• genomic
  • Phenomics is a subject studying all phenotypes of an organism or a cell in various conditions at the genomic level [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is well established that somatic genomic changes can influence phenotypes in cancer, but the role of adaptive changes in developmental disorders is less well understood. (ovid.com)
  • genetic
  • Such tissue-specific adaptability may be a more common mechanism modifying the expression of human genetic conditions than is currently recognized. (ovid.com)
  • Any abnormal genetic variation in the q13 region that presents with significant manifestations (phenotype) typical of a terminal deletion may be diagnosed as 22q13 deletion syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some differences in human appearance are genetic, others are the result of age, lifestyle or disease, and many are the result of personal adornment. (wikipedia.org)
  • So one of the main concerns in biological and biomedical research is to recognise the underlying mechanisms behind this intricate genetic phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patterns of variation of human genetic traits are generally clinal, with more abrupt shifts at places where steady gene flow is interrupted. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, because all populations are genetically diverse, and because there is a complex relation between ancestry, genetic makeup and phenotype, and because racial categories are based on subjective evaluations of the traits, there is no specific gene that can be used to determine a person's race. (wikipedia.org)
  • has shown that non-SNP (structural) variation accounts for more human genetic variation than single nucleotide diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • When copy-number variation is included, human-to-human genetic variation is estimated[by whom? (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation
  • Human Mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gain of channel function, resulting from a point mutation in mouse GRID2, is associated with the phenotype named 'lurcher', which in the heterozygous state leads to ataxia and motor coordination deficits resulting from selective, cell-autonomous apoptosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells during postnatal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation or over expression of oncogenes can be kept under controlled expression in a very specific cellular context rather than throughout the organism.Another way to model human breast cancer is done through the targeted inhibition of a tumor suppressor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nor should it be confused with phenotypic heterogeneity in which a mutation within the same gene causes a different phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastases
  • In an attempt to reveal the osteoblast-like phenotype of osteotropic breast cancer cells, we performed a microarray study on a model of breast cancer bone metastasis consisting of the MDA-MB-231 human cell line and its variant B02 selected for its high capacity to form bone metastases in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Using immunohistochemistry, performed on human breast primary tumors and their matched liver and bone metastases, we were able to confirm that the osteoblast-like pattern of gene expression observed in our model holds true in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Bellahcène A, Kroll M, Liebens F, Castronovo V (1996) Bone sialoprotein detection in human breast cancer cells: a potential predictor of bone metastases. (springer.com)
  • variations
  • It's used to describe the variations of human traits in relation to the evolution in a specific geographical area. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are infinite variations in human phenotypes, though society reduces the variability to distinct categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • exercises, for example, bodybuilding Capes Goggles Hair ornaments Hats and caps Headdresses Headphones/Handsfree phone headset Jewelry Masks Prosthetic limbs Prosthetic genitals Sunglasses Watch Beauty Biometrics Body image Dress code Common human variations Eigenface Face perception Facial symmetry Fashion Female body shape Hair coloring Nudity Sexual attraction Sexual capital Sexual selection Social role of hair Somatotype Vanity "Anthropometric Reference Data for Children and Adults: United States, 2003-2006" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • This is the first report demonstrating a gene-expression pattern corresponding to the acquisition of an osteomimetic phenotype by bone metastatic breast cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Epigenetic inheritance involves heritable changes in phenotype (appearance) or gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • deletion
  • A heterozygous deletion in GRID2 in humans causes a complicated spastic paraplegia with ataxia, frontotemporal dementia, and lower motor neuron involvement whereas a homozygous biallelic deletion leads to a syndrome of cerebellar ataxia with marked developmental delay, pyramidal tract involvement and tonic upgaze, that can be classified as an ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA) and has been named spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive type 18 (SCAR18). (wikipedia.org)
  • algorithms
  • The software is designed as a laboratory in constant evolution and includes both consolidated algorithms as the 3D morphing and experimental technologies, as the fuzzy mathematics used to handle the relations between human paramaters, the non-linear interpolation used to define the age, mass and tone, the auto-modelling engine based on body proportions and the expert system used to recognize the bones in motion capture skeletons. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • These isoforms result in warfarin resistance (requiring higher doses) in humans and rats, because the amount and effectiveness of the VKORC enzyme has not changed, but the ability of warfarin to exert its effect (antagonize the enzyme) has changed. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Thus the senescent human phenotypes occur mostly during the last 20 years of the ordinary human life but as you will see, they mostly have their beginnings much earlier in the health span. (hstalks.com)
  • Taken together, these findings provide strong evidence that progressive somatic changes can occur in specific tissues and can subsequently modify disease phenotype and influence survival. (ovid.com)
  • biological
  • 4 The discovery, which was honored by the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, laid the foundation for findings of more than 1000 microRNAs in humans, which regulate various biological processes. (ahajournals.org)
  • No reasonable person would argue against the value of the model organisms in providing fundamental insights into biological processes that are generalizable to human biology ( Table 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • Network science Human disease network Network medicine Biological network Nicholas A. Christakis Albert-László Barabási Hidalgo, Cesar A. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • I've been asked to discuss with you today the topic of human senescent phenotypes, what are they, how do they begin, do they use the same or different mechanisms, can they be averted, and most interestingly, can they be reversed. (hstalks.com)
  • interactions
  • Lastly, he emphasizes that human-to-human interactions play a role in the spread of pathogens and network theory can be applied to social networks for epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Physical appearance of humans, in particular those attributes which are regarded as important for physical attractiveness, are believed by anthropologists[citation needed] to significantly affect the development of personality and social relations. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • summarized studies on genotype-phenotype associations in cellular context. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, including humans, the transport of amino and imino acids from the lumen (interior) of the intestine or the renal proximal tubule into the cells occurs at the brush border membrane of the epithelium (moist, tightly packed cellular lining of many tissues and organs of the body). (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • Bellahcène A, Menard S, Bufalino R, Moreau L, Castronovo V (1996) Expression of bone sialoprotein in primary human breast cancer is associated with poor survival. (springer.com)
  • physiological
  • Syndrome is the overall "manifestation" of human body pathological and physiological changes expressed by four diagnostic methods' information. (hindawi.com)
  • Model
  • Wright and his team came up with Human Face Recognition Model based on sparse characterizations [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The scene might be germane to research laboratories that aim to construct a human disease phenotype in model organisms. (ahajournals.org)
  • Like the preconceived exuberance of the "Knights of the Round Table" on sighting of a model of the "Castle of Camelot," the overenthusiastic interpretation of the laboratory data combined with unconscious biases have the risk of contriving a model that might only partially resemble the human phenotype but is far from fully recapitulating it. (ahajournals.org)
  • Likewise, the primary reason to develop an animal model of a human disease is to gain insights into the pathogenesis of the phenotype with the ultimate goal of identifying therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers. (ahajournals.org)
  • Perhaps the discovery of RNA interference by Andrew Fire and Craig Mello in C elegans is a palpable utility of the model organisms, in terms of their relevance to human health and disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, to consider the phenotype in the C elegans as a true model of a human disease is simply overlooking more than 700 million years of evolution that separates humans from this most valuable multicellular eukaryote. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hypothesis: is yeast a clock model to study the onset of humans aging phenotypes? (frontiersin.org)
  • Human cell lines can be used to model disease but it is difficult to study processes at the tissue level, within an organ or across the entire body. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • The HPO was initially developed using information from OMIM, which is an important data resource in the field of human genetics and beyond. (hindawi.com)
  • Although the Zebrafish Information Network (ZFIN) provides extensive information about zebrafish genetics and genomics, it currently provides only superficial descriptions of mutant and wildtype phenotypes. (bioontology.org)
  • Annals of Human Genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • This amounts to approximately three million SNPs (since the human genome has about three billion nucleotides). (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • Humans differ from most other mammals in the fact that we are sexually mature long before we are developmentally mature. (hstalks.com)
  • cell
  • Phenome refers to all the phenotypes of a cell or an organism, whose life activities are reflected through phenotypes. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study we observed over time the formation of cell mass similar to the human "senile warts" (seborrheic keratoses), the skin lesions that often appear after 30 years of life and increase in number and size over the years. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ability to measure human thymic output would be an invaluable tool for the study of the development of the naïve T cell repertoire, as well as naïve T cell regeneration after intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy or effective antiretroviral therapy of progressive HIV infection. (pnas.org)
  • The latter subset is differentiated from circulating CD103 + mucosa-associated memory T cells by its naïve T cell phenotype (CD45RO − , CD62L bright , CD27 bright , CD11a dim , CD95 dim ) and its high concentration of TREC. (pnas.org)
  • tumors
  • We and others have previously reported that human breast tumors which metastasize to the skeleton overexpress bone matrix extracellular proteins. (springer.com)
  • analysis
  • Deep phenotyping has been defined as the precise and comprehensive analysis of phenotypic abnormalities in which the individual components of the phenotype are observed and described. (garvan.org.au)
  • breast cancer
  • Bellahcène A, Castronovo V (1995) Increased expression of osteonectin and osteopontin, two bone matrix proteins, in human breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Bellahcène A, Merville M-P, Castronovo V (1994) Expression of bone sialoprotein, a bone matrix protein, in human breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Human breast cancer metastasizes to multiple distant organs such as the brain, lungs, bones and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeted expression of oncogenes in mouse mammary epithelial cells is a way of modeling human breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description
  • While the lab is aimed to create realistic 3d humans based on a scientific description of the parameters, the same technology can be successfully applied to non-human characters, like fantasy creatures. (wikipedia.org)