highly immunoreactive with antibodies to HTLV in sera. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The detection method includes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), and other forms of immunoassay procedures such as enzyme immuno blotting assay on nitrocellulose paper and an agglutination assay using the peptide composition as the antigen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • First was the development of a synthetic peptide based HIV 1 test and later an HIV 1,2 diagnostic test for blood screening, which received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approvals in 1989 and 1996, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partnering with distributor, Organon Teknika/Biomerieux, UBI's peptide antigen based HCV blood screening test was a success in Europe in early 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Retroviruses are ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses containing the enzyme, reverse transcriptase, which allows production of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) copy of their RNA genome. (cdc.gov)
  • these represented small portions of two of the six genes of the complete HIV genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • Editorial Note: HTLV agents are retroviruses that have recently been associated with certain types of adult T-cell lymphoreticular neoplasms of man (6). (cdc.gov)
  • immunological
  • IL-15 and its private receptor subunit, IL-15Rα, are components of an immunological synapse that develops between antigen-presenting cells and effector NK and CD8 T cells ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • subgroup
  • The subgroup HTLV-II also induces T-cell proliferation in vitro, but its role in disease is unclear. (sciencemag.org)
  • Two subtypes are found in Japan: a transcontinental subgroup and a Japanese subgroup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virology
  • Gallo is the director and co-founder of the Institute of Human Virology (IHV) at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland, established in 1996 in a partnership including the State of Maryland and the City of Baltimore. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990
  • In 1990, the US Food and Drug Administration certified the first assay for HIV-2 diagnosis and in 1991, the first combined HIV-1/2 system, enabling simultaneous antibody screening for both retroviruses. (scielosp.org)
  • Cloning of the Complete Gene for Carcinoembryonic Antigen: Analysis of Its Promotor Indicates a Region Conveying Cell Type-Specific Expression," Molecular and Cellular Biology 10(6): 2738-2748, 1990. (patentgenius.com)
  • She established the first human thymus organ cultures in 1990, based on studies pioneered by Owen and Jenkinson in the mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Zidovudine is an inhibitor of the in vitro replication of some retroviruses including HIV. (sidasante.com)
  • The relationship between in vitro susceptibility of HIV to zidovudine and the inhibition of HIV replication in humans or clinical response to therapy has not been established. (sidasante.com)
  • This refinement allowed cell-fate to be mapped in vitro and provided a system in which potential factors that shape the human T cell repertoire could be experimentally tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • However, high structural homology between HIV-1 and HIV-2 genomic products, mainly in gag and pol gene derived proteins, causes serological cross reactions in diagnostic systems for both viruses, preventing definitive results. (scielosp.org)
  • His research focused on the oncogenic viruses, mostly of non-human primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The taxonomic relationship between RNA retroviruses and other RNA viruses and DNA viruses has not been specified. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988
  • Hormonal Regulation of Chimeric Genes Containing the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Promoter Regulatory Region in Hepatoma Cells Infected by Murine Retroviruses," Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33): 17798-17808, 1988. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1984
  • Fisher was educated at the University of Birmingham where she was awarded a PhD in 1984 for research into antigens expressed during myelopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural
  • HIV has several major genes coding for structural proteins that are found in all retroviruses as well as several nonstructural ("accessory") genes unique to HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmission
  • Simian HTLV-1 genotypes are interspersed in between the human genotypes indicating frequent animal-human and human-animal transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission of HTLV-I is believed to occur by sexual contact, from mother to child via breastfeeding, and through exposure to contaminated blood, either through blood transfusion or sharing of contaminated needles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most likely route of transmission of HIV-1 to humans involves contact with the blood of chimps that are often hunted for bushmeat in Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • Biopsy specimens were obtained from abnormal and normal skin samples of seropositive individuals in an attempt to detect HTLV-1 in tissue samples by a polymerase chain reaction. (ajtmh.org)
  • Reverse transcriptase is actually a combination of two enzymes: a polymerase that assembles the new DNA copy and an RNase that degrades the source RNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Africa
  • However, HIV-2, initially restricted to West Africa, has spread to all continents. (scielosp.org)
  • The only human genotype that does not have a simian relative is A. It is thought that genotypes B, D, E, F and G originated in Africa from closely related STLV about 30,000 years ago, while the Asian genotype C is thought to have originated independently in Indonesia from the simians present there. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • In sporadic inclusion body myositis [MY-oh-sigh-tis], two processes, one autoimmune and the other degenerative, appear to occur in the muscle cells in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • clones
  • sub.2 -microglobulin cDNA clones: A screening procedure for cDNA clones corresponding to rare mRNAs," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • Two methods, protoplast fusion and electroporation, proved successful and allowed Fisher to test whether molecular clones isolated from HIV-infected cultures could generate infectious retrovirus upon transfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • citation needed] Fisher moved from the US to the UK in 1987 to study human T cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Pathology findings, both in monkeys and in rare human casualties, led to the conclusion that the disorder was caused by inflammation of the brain and the spinal cord, particularly the afferent nerve roots, perhaps with neuroimmune etiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • IL-15 inhibits the self-tolerance mediated by IL-2-induced activation-induced cell death ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • IL-15 receptor and IL-15α form stable complexes on the cell surfaces of activated antigen-presenting cells. (pnas.org)
  • Upon cell-cell interaction these complexes on activated monocytes and dendritic cells present IL-15 in trans to resting NK and CD8 + T cells that express only IL-2/IL-15Rβ and the common γ-chain but not IL-15Rα ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The discovery of IL-2 allowed T cells, previously thought to be dead end cells, to be grown significantly in culture for the first time, opening research into many aspects of T cell immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of the glycans are therefore stalled as immature 'high-mannose' glycans not normally present on secreted or cell surface human glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • NOG-hIL-4-Tg, a new humanized mouse model for producing tumor antigen-specific IgG antibody by peptide vaccination. (taconic.com)
  • First was the development of a synthetic peptide based HIV 1 test and later an HIV 1,2 diagnostic test for blood screening, which received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approvals in 1989 and 1996, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her other inventions in this area include synthetic peptide-based blood screening diagnostics for HTLV I/II, HCV Hepatitis C virus, which has CE certification and has been sold in the global market through Organon Teknika /Biomerieux since 1991, and the SARS Coronavirus, as well as diagnostic tests for the differentiation of infected vs. vaccinated animals for Foot and mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partnering with distributor, Organon Teknika/Biomerieux, UBI's peptide antigen based HCV blood screening test was a success in Europe in early 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Autologous reconstitution of human cancer and immune system in vivo. (taconic.com)
  • During this period, many features are suggestive of an intensive immune response: (a) the outbreak of the disease, 2 to 4 weeks after the contamination by an influenza-like syndrome with fever, sore throat, macular rash, arthralgies and lymphadenopathy occuring simultaneously with the seroconversion and lasting a few weeks. (google.com)
  • chimpanzees
  • Further studies indicated that HIV-2 is derived from the SIVsmm strain found in sooty mangabeys, whereas HIV-1, the predominant virus found in humans, is derived from SIV strains infecting chimpanzees (SIVcpz). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, this region is presumably where the virus was first transmitted from chimpanzees to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • genotype
  • i ) adaptations that benefit pathogen fitness in one host MHC genotype must be costly to pathogen fitness when infecting hosts carrying an unfamiliar MHC genotype (i.e., antagonistic pleiotropy), and ( ii ) these patterns of adaptation must produce correlated patterns of virulence (i.e., disease severity). (pnas.org)
  • The only human genotype that does not have a simian relative is A. It is thought that genotypes B, D, E, F and G originated in Africa from closely related STLV about 30,000 years ago, while the Asian genotype C is thought to have originated independently in Indonesia from the simians present there. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Cloning of the Complete Gene for Carcinoembryonic Antigen: Analysis of Its Promotor Indicates a Region Conveying Cell Type-Specific Expression," Molecular and Cellular Biology 10(6): 2738-2748, 1990. (patentgenius.com)
  • To use an extreme example, over 2,300 alleles have been identified for the human HLA-B gene ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The gag gene provides the basic physical infrastructure of the virus, and pol provides the basic mechanism by which retroviruses reproduce, while the others help HIV to enter the host cell and enhance its reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • 10. The expression cassette of claim 9, wherein the HIV Env polypeptide and the HIV protein are from two different HIV subtypes. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Purification and Propeties of a Second Antiviral Protein from Phytolacca americana which inactivates Eukaryotic Ribosomes," Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 200(2): 418-425, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • susceptibility
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate immunological features of the association between HTLV-1/Mtb in order to better understand the events leading to higher susceptibility to TB observed in HTLV-1 infected subjects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As MHC allelic diversity increases over time in a population, so too does the chance that some of these alleles will confer susceptibility to autoimmune disease ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Reverse
  • Reverse transcriptase is actually a combination of two enzymes: a polymerase that assembles the new DNA copy and an RNase that degrades the source RNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Studies
  • She established the first human thymus organ cultures in 1990, based on studies pioneered by Owen and Jenkinson in the mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few studies have proposed MHC class II, CD4 and CXCR4 proteins as possible receptors however, none of these proteins have been established as the main receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some molecular dating studies suggest that HIV-1 group M had its most recent common ancestor (MRCA) (that is, started to spread in the human population) in the early 20th century, probably between 1915 and 1941. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1978
  • The name was changed in 1978 to IL-2 (interleukin-2) by the Interlaken cytokine nomenclature committee. (wikipedia.org)
  • West Africa
  • HIV-2 is less transmittable and is largely confined to West Africa, along with its closest relative, a virus of the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys atys), an Old World monkey inhabiting southern Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and western Ivory Coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • The majority of HIV researchers agree that HIV evolved at some point from the closely related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and that SIV or HIV (post mutation) was transferred from non-human primates to humans in the recent past (as a type of zoonosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Hormonal Regulation of Chimeric Genes Containing the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Promoter Regulatory Region in Hepatoma Cells Infected by Murine Retroviruses," Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33): 17798-17808, 1988. (patentgenius.com)
  • We will then focus on the genes and proteins encoded by HERV-K(HML-2) as well as inactivation of these proviruses by postinsertional mutations and their inhibition by antiretroviral factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • HIV has several major genes coding for structural proteins that are found in all retroviruses as well as several nonstructural ("accessory") genes unique to HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • A novel xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease model for investigating the pathological role of human CD4+ or CD8+ T cells using immunodeficient NOG mice. (taconic.com)
  • proteins
  • HIV-1 has two important regulatory elements: Tat and Rev and few important accessory proteins such as Nef, Vpr, Vif and Vpu which are not essential for replication in certain tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission
  • Simian HTLV-1 genotypes are interspersed in between the human genotypes indicating frequent animal-human and human-animal transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission of HTLV-I is believed to occur by sexual contact, from mother to child via breastfeeding, and through exposure to contaminated blood, either through blood transfusion or sharing of contaminated needles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most likely route of transmission of HIV-1 to humans involves contact with the blood of chimps that are often hunted for bushmeat in Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gallo
  • Gallo is the director and co-founder of the Institute of Human Virology (IHV) at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland, established in 1996 in a partnership including the State of Maryland and the City of Baltimore. (wikipedia.org)
  • After listening to a talk by biologist David Baltimore and further stimulation from his virologist colleague, Robert Ting, concerning the work of the late Howard Temin, Gallo became interested in the study of retroviruses, and made their study the primary activity of his lab. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • It is theorized SIV may have previously crossed the species barrier into human hosts multiple times throughout history, but it was not until recently, after the advent of modern transportation and global commuterism, that it finally took hold, spreading beyond localized decimations of a few individuals or single small tribal populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • I. Preparation of antihuman chorionic gonadotropin-carboxypeptidase G.sub.2 and cytotoxicity of the conjugate against JAR choriocarcinoma cells invitro," British Journal of Cancer 53: 377-384, 1986. (patentgenius.com)
  • Like HIV, HTLV-1 predominately infects CD4+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, researchers discovered the presence of BLV positive cells in the human breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In sporadic inclusion body myositis [MY-oh-sigh-tis], two processes, one autoimmune and the other degenerative, appear to occur in the muscle cells in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inflammation aspect is characterized by the cloning of T cells that appear to be driven by specific antigens to invade muscle fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of IL-2 allowed T cells, previously thought to be dead end cells, to be grown significantly in culture for the first time, opening research into many aspects of T cell immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • MR is involved in recognizing the surface of pathogens and is involved in phago- and endocytosis and mediating antigen processing and presentation in a variety of cells including monocyte/macrophages and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc
  • sub.2 -microglobulin cDNA clones: A screening procedure for cDNA clones corresponding to rare mRNAs," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • chronic
  • Several descriptions of illness resembling those of chronic fatigue syndrome have been reported for at least two hundred years. (wikipedia.org)
  • This disease corresponds to two clinical entities caused by the same Maedi is a form that results in a chronic progressive pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • HIV-2 was more similar to the then-known SIV strains than to HIV-1, suggesting for the first time the simian origin of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colds
  • For example, adenoviruses do not cause cancer in humans but are instead responsible for colds, conjunctivitis and other acute illnesses. (wikipedia.org)