• intracytoplasmic sperm inj
  • Called intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI (pronounced ick-see), it now constitutes 68 percent of all assisted reproductive cycles done worldwide, according to ASRM. (asbmb.org)
  • ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) has previously been used to assist reproduction in globozoospermic patients, however it has not been particularly effective in all patients, due to low fertilisation rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection made conception a possibility for patients with a variety of male infertility conditions, including globozoospermia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Sperm Cells. (gettyimages.com.au)
  • It has been shown that the production of endogenous sperm reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in causing cells to undergo a massive acrosome reaction (AR). (mdpi.com)
  • Sperm cells were incubated in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of Asta or diamide (Diam) and analyzed for their ROS production, Tyr-phosphorylation (Tyr-P) pattern and percentages of ARC and non-viable cells (NVC). (mdpi.com)
  • Immunolocalisation studies revealed expression of SPCA1 in all cells in an area behind the nucleus, extending into the midpiece. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • So what do we know about sperm cells? (asbmb.org)
  • A fertile male usually churns out between 5 million to 250 million sperm cells per milliliter of ejaculate (the average human ejaculate is between 0.75 mL and 2.5 mL). (asbmb.org)
  • All normal cells have 46 chromosomes but sperm have half that number or, 23. (essortment.com)
  • Sperm cells are carried out of the male body in a fluid known as semen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human sperm cells can survive within the female reproductive tract for more than 5 days post coitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human sperm cells are particularly vulnerable to free radical attack and the generation of oxidative DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • see e.g. 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine) The postmeiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis is very sensitive to environmental genotoxic agents, because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irradiation of male mice during late spermatogenesis can induce damage that persists for at least 7 days in the fertilizing sperm cells, and disruption of maternal DNA double-strand break repair pathways increases sperm cell-derived chromosomal aberrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Longer sperm cells are better than their shorter counterparts at displacing competitors from the female's seminal receptacle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within these cells, SPEF2 is localized in the golgi complex, manchette, basal body and mid piece of the sperm tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • The seminiferous tubules of the testes are the starting point for the process, where spermatogonial stem cells adjacent to the inner tubule wall divide in a centripetal direction-beginning at the walls and proceeding into the innermost part, or lumen-to produce immature sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertility
  • To identify proteins related to the higher thermo-tolerance and fertility of Zebu cattle, this study was undertaken to identify differences in sperm proteome between the high fertile Malaysian indigenous zebu cattle (Kedah Kelantan) and the sub-fertile crossbred cattle (Mafriwal). (mdpi.com)
  • While results from this study do identify proteins that may be responsible for the higher fertility of Kedah Kelantan, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles in sperm fertility. (mdpi.com)
  • Herr has developed two commercial home tests for male infertility, Sperm Check Fertility and Sperm Check Vasectomy, using biomarkers that are unique to the final stage of sperm development in the testes. (asbmb.org)
  • Thus, in humans, it is a measure of fertility in a man. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • In humans, chromosomal abnormalities arising from incorrect spermatogenesis results in congenital defects and abnormal birth defects (Down Syndrome, Klinefelter's Syndrome) and in most cases, spontaneous abortion of the developing foetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovum
  • If and when the sperm joins ups with the female s, egg (ovum) which also has 23 chromosomes, together they add up to 46 chromosomes. (essortment.com)
  • Play media The main sperm function is to reach the ovum and fuse with it to deliver two sub-cellular structures: (i) the male pronucleus that contains the genetic material and (ii) the centrioles that are structures that help organize the microtubule cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • motile
  • Scrotal insulation in Holstein-Friesian and Belgian Blue bulls ( Bos taurus ) has been shown to increase flagella defects and reduced the percentage of motile sperm [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • A uniflagellar sperm cell that is motile is referred to as a spermatozoon, whereas a non-motile sperm cell is referred to as a spermatium. (wikipedia.org)
  • epididymis
  • Epididymal sperm-coating proteins may exert their effects on the male gamete already in the epididymis or become functional in the female tract. (scielo.cl)
  • Some of the proteins produced by the epididymis, called sperm decapacitating factors, may associate to the cell surface and prevent premature sperm activation. (scielo.cl)
  • In mammals, sperm develops in the testicles, stored in the epididymis, and is released from the penis. (wikipedia.org)
  • spermatogenesis
  • The location [Testes/Scrotum] is specifically important as the process of spermatogenesis requires a lower temperature to produce viable sperm, specifically 1°-8 °C lower than normal body temperature of 37 °C (98.6 °F). Clinically, small fluctuations in temperature such as from an athletic support strap, causes no impairment in sperm viability or count. (wikipedia.org)
  • For humans, the entire process of spermatogenesis is variously estimated as taking 74 days (according to tritium-labelled biopsies) and approximately 120 days (according to DNA clock measurements). (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire process of spermatogenesis can be broken up into several distinct stages, each corresponding to a particular type of cell in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Similarly, as a result of an increase in scrotal temperature in Nelore cattle ( Bos taurus × Bos indicus ), sperm nuclear integrity and the rate of blastocyst formation in IVF were decreased [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemical characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated that the free amino acid L-tryptophan was the natural sperm attractant in H. rufescens. (jove.com)
  • Gene
  • However, identification of homologous gene products in other mammals, particularly humans, has been difficult, in part by poor evolutionary conservation. (scielo.cl)
  • The sperm adenylate cyclase gene in homology studies bears the most resemblance to the adenylate cyclase found in cyanobacteria. (asbmb.org)
  • We call this the ancestral gene program that is activated" during sperm production. (asbmb.org)
  • Sperm mitochondrial-associated cysteine-rich protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMCP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sperm flagellar protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPEF2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sperm contain cilia, and a mutation in the SPEF2 gene can cause male infertility due to immobile sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial assessment of human gene diversity and expression patterns based upon 83 million nucleotides of cDNA sequence" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Sperm proteins were then extracted, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis performed to compare proteome profiles. (mdpi.com)
  • Augmented membrane fluidity due to lipid modifications, Ca 2+ influx, generation of controlled amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation of proteins on serine (Ser), threonine (Thr) and tyrosine (Tyr) residues [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ] are the main modifications which sperm must face in order to be correctly capacitated and prompt in undergoing AR. (mdpi.com)
  • Western blotting for human sperm proteins showed expression of secretory pathway Ca(2+) ATPase (SPCA1). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • mammals
  • Sexual selection in mammals started with Charles Darwin's observations concerning sexual selection, including sexual selection in humans, and in other mammals, consisting of male-male competition and mate choice that mold the development of future phenotypes in a population for a given species. (wikipedia.org)
  • flagellum
  • Results show that Asta ameliorated both sperm head Tyr-P and ARC values without affecting the ROS generation curve, whereas Diam succeeded in enhancing the Tyr-P level but only of the flagellum without increasing ARC values. (mdpi.com)
  • They are elongated, flattened, and arranged circumferentially to form a helical coiled sheath in the midpiece of the sperm flagellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Because it is the only cell in the human body designed to leave the confines of the body, sperm genes echo those of unicellular life forms. (asbmb.org)
  • The benefit to females is that only healthy males carry 'good' genes that can produce long sperm in sufficient quantities to outcompete their competitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are more genes which have been shown to be mutated in globozoospermia in mice, but these are yet to be connected to the human disease process. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotaxis
  • Eggs released L-tryptophan at concentrations that triggered both activation and chemotaxis in sperm, exhibiting significant activity at levels as low as 10(-8) mol x l(-1). (jove.com)
  • eggs
  • This investigation considered the behavioral responses of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) sperm to soluble factors released into sea water by conspecific eggs. (jove.com)
  • Sperm in proximity to individual live eggs swam significantly faster and oriented towards the egg surface. (jove.com)
  • genetic
  • There are even reports of humans who normally walk on all fours with their feet but not their knees on the ground, but these cases are a result of conditions such as Uner Tan syndrome - very rare genetic neurological disorders rather than normal behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Despite sharing 92% sequence identity, paralogous human translation elongation factor 1 alpha-1 (eEF1A1) and elongation factor 1 alpha-2 (eEF1A2) have different but overlapping functional profiles. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Experts say that much of the pharmaceutical industry's lack of interest stems from the fact that in the past two decades assisted-reproduction clinics have been using a method that bypasses the need for functional sperm. (asbmb.org)
  • cell
  • For more on the sperm cell, see the sperm cell page . (essortment.com)
  • In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homo
  • The human genus (Homo) is most closely related to the chimpanzee and bonobo (Pan) among extant primates, and the common ancestors of these two genera existed in Africa approximately 8 million years ago. (mitchmedical.us)
  • mixture
  • Semen or seminal fluid is the mixture of sperm and the secretions of the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands. (essortment.com)
  • acquisition
  • The acquisition of sperm fertilizing ability has been associated to metabolic and structural changes in the male gamete, particularly those occurring at the plasma membrane. (scielo.cl)
  • molecular genetics
  • Darwin's insights concerning the probable African origin of human beings have been confirmed by palaeontological discoveries as well as by the results of research on comparative anatomy and molecular genetics. (mitchmedical.us)
  • Human Molecular Genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • unclear
  • Even if one ignores exceptions caused by some kind of injury or illness, there are many unclear cases, including the fact that "normal" humans can crawl on hands and knees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural
  • Structural models of human eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 reveal two distinct surface clusters of sequence variation and potential differences in phosphorylation. (genes2cognition.org)
  • decrease
  • It starts at puberty and usually continues uninterrupted until death, although a slight decrease can be discerned in the quantity of produced sperm with increase in age (see Male infertility). (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • Much more is now known about human origins and evolution than was the case almost 40 years ago, when I began to study primate reproductive biology. (mitchmedical.us)
  • Male infertility research is largely in the hands of a small cohort of academic investigators backed by programs such as those at the U.S.'s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and REPROTRAIN, a program funded by the European Commission to prepare researchers to study male reproductive biology. (asbmb.org)
  • With the advancement of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) it is now possible for those with globozoospermia to conceive using their own sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Globozoospermia (also known as round-headed sperm syndrome) is a rare and severe form of monomorphic teratozoospermia. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Anatomically modern human beings originated in Africa and our species has spread far beyond its origins to invade and colonize the rest of the world. (mitchmedical.us)
  • For instance, the sperm of some species of fruit fly (Drosophila) are up to 5.8 cm long - about 20 times as long as the fly itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • male
  • In the light of multiple studies confirming that most of us are vitamin D deficient - and that vitamin D receptors are replete in sperm - restoring optimal vitamin D levels could have a profound effect upon male-factor infertility. (bellaonline.com)
  • Human male gamete endocrinology: 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) regulates different aspects of 4. (bellaonline.com)