• outbreak
  • Because large quantities of monoclonal antibodies can be made relatively quickly, after more testing, these influenza-specific monoclonal antibodies potentially could be used in combination with antiviral drugs to prevent or treat the flu during an influenza outbreak or pandemic. (webwire.com)
  • This is an elegant research finding that holds considerable promise for further development into a medical tool to treat and prevent seasonal as well as pandemic influenza, notes NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. In the event of an influenza pandemic, human monoclonal antibodies could be an important adjunct to antiviral drugs to contain the outbreak until a vaccine becomes available. (webwire.com)
  • The research team that worked on this report also believed that it was "derived from several viruses circulating in swine," and that the initial transmission to humans occurred several months before recognition of the outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fears of a similar pandemic have health officials concerned the death toll could be much higher in a modern outbreak, which researchers say is very likely if the current deadly bird flu morphs into a strain that can be transmitted by humans. (nbcnews.com)
  • Although at least 67 human deaths have been reported in the current outbreak, most of these people were in direct contact with infected birds - either during defeathering, slaughtering, or eating uncooked birds. (nbcnews.com)
  • In 2003, 30 million birds were culled in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany after an H7N7 subtype influenza outbreak. (frontiersin.org)
  • Occasionally, viruses are transmitted from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry, and this may cause an outbreak or give rise to human influenza pandemics. (wikipedia.org)
  • On September 29, 2005, David Nabarro, the newly appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, warned the world that an outbreak of avian influenza could kill anywhere between 5 million and 150 million people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until the 2013 outbreak in China, no human infections with H7N9 viruses have ever been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • The February 6, 2004 edition of Science magazine reported that two research teams, one led by Sir John Skehel, director of the National Institute for Medical Research in London, another by Professor Ian Wilson of The Scripps Research Institute in San Diego, had managed to synthesize the hemagglutinin protein responsible for the flu outbreak of 1918. (wikipedia.org)
  • The category 2 Asian flu pandemic outbreak of influenza A virus originated in China in early 1956, and lasted until 1958. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outbreak in Hong Kong, where density is about 500 people per acre, reached maximum intensity in two weeks, lasting six months in total from July to December 1968, however worldwide deaths from this virus peaked much later, in December 1968 and January 1969. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers concluded the swine H2N3 virus represents a threat to humans with the potential for causing a larger outbreak in a non-immune or partially immune population. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe influenza
  • Blood plasma levels of Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Interleukin 8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and Interferon-gamma were significantly increased in swine H2N3 compared to human H2N2 infected animals supporting the previously published notion of increased IL-6 levels being a potential marker for severe influenza infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hong Kong
  • Over the years the H9N2 influenza strain caused illness in several children aged nine months to 5 years in Hong Kong with the latest occurring in December 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Eurasian avian lineage involved three distinct lineages, including A/chicken/Beijing/1/94-like (BJ/94-like), A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97-like (G1-like), and A/duck/Hong Kong/Y439/97 (Y439-like). (wikipedia.org)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - Influenza A(H9N2) infections in Hong Kong published April 8, 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • People's Daily Online - Hong Kong reports human case of H9N2 published March 20, 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three strains of Hong Kong influenza virus isolated from humans were compared with a strain isolated from a calf for their ability to cause disease in calves. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • These laboratory strains could be passed between mammals more easily than wild strains of the virus. (scientificamerican.com)
  • According to research published by the US National Institutes of Health, the triple reassortant H2N3 virus isolated from diseased pigs in the United States in 2006 is pathogenic for certain mammals without prior adaptation and transmits among swine and ferrets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptation, in the H2 hemagglutinin derived from an avian virus, includes the ability to bind to the mammalian receptor, a significant prerequisite for infection of mammals, in particular humans, which poses a big concern for public health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pigs have often been seen as "mixing vessels", which help to change and evolve strains of disease that are then passed on to other mammals, such as humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • The World health organization (WHO) coordinates influenza surveillance programs and twice a year, reference strains included in vaccines of the North and South hemispheres are sent to manufacturers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This renewed interest could lead to new discoveries of immune system response to viruses that could lead to better drugs and vaccines, the researchers write in a review article that appears in the May issue of Nature Immunology. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Until recently, many immunologists were relatively uninterested in studying influenza immunity because there were already effective vaccines," said Peter Doherty, Ph.D., member of the St. Jude Department of Immunology and co-recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize for Medicine. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Antigenic drift refers to the continuous changes in the virus that make it slightly different than previous versions, requiring the yearly production of new vaccines. (nbcnews.com)
  • Changes in influenza viruses require regular reformulation of strain-specific influenza vaccines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Yearly development of influenza vaccines that are antigenically matched to circulating strains pose extraordinary challenges. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At least 12 companies and 17 governments are developing prepandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus (SIV) control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Viruses for a healthy pregnancy ( Sequences of DNA in the human genome. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Sequences of DNA in the human genome that originated from ancient vira. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The virus inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of the host cell, resulting in an irreversible, stable and sometimes lifelong infection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Now, human ERVs (HERVs) make up around 8% of our genome, say Dr David Griffiths from the Moredun Research Institute and Ccile Voisset from the Facult de Mdecine et des Sciences de la Sant in France. (bio-medicine.org)
  • For a retrovirus to become part of the host genome it is usually inactivated by mutation or silencing so it does not express any proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These changes were introduced into the genome of the 1918-like avian influenza virus. (virology.ws)
  • HA is a protein that mediates binding of the virion to target cells and entry of the viral genome into the target cell, while NA is involved in the release of progeny virions from infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once this has happened, the contents of the virus, including its RNA genome, are free to pour out into the cell's cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on the human genome is generating new knowledge that is changing public health programs and policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • threat
  • Further study of this virus and the immune response to it will no doubt help us prepare for this latest threat. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In response to the threat of a possible pandemic flu, the United States has published a "National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza" that outlines a three-pillar approach to preventing a major disaster. (nbcnews.com)
  • bind
  • Key to their research, Dr. Marasco and his colleagues discovered and described the atomic structure of an obscure but genetically stable region of the influenza virus to which their monoclonal antibodies bind. (webwire.com)
  • While there are some alpha 2,3 cells deep in the lungs of humans, for an influenza to be successful in a human host, most researchers believe it needs to a able to bind to the a 2,6 receptor cell. (blogspot.com)
  • Swine influenza viruses have the ability to bind both types of sialic acid receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Encouraged by these findings, they collaborated with Ruben O. Donis, Ph.D., of the CDC Influenza Division, and found that three of these monoclonal antibodies had broader neutralization capabilities when tested in cell cultures and in mice against representative strains of other known influenza A viruses. (webwire.com)
  • Antibodies raised by M2e-tGCN4 immunization specifically bound to the surface of influenza-infected cells and to an M2-expressing cell line. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, fusion of an oligomerization domain to the extracellular part of a transmembrane protein allows it to mimic the natural quaternary structure and can promote the induction of oligomer-specific antibodies. (jove.com)
  • Since hemagglutinin is the major surface protein of the influenza A virus and is essential to the entry process, it is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an organism is exposed to a particular antigen (i.e. a protein on the surface of a bacterium) an immune response is stimulated and antibodies are generated to target that specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to most antibodies generated by exposure to influenza, which can only neutralize a few strains from within a single virus subtype, CR6261 neutralizes numerous strains from multiple subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • surveillance
  • Vaccination is the cornerstone of influenza prevention, and constant surveillance is necessary as a result of changes in the virus driven by antigenic drift. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The team concluded that "despite widespread influenza surveillance in humans, the lack of systematic swine surveillance allowed for the undetected persistence and evolution of this potentially pandemic strain for many years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our findings support the continuous evolution of avian H9N2 viruses towards human as host and are in favor of effective surveillance and better characterization studies to address the issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The global HPAI situation significantly improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. (wikipedia.org)