• lung
  • However, compared with CA-challenged wild-type mice, challenged CCR6-deficient mice had reduced airway resistance, fewer eosinophils around the airway, lower levels of interleukin 5 in the lung, and reduced serum levels of immunoglobulin E. Together, these data demonstrate that MIP-3α and CCR6 function in allergic pulmonary responses and suggest that these molecules might represent novel therapeutic targets for treatment of asthma. (rupress.org)
  • Asthma is a chronic disease of the lung, characterized clinically by a reversible obstruction in airflow resulting from edema, mucus production, and hyperresponsiveness of the bronchi. (rupress.org)
  • The use of a model that mimics the condition of lung diseases in humans is critical for studying the pathophysiology and/or etiology of a particular disease and for developing therapeutic intervention. (jove.com)
  • This method involves a skin incision, caudal insertion of a cannula into and along the tracheal lumen, and injection of a stem cell vehicle mixture into airways of the lung. (jove.com)
  • Due to the elastic nature of the tissue that supports the small airways airway resistance changes with lung volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not practically possible to measure airway resistance at a set absolute lung volume, therefore specific airway resistance attempts to correct for differences in lung volume at which different measurements of airway resistance were made. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly to specific airway resistance, specific airway conductance attempts to correct for differences in lung volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue resistance and the contractile state of lung parenchyma. (wikipedia.org)
  • A link between what we now know as the sympathetic system and the lung was shown in 1887 when Grossman showed that stimulation of cardiac accelerator nerves reversed muscarine-induced airway constriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory disease characterized by airway obstruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although COPD shares similar characteristics with all other obstructive lung diseases, such as the signs of coughing and wheezing, they are distinct conditions in terms of disease onset, frequency of symptoms and reversibility of airway obstruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Asthma is an obstructive lung disease where the bronchial tubes (airways) are extra sensitive (hyperresponsive). (wikipedia.org)
  • Spirometry, a measurement of lung function, can provide an assessment of the severity, reversibility, and variability of airflow limitation, and help confirm the diagnosis of asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the type and amount of irritant gas inhaled, victims can experience symptoms ranging from minor respiratory discomfort to acute airway and lung injury and even death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe exposure may result in changes in upper and lower airways resulting in an acute lung injury, which may not be present until several hours after exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • PEEP = Positive End Expiratory Pressure: C d y n = V T P I P − P E E P {\displaystyle C_{dyn}={\frac {V_{T}}{PIP-PEEP}}} Alterations in airway resistance, lung compliance and chest wall compliance influence Cdyn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compliance decreases in the following cases: Supine position Laparoscopic surgical interventions Severe restrictive pathologies Chronic restrictive pathologies Hydrothorax Pneumothorax High standing of a diaphragm Acute asthma attacks [Increased compliance also occurs, for an unclear reason] Lung compliance at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Compliance Nikischin W, Gerhardt T, Everett R, Bancalari E (1998). (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Glucocorticoids are common medications used to manage inflammatory diseases, and one of the primary tissues that glucocorticoids target in the treatment of asthma is the airway smooth muscle. (ashg.org)
  • SAN DIEGO, June 18 /PRNewswire/ -- NexBio, Inc. announced today the publication of a "Major Article" in the Journal of Infectious Diseases of a preclinical study showing that treatment with DAS181 (Fludase®) inhibits infection with multiple human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) strains. (drugs.com)
  • In addition, NexBio has recently presented data from three independent studies in animal models of asthma, done with academic collaborators, demonstrating DAS181's potential benefit for airway diseases. (drugs.com)
  • DAS181 is currently being studied for influenza in a human phase II clinical trial funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID, part of the National Institutes of Health, NIH) and monitored by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board. (drugs.com)
  • As shown above airway resistance is markedly affected by changes in the diameter of the airways, therefore diseases affecting the respiratory tract can increase airway resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gut microbiota have been studied in relation to allergic airway disease, obesity, gastrointestinal diseases and diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original formulation of the hygiene hypothesis dates from 1989 when David Strachan proposed that lower incidence of infection in early childhood could be an explanation for the rapid 20th century rise in allergic diseases such as asthma and hay fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now also recognised that the "reduced microbial exposure" concept applies to a much broader range of chronic inflammatory diseases than asthma and hay fever, which includes diseases such as type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis, and also some types of depression and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • airflow
  • There are several important determinants of airway resistance including: The diameter of the airways Whether airflow is laminar or turbulent In fluid dynamics, the Hagen-Poiseuille equation is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in a fluid flowing through a long cylindrical pipe. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally characterized by inflamed and easily collapsible airways, obstruction to airflow, problems exhaling and frequent medical clinic visits and hospitalizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this maneuver, airflow is transiently (~0.5 sec) discontinued, which eliminates the effects of airway resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • upper
  • The first procedure treats the airways of the right lower lobe, the second treats the airways of the left lower lobe and the third and final procedure treats the airways in both upper lobes. (jove.com)
  • In cases of upper airway obstruction the development of turbulent flow is a very important mechanism of increased airway resistance, this can be treated by administering Heliox which is much less dense than air and consequently more conductive to laminar flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • L. monocytogenes are facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause food borne infections in humans. (jove.com)
  • In fact, the severity of asthma can be determined by the elevated titres to C. pneumoniae, but not to other potential pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, adenovirus, influenza A and B or parainfluenza virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • lungs
  • Airway resistance can also vary between inspiration and expiration, for example, in emphysema there is destruction of the elastic tissue of the lungs which help hold the small airways open, therefore during expiration, particularly forced expiration, these airways may collapse causing increased airway resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The breathing of all vertebrates with lungs consists of repetitive cycles of inhalation and exhalation through a highly branched system of tubes or airways which lead from the nose to the alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point the lungs contain the functional residual capacity of air, which, in the adult human, has a volume of about 2.5-3.0 liters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an adult human there is always still at least one liter of residual air left in the lungs after maximum exhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The airways and lungs receive continuous first-pass exposure to non-toxic and irritant or toxic gases via inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injury to the lungs and airways is not only due to deposition of fine particulate soot but also due to the gaseous components of smoke, which include phosgene, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Asthma is a disease that affects all ages, races and ethnic groups. (jove.com)
  • Very little is known about the gastrointestinal phase of listeriosis due to the lack of a small animal model that closely mimics human disease. (jove.com)
  • Asthma is a chronic, episodic disease of the airways that is best viewed as a syndrome. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • Several government agencies have been charged with surveillance for asthma, including the NHLBI's National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP), the Department of Health and Human Services (Healthy People 2010), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • 1 - 3 For many years, asthma was considered a single disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For example, up to 40% of patients with severe allergic asthma do not gain adequate disease control despite the addition of omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds IgE. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Concurrent with the ongoing search for stem cells applicable for human treatment, precise delivery and homing (to the site of disease) must be reassured for successful therapy. (jove.com)
  • Perinatal shifting of microbiota through low dose antibiotics can have long-lasting effects on future susceptibility to allergic airway disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • corticosteroid
  • Previously conducted GWAS of two glucocorticoid- and HASM-related phenotypes, inhaled corticosteroid resistance and bronchodilator response, were used to screen differentially expressed genes. (ashg.org)
  • poorly controlled asthma
  • In a Phase II study performed in 219 adults with poorly controlled asthma despite inhaled corticosteroids (MILLY trial), lebrikizumab produced an improvement in prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 5.5% compared with placebo at 12 weeks, but had no effects on other efficacy end points. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nocturnal Asthma - is a characteristic problem in poorly controlled asthma and is reported by more than two thirds of sub-optimally treated patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • located on human chromosome
  • 1992) demonstrated that genes for 12-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase are located on human chromosome 17, whereas the most unrelated lipoxygenase (5-lipoxygenase) was mapped to chromosome 10. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PTGDR2 gene is located on human chromosome 11 at position q12.2 (i.e. 11q12.2). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • However, there is currently no in vitro assay to measure the impact of such blockade on cytokine secretion in cells from human samples. (jove.com)
  • sympathetic nervou
  • The ANS has two main branches: the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the human body for action in times of danger and stress, and the parasympathetic nervous system, which regulates the resting state of the body. (jove.com)
  • obesity
  • Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for asthma in children. (jove.com)
  • However, in the Netherlands, the obesity prevalence is rising while the asthma prevalence in children is stabilising. (jove.com)
  • microbes
  • He argues that the vital microbial exposures are not colds, influenza, measles and other common childhood infections which have evolved relatively recently over the last 10,000 years, but rather the microbes already present during mammalian and human evolution, that could persist in small hunter gatherer groups as microbiota, tolerated latent infections or carrier states. (wikipedia.org)
  • This hypothesis argues that the vital exposures are not common childhood and other recently evolved infections, which are no older than 10,000 years, but rather microbes already present in hunter-gatherer times when the human immune system was evolving. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalence
  • 6 In association with rising prevalence, patient encounters-via outpatient visits, emergency department use, and hospitalizations for asthma-also increased during this period. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • enzymes
  • Human ALOX15 was initially named arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase or 15-lipoxygenase but subsequent studies uncovered a second human enzyme with 15-lipoxygenase activity as well as various non-human mammalian Alox15 enzymes that are closely related to and therefore orthologs of human ALOX15. (wikipedia.org)
  • asthmatics
  • Exercise-Induced Asthma - is common in asthmatics, especially after participation in outdoor activities in cold weather. (wikipedia.org)
  • mimics
  • To study the molecular events that regulate human T lymphocyte migration, we have utilized an in vitro system to analyze cell migration on a two-dimensional substrate that mimics the environment that a T lymphocyte encounters during recruitment from the vasculature. (jove.com)
  • Here, we present an in vitro method based on the use of human basophils derived from drug-hypersensitive patients that mimics the allergic effector reaction in vivo . (jove.com)
  • rhinovirus
  • The rhinovirus (from the Greek ῥίς rhis "nose", gen ῥινός rhinos "of the nose", and the Latin vīrus) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2009, the ICTV voted and ratified a proposal to add a third species, Human rhinovirus C to the genus Enterovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008.084V.A.HRV-C-Sp 2008.084V To create a new species named Human rhinovirus C in the genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viral respiratory infections are mostly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV). (wikipedia.org)
  • smooth muscle
  • Transcriptome Profiling of Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells Stimulated with Dexamethasone Identifies CRISPLD2 as a Regulator of Steroid and Immune Response. (ashg.org)
  • Bronchial thermoplasty is a non-drug procedure for severe persistent asthma that delivers thermal energy to the airway wall in a precisely controlled manner to reduce excessive airway smooth muscle. (jove.com)
  • cells
  • Furthermore, IL-13 can induce immunoglobulin E (IgE) secretion from activated human B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DP2 was found to stimulate the directed movement or chemotaxis of human T-helper type 2 cells (see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model for helper T cells) by binding to a receptor initially termed GPR44 and thereafter CRTH2 (for Chemoattractant Receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-Helper type 2 cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been researched extensively for its capabilities as an alternative antibiotic as it is harmless to human body cells while being cytotoxic to bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Two large Phase III randomized controlled trials in patients with uncontrolled asthma are underway to establish the safety and efficacy of lebrikizumab when administered over a 52-week period. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 4 - 6 Even with the introduction of new biological agents, there are still a large number of patients whose asthma remains uncontrolled. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fiberoptic intubation in pediatric patients is often required especially in difficult airways of syndromic patients i.e. (jove.com)
  • consequently
  • Consequently, human ALOX15 is now referred to as arachidonate-15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LOX-1, 15-LO-1, human 12/15-lipoxygenase, leukocyte-type arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, or arachidonate omega-6 lipoxygenase. (wikipedia.org)