• benzene
  • Because of health concerns regarding benzene (which is recognised today as a carcinogen), benzene is no longer used as a solvent commercially. (wikipedia.org)
  • Landfill operations began in 1945, and continued until September 1972, when large amounts of toluene, benzene, chloroform, dichloroethylene, and methylene chloride were found, all of which have are a hazard to human health causing cancer and organ failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, benzene can also come from human creations such as gasoline, diesel exhaust, and more commonly, cigarette smoke. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • If cytotoxicity occurs but no urinary solids are detected, urinary concentrations of the chemical and its metabolites are evaluated, and compared to in vitro cytotoxicity against rodent and human immortalized urothelial cell lines. (rsc.org)
  • bladder
  • Screening for carcinogens in general, and for the urinary bladder specifically, traditionally involves a two-year bioassay in rodents, the results of which often do not have direct relevance to humans with respect to mode of action (MOA) and/or dose response. (rsc.org)
  • If these are negative, the agent is not a urinary bladder carcinogen. (rsc.org)
  • This parasite lives in the liver of humans, and is found mainly in the common bile duct and gall bladder, feeding on bile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also supporting this mechanism are observations of o-toluidine-induced DNA damage (strand breaks) in cultured human bladder cells and bladder cells from rats and mice exposed in vivo to o-toluidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • This is particularly notable with radioactive heavy metals such as radium, which imitates calcium to the point of being incorporated into human bone, although similar health implications are found in lead or mercury poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most of these chemicals did not pose any major hazards to the environment, many pose large threats to the health and safety of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • Snails of the species Bithynia are the first intermediate hosts, fish belonging to the family Cyprinidae are the second intermediate host, while the definitive hosts are humans and other mammals such as dogs, cats, rats, and pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although
  • Although carcinogen induced chromosome abnormalities may represent a step in the process of neoplastic development, additional genetic and/or epigenetic changes, are required for indefinite growth and the expression of malignancy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • evidence
  • ISBN missing] Evidence suggesting that this pathway is relevant to humans comes from numerous studies that detected o-toluidine hemoglobin adducts in humans (following both occupational and non-occupational exposures), consistent with observations in experimental animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Support for this mechanism comes from studies of oxidative DNA damage induced by o-toluidine metabolites in cultured human cells (HL-60), calf thymus DNA, and DNA fragments from key genes thought to be involved in carcinogenesis (the c-Ha-ras oncogene and the p53 tumor-suppressor gene). (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • It is the most prevalent human trematode in Asia, and is still transmitted in Korea, China, Vietnam and also Russia, with 200 million people at constant risk. (wikipedia.org)