• diseases
  • SAN DIEGO, June 18 /PRNewswire/ -- NexBio, Inc. announced today the publication of a "Major Article" in the Journal of Infectious Diseases of a preclinical study showing that treatment with DAS181 (Fludase®) inhibits infection with multiple human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) strains. (drugs.com)
  • In addition, NexBio has recently presented data from three independent studies in animal models of asthma, done with academic collaborators, demonstrating DAS181's potential benefit for airway diseases. (drugs.com)
  • DAS181 is currently being studied for influenza in a human phase II clinical trial funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID, part of the National Institutes of Health, NIH) and monitored by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board. (drugs.com)
  • As shown above airway resistance is markedly affected by changes in the diameter of the airways, therefore diseases affecting the respiratory tract can increase airway resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gut microbiota have been studied in relation to allergic airway disease, obesity, gastrointestinal diseases and diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original formulation of the hygiene hypothesis dates from 1989 when David Strachan proposed that lower incidence of infection in early childhood could be an explanation for the rapid 20th century rise in allergic diseases such as asthma and hay fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now also recognised that the "reduced microbial exposure" concept applies to a much broader range of chronic inflammatory diseases than asthma and hay fever, which includes diseases such as type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis, and also some types of depression and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • lungs
  • Airway resistance can also vary between inspiration and expiration, for example, in emphysema there is destruction of the elastic tissue of the lungs which help hold the small airways open, therefore during expiration, particularly forced expiration, these airways may collapse causing increased airway resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The breathing of all vertebrates with lungs consists of repetitive cycles of inhalation and exhalation through a highly branched system of tubes or airways which lead from the nose to the alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point the lungs contain the functional residual capacity of air, which, in the adult human, has a volume of about 2.5-3.0 liters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an adult human there is always still at least one liter of residual air left in the lungs after maximum exhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The airways and lungs receive continuous first-pass exposure to non-toxic and irritant or toxic gases via inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injury to the lungs and airways is not only due to deposition of fine particulate soot but also due to the gaseous components of smoke, which include phosgene, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Like the intestine, the airway is also covered with a mucosal surface that contacts inhaled allergens, suggesting that MIP-3α and CCR6 might also participate in the mucosal immune response to inhaled antigens. (rupress.org)
  • Hypothiocyanite is formed by peroxidase catalysis of hydrogen peroxide and thiocyanate: H2O2 + SCN− → OSCN− + H2O Hypothiocyanite occurs naturally in the antimicrobial immune system of the human respiratory tract in a redox reaction catalyzed by the enzyme lactoperoxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • He proposes that humans have become so dependent on these "old friends" that their immune systems neither develop properly nor function properly without them. (wikipedia.org)
  • This hypothesis argues that the vital exposures are not common childhood and other recently evolved infections, which are no older than 10,000 years, but rather microbes already present in hunter-gatherer times when the human immune system was evolving. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • IL-13 induces a class of protein-degrading enzymes, known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in the airways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exercise induces progressive airway dilation in normal subjects that correlates with work load and is not prevented by beta blockade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterogeneity
  • It is now becoming apparent that there is wide heterogeneity in the asthma phenotype, which may well explain the differential responses to established therapies such as inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta 2 agonists (LABA). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Time course and heterogeneity of contractile responses in cultured human airway smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • located on human chromosome
  • 1992) demonstrated that genes for 12-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase are located on human chromosome 17, whereas the most unrelated lipoxygenase (5-lipoxygenase) was mapped to chromosome 10. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PTGDR2 gene is located on human chromosome 11 at position q12.2 (i.e. 11q12.2). (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Asthma is a chronic, episodic disease of the airways that is best viewed as a syndrome. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • Several government agencies have been charged with surveillance for asthma, including the NHLBI's National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP), the Department of Health and Human Services (Healthy People 2010), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • Asthma is a disease that affects all ages, races and ethnic groups. (jove.com)
  • Very little is known about the gastrointestinal phase of listeriosis due to the lack of a small animal model that closely mimics human disease. (jove.com)
  • 1 - 3 For many years, asthma was considered a single disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For example, up to 40% of patients with severe allergic asthma do not gain adequate disease control despite the addition of omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds IgE. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Concurrent with the ongoing search for stem cells applicable for human treatment, precise delivery and homing (to the site of disease) must be reassured for successful therapy. (jove.com)
  • O'Byrne, along with fellow researchers at the Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health and other Clinical Investigator Collaborative sites, continues to work closely with clinicians and patients in order to uncover the best treatments, medications and procedures which will improve the quality of life for those diagnosed with respiratory illnesses such as asthma, allergies and pulmonary disease. (science20.com)
  • This external manifestation of the use of the accessory muscles of inhalation is sometimes referred to as clavicular breathing, seen especially during asthma attacks and in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Perinatal shifting of microbiota through low dose antibiotics can have long-lasting effects on future susceptibility to allergic airway disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a human pathogen that causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia, a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia related to cold agglutinin disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Further, since the source for the EpiAirway is normal human tracheo-bronchial cells rather than an immortalized line, each is an excellent representation of actual human upper respiratory tract tissue, both in structure and in function 4 . (jove.com)
  • severity of asthma
  • In fact, the severity of asthma can be determined by the elevated titres to C. pneumoniae, but not to other potential pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, adenovirus, influenza A and B or parainfluenza virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A peak flow meter can record variations in the severity of asthma over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitro
  • In the paper entitled "A Recombinant Sialidase Fusion Protein Effectively Inhibits Human Parainfluenza Viral Infection In Vitro and In Vivo" studies were conducted using DAS181 with HPIV1, HPIV2 and HPIV3 strains, both in cell-based systems and in cotton rats. (drugs.com)
  • To study the molecular events that regulate human T lymphocyte migration, we have utilized an in vitro system to analyze cell migration on a two-dimensional substrate that mimics the environment that a T lymphocyte encounters during recruitment from the vasculature. (jove.com)
  • However, there is currently no in vitro assay to measure the impact of such blockade on cytokine secretion in cells from human samples. (jove.com)
  • Here, we present an in vitro method based on the use of human basophils derived from drug-hypersensitive patients that mimics the allergic effector reaction in vivo . (jove.com)
  • obstruction
  • In cases of upper airway obstruction the development of turbulent flow is a very important mechanism of increased airway resistance, this can be treated by administering Heliox which is much less dense than air and consequently more conductive to laminar flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asthma being a reversible obstruction of airways is often considered separately, but many COPD patients also have some degree of reversibility in their airways. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • After sensitization, mice are challenged by intranasal delivery of FITC labeled ovalbumin, which allows for specific labeling of airway DCs which uptake ovalbumin. (jove.com)
  • pathogen
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and one of the most common causes of bacteremia in humans. (jove.com)
  • sympathetic nervou
  • The ANS has two main branches: the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the human body for action in times of danger and stress, and the parasympathetic nervous system, which regulates the resting state of the body. (jove.com)
  • obesity
  • Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for asthma in children. (jove.com)
  • However, in the Netherlands, the obesity prevalence is rising while the asthma prevalence in children is stabilising. (jove.com)
  • microbes
  • He argues that the vital microbial exposures are not colds, influenza, measles and other common childhood infections which have evolved relatively recently over the last 10,000 years, but rather the microbes already present during mammalian and human evolution, that could persist in small hunter gatherer groups as microbiota, tolerated latent infections or carrier states. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • Bronchial thermoplasty is a non-drug procedure for severe persistent asthma that delivers thermal energy to the airway wall in a precisely controlled manner to reduce excessive airway smooth muscle. (jove.com)
  • Bronchial thermoplasty is expected to complement asthma maintenance medications by providing long-lasting asthma control and improving asthma-related quality of life of patients with severe asthma. (jove.com)
  • There is a need for improved therapies for severe asthma. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While we studied patients with allergic asthma, this research opens the door for the development of new treatments not only for this population, but for those diagnosed with severe asthma as well. (science20.com)
  • While antibodies are typically reserved for severe asthma, this research can lead to antibody treatment for those who have mild allergic asthma. (science20.com)
  • Furthermore, children who experience severe viral respiratory infections early in life have a high possibility of having asthma later in their childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalence
  • 6 In association with rising prevalence, patient encounters-via outpatient visits, emergency department use, and hospitalizations for asthma-also increased during this period. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • enzymes
  • Human ALOX15 was initially named arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase or 15-lipoxygenase but subsequent studies uncovered a second human enzyme with 15-lipoxygenase activity as well as various non-human mammalian Alox15 enzymes that are closely related to and therefore orthologs of human ALOX15. (wikipedia.org)
  • asthmatics
  • Exercise-Induced Asthma - is common in asthmatics, especially after participation in outdoor activities in cold weather. (wikipedia.org)
  • poorly
  • In a Phase II study performed in 219 adults with poorly controlled asthma despite inhaled corticosteroids (MILLY trial), lebrikizumab produced an improvement in prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 5.5% compared with placebo at 12 weeks, but had no effects on other efficacy end points. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nocturnal Asthma - is a characteristic problem in poorly controlled asthma and is reported by more than two thirds of sub-optimally treated patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • T helper-2 (Th-2) cells in asthma pathogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To study the mechanisms by which these organisms survive on and inside respiratory tissues, a model in which successful long-term co-culture of bacteria and human cells can be performed is required. (jove.com)
  • This approach improves upon existing methods in that many current protocols use submerged monolayer or Transwell cultures of human cells, which are not capable of supporting bacterial infections over extended periods 3 . (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, IL-13 can induce immunoglobulin E (IgE) secretion from activated human B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DP2 was found to stimulate the directed movement or chemotaxis of human T-helper type 2 cells (see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model for helper T cells) by binding to a receptor initially termed GPR44 and thereafter CRTH2 (for Chemoattractant Receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-Helper type 2 cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been researched extensively for its capabilities as an alternative antibiotic as it is harmless to human body cells while being cytotoxic to bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • rhinovirus
  • The rhinovirus (from the Greek ῥίς rhis "nose", gen ῥινός rhinos "of the nose", and the Latin vīrus) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2009, the ICTV voted and ratified a proposal to add a third species, Human rhinovirus C to the genus Enterovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008.084V.A.HRV-C-Sp 2008.084V To create a new species named Human rhinovirus C in the genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viral respiratory infections are mostly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • This review of asthma for the practicing clinician summarizes these developments, including an update on the definition of asthma, its epidemiology, natural history, cause, and pathogenesis. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • This article reviews the potential role of IL-13 in the pathogenesis of asthma, the efficacy and safety of lebrikizumab in humans, and progress in patient selection for lebrikizumab therapy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • patients
  • To this extent, there has been much emphasis on early diagnosis and longitudinal care of patients with asthma, along with ensuring adherence to recommended therapies. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • Two large Phase III randomized controlled trials in patients with uncontrolled asthma are underway to establish the safety and efficacy of lebrikizumab when administered over a 52-week period. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 4 - 6 Even with the introduction of new biological agents, there are still a large number of patients whose asthma remains uncontrolled. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fiberoptic intubation in pediatric patients is often required especially in difficult airways of syndromic patients i.e. (jove.com)
  • proteins
  • There are currently around 160 recognized types of human rhinoviruses that differ according to their surface proteins (serotypes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The association of C. pneumoniae and asthma begins with C. pneumoniae producing 60-kDa heat shock proteins that provide a prolonged antigenic stimulation. (wikipedia.org)