• outbreak
  • Because large quantities of monoclonal antibodies can be made relatively quickly, after more testing, these influenza-specific monoclonal antibodies potentially could be used in combination with antiviral drugs to prevent or treat the flu during an influenza outbreak or pandemic. (webwire.com)
  • This is an elegant research finding that holds considerable promise for further development into a medical tool to treat and prevent seasonal as well as pandemic influenza, notes NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. In the event of an influenza pandemic, human monoclonal antibodies could be an important adjunct to antiviral drugs to contain the outbreak until a vaccine becomes available. (webwire.com)
  • The research team that worked on this report also believed that it was "derived from several viruses circulating in swine," and that the initial transmission to humans occurred several months before recognition of the outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fears of a similar pandemic have health officials concerned the death toll could be much higher in a modern outbreak, which researchers say is very likely if the current deadly bird flu morphs into a strain that can be transmitted by humans. (nbcnews.com)
  • Although at least 67 human deaths have been reported in the current outbreak, most of these people were in direct contact with infected birds - either during defeathering, slaughtering, or eating uncooked birds. (nbcnews.com)
  • On September 29, 2005, David Nabarro, the newly appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, warned the world that an outbreak of avian influenza could kill anywhere between 5 million and 150 million people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until the 2013 outbreak in China, no human infections with H7N9 viruses have ever been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • The February 6, 2004 edition of Science magazine reported that two research teams, one led by Sir John Skehel, director of the National Institute for Medical Research in London, another by Professor Ian Wilson of The Scripps Research Institute in San Diego, had managed to synthesize the hemagglutinin protein responsible for the flu outbreak of 1918. (wikipedia.org)
  • The category 2 Asian flu pandemic outbreak of influenza A virus originated in China in early 1956, and lasted until 1958. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outbreak in Hong Kong, where density is about 500 people per acre, reached maximum intensity in two weeks, lasting six months in total from July to December 1968, however worldwide deaths from this virus peaked much later, in December 1968 and January 1969. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers concluded the swine H2N3 virus represents a threat to humans with the potential for causing a larger outbreak in a non-immune or partially immune population. (wikipedia.org)
  • poultry
  • H7N9 virus was recently detected in a wild sparrow in Shanghai, China, and passerine birds, such as finches, which share space and resources with wild migratory birds, poultry, and humans, can be productively infected with the virus. (cdc.gov)
  • It is therefore conceivable that passerine birds may serve as vectors for dissemination of H7N9 virus to domestic poultry. (cdc.gov)
  • Nevertheless, H7N9 virus persists in poultry, and human infections surged in the late 2013, demonstrating that this virus is an ongoing public health threat ( 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Guo Fusheng, technical adviser in animal health for the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), said the country is facing an increased risk of the virus, in both poultry and people, according to a China Daily story today. (umn.edu)
  • With the arrival of autumn and winter, the country is facing an escalating risk of bird flu outbreaks among poultry as well as that of humans getting infected," he warned. (umn.edu)
  • In the absence of direct poultry contact by the patient, the possible route of transmission and infection, often influenced by receptor-binding properties of the virus, requires special attention. (blogspot.com)
  • On episode #336 of the science show This Week in Virology , the TWiVsters explore mutations in the interferon pathway associated with severe influenza in a child, outbreaks of avian influenza in North American poultry farms, Ebolavirus infection of the eye weeks after recovery, and Ebolavirus stability on surfaces and in fluids. (virology.ws)
  • The crucial role of H9N2 viruses due to the wide host range, adaptation to both poultry and mammals and extensive gene reassortment. (wikipedia.org)
  • A risk factor for contracting the virus is handling of infected poultry, but transmission of the virus from infected birds to humans has been characterized as inefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known that influenza tends to strike during the winter months, and the second wave, which began in October, was fanned by a surge in poultry production timed for Chinese New Year feasts that began at the end of January. (wikipedia.org)
  • H7N9 virus does not kill poultry, which makes surveillance much more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, other hosts appear capable of similar coinfection (e.g., many poultry species), and direct transmission of avian viruses to humans is possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 9 January 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China reported to WHO 106 cases of H7N9 which occurred from late November through late December, including 35 deaths, 2 potential cases of human-to-human transmission, and 80 of these 106 persons stating that they have visited live poultry markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1959 and 1995, there were 15 recorded occasions of the emergence of HPAI viruses in poultry, but losses were minimal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1990s, the world's poultry population grew 76% in developing countries and 23% in developed countries, contributing to the increased prevalence of avian influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The Neisseria species mentioned variate their pili (protein polymers made up of subunits called pilin which play a critical role in bacterial adhesion, they are antigens which stimulate a vigorous host immune response) and the Streptococci variate their M-protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experts have identified key events (creating new clades, infecting new species, spreading to new areas) marking the progression of an avian flu virus towards becoming pandemic, and many of those key events have occurred more rapidly than expected. (wikipedia.org)
  • It could occur with primate viruses and may be a factor for the appearance of new viruses in the human species such as HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • These structures form a family of structured RNAs shared between influenza A and influenza B The 3' splice site structures in influenza A segment 7 show host-species specific trends in structural stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • This general trend in stability: avian, swine, human, roughly follows the temperatures at which the influenza virus reproduces within each host species. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Key to their research, Dr. Marasco and his colleagues discovered and described the atomic structure of an obscure but genetically stable region of the influenza virus to which their monoclonal antibodies bind. (webwire.com)
  • Encouraged by these findings, they collaborated with Ruben O. Donis, Ph.D., of the CDC Influenza Division, and found that three of these monoclonal antibodies had broader neutralization capabilities when tested in cell cultures and in mice against representative strains of other known influenza A viruses. (webwire.com)
  • One of the most remarkable findings of our work is that we identified a highly conserved region in the neck of the influenza hemagglutinin protein to which humans rarely make antibodies, says Dr. Marasco. (webwire.com)
  • We believe this is because the head of the hemagglutinin protein acts as a decoy by constantly undergoing mutation and thereby attracting the immune system to produce antibodies against it rather than against the pocket in the neck of the protein. (webwire.com)
  • Antibodies raised by M2e-tGCN4 immunization specifically bound to the surface of influenza-infected cells and to an M2-expressing cell line. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, fusion of an oligomerization domain to the extracellular part of a transmembrane protein allows it to mimic the natural quaternary structure and can promote the induction of oligomer-specific antibodies. (jove.com)
  • Since hemagglutinin is the major surface protein of the influenza A virus and is essential to the entry process, it is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an organism is exposed to a particular antigen (i.e. a protein on the surface of a bacterium) an immune response is stimulated and antibodies are generated to target that specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significantly, mouse antibodies were 10 times less potent against the mutants than against the pre-mutated viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Over the years, influenza A viruses have been one of the most important models for studying how the immune system responds to viral infections. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 450 infections in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Fever was the only sign or symptom that independently predicted influenza infection in children who had respiratory infections, according to a matched case-control study. (umn.edu)
  • In February 2013, human infections with a novel H7N9 AIV were first reported in China and caused a widespread public health concern. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sequences of DNA in the human genome that originated from ancient viral infections have some surprising effects on our bodies and are even essential for a healthy pregnancy, according to an article in the February issue of Microbiology Today. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Recent human infections with avian influenza virus revealed that H9N2 is the gene donor for H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that are infecting humans too. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood plasma levels of Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Interleukin 8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and Interferon-gamma were significantly increased in swine H2N3 compared to human H2N2 infected animals supporting the previously published notion of increased IL-6 levels being a potential marker for severe influenza infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • The World health organization (WHO) coordinates influenza surveillance programs and twice a year, reference strains included in vaccines of the North and South hemispheres are sent to manufacturers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This renewed interest could lead to new discoveries of immune system response to viruses that could lead to better drugs and vaccines, the researchers write in a review article that appears in the May issue of Nature Immunology. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Until recently, many immunologists were relatively uninterested in studying influenza immunity because there were already effective vaccines," said Peter Doherty, Ph.D., member of the St. Jude Department of Immunology and co-recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize for Medicine. (bio-medicine.org)
  • At least 12 companies and 17 governments are developing prepandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus (SIV) control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • chickens
  • We demonstrate that interspecies transmission of H7N9 virus occurs readily between society finches and bobwhite quail but only sporadically between finches and chickens. (cdc.gov)
  • Humans have avian-type receptors at very low densities and chickens have human-type receptors at very low densities. (wikipedia.org)
  • lethal
  • Immunized mice were protected fully against a potentially lethal influenza A virus challenge. (jove.com)
  • Travel between countries has become vastly more frequent and quicker, which would hasten the spread of a highly contagious and lethal virus. (nbcnews.com)
  • scenarios of lethal viruses escaping from the laboratory and killing millions proliferated (see examples here and here ). (virology.ws)
  • 1997
  • In February 1997, Johan Hultin recovered samples of the 1918 influenza from the frozen corpse of a Native Alaskan woman buried for nearly eight decades in permafrost near Brevig Mission, Alaska. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Adaptation, in the H2 hemagglutinin derived from an avian virus, includes the ability to bind to the mammalian receptor, a significant prerequisite for infection of mammals, in particular humans, which poses a big concern for public health. (wikipedia.org)
  • surveillance
  • Meanwhile, surveillance has uncovered low-pathogenic H5N2 avian flu on a farm near Hsinchu City, Taiwan, according to a report filed today with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). (umn.edu)
  • The global HPAI situation significantly improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. (wikipedia.org)
  • reassortant
  • According to research published by the US National Institutes of Health, the triple reassortant H2N3 virus isolated from diseased pigs in the United States in 2006 is pathogenic for certain mammals without prior adaptation and transmits among swine and ferrets. (wikipedia.org)
  • threat
  • Further study of this virus and the immune response to it will no doubt help us prepare for this latest threat. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In response to the threat of a possible pandemic flu, the United States has published a "National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza" that outlines a three-pillar approach to preventing a major disaster. (nbcnews.com)
  • pigs
  • On June 23, 2009, The New York Times reported that U.S. federal agriculture officials, "contrary to the popular assumption that the new swine flu pandemic arose on factory farms in Mexico," now believe that it "most likely emerged from pigs in Asia, but then traveled to North America in a human. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • These proteins have a molecular weight between 10,000 and 60,000, are heat stable and proteolysis resistant. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To better understand the molecular characteristics of these two isolated H7N1 viruses, we sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed their entire genomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Transporter Classification Database (or TCDB) is an International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB)-approved classification system for membrane transport proteins, including ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Obayashi et al , 2008 ), this interaction depends on a short N‐terminal fragment of one protein, which raises the possibility that a suitable small molecule may be able to disrupt the interaction in vivo and significantly restrict viral replication. (embopress.org)
  • genome
  • Viruses for a healthy pregnancy ( Sequences of DNA in the human genome. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Sequences of DNA in the human genome that originated from ancient vira. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The virus inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of the host cell, resulting in an irreversible, stable and sometimes lifelong infection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Now, human ERVs (HERVs) make up around 8% of our genome, say Dr David Griffiths from the Moredun Research Institute and Ccile Voisset from the Facult de Mdecine et des Sciences de la Sant in France. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These changes were introduced into the genome of the 1918-like avian influenza virus. (virology.ws)
  • Once this has happened, the contents of the virus, including its RNA genome, are free to pour out into the cell's cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on the human genome is generating new knowledge that is changing public health programs and policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral drugs
  • The investigators caution, however, that "the optimal use of influenza-specific antiviral drugs in children may require virologic confirmation. (umn.edu)
  • amino acid changes
  • Complicating matters - viruses generally develop multiple amino acid changes - and their combined effects on the virulence, transmission, antiviral resistance, ` fitness' , and host range of the virus are far from fully understood. (blogspot.com)