• early embryo
  • In this technique, nuclei from cells of an early embryo are extracted using a very fine glass pipette and placed in egg cells that have been shed by a female amphibian such as a frog (after removing the unfertilized egg cell nucleus). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Only when the blastocoele is formed does the early embryo become a blastula. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the blastula stage of development, a significant amount of activity occurs within the early embryo to establish cell polarity, cell specification, axis formation, and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blastula stage of early embryo development begins with the appearance of the blastocoele. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Development will ensue normally and after many mitotic divisions, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with an identical genome to the original organism (i.e. a clone). (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientist-entrepreneur J. Craig Venter made another big splash this week: He abruptly quit Celera Genomics in Rockville, Maryland, the company he created less than 4 years ago with a goal of sequencing the human genome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Venter's departure marks the end of a contentious and highly competitive era in human genome sequencing, in which Venter confounded his critics by producing a draft in record time. (sciencemag.org)
  • Since the nucleus of virtually every animal cell contains the entire genome of the animal, it might seem easy enough to clone an animal by placing the nucleus in an egg cell from which the nucleus has been removed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • citation needed] The word is a portmanteau of embryo and genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the cells in an embryo contains the same genome, characteristic of the species, but the level of activity of each of the many thousands of genes that make up the complete genome varies with, and determines, a particular cell's type (e.g. neuron, bone cell, skin cell, muscle cell, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grafting can transfer chloroplasts (specialised DNA in plants that can conduct photosynthesis), mitichondrial DNA and the entire cell nucleus containing the genome to potentially make a new species making grafting a form of natural genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bioethics
  • The Scottish Council on Human Bioethics, a professional group based in Edinburgh, has published a report on the ethical implications of the practice in the journal Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Human Cloning & Bioethics - Reason Why People Object? (hubpages.com)
  • The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NABC) never seriously debated the merits of human cloning because it was obvious to the members what the conclusion should be. (hubpages.com)
  • The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) emphasized the importance of distinguishing between human cloning and cloning humans so that while banning the cloning of human beings they do not inadvertently ban human cloning. (hubpages.com)
  • stem cell lines
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Last week the institute, a private clinic that is part of Eastern Virginia Medical School in Norfolk, announced that it won't be generating any new human stem cell lines. (sciencemag.org)
  • Presently, no human stem cell lines have been derived from SCNT research. (bootstrike.com)
  • In 2005, a South Korean research team led by Professor Hwang Woo-suk, published claims to have derived stem cell lines via SCNT, but supported those claims with fabricated data. (bootstrike.com)
  • The following year, this method achieved a key goal of SCNT-based stem cell research: the derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines that have all genes linked to various diseases. (bootstrike.com)
  • Research is needed to determine the most viable stem cell lines and reliable ways to promote the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into specific cell types (neurons, muscle cells, etc. (jci.org)
  • Provisions (D) and (E) would outlaw experiments in which researchers have already tried to produce stem cell lines using enucleated animal eggs into which human cell nuclei have been installed. (reason.com)
  • The idea is that animal eggs, which are far more plentiful and easy to get than are human eggs, could be used to produce stem cell lines that were 99 percent human. (reason.com)
  • Instead of using human eggs, the researchers will remove the nuclei from cows' eggs and replace them with cells from the patients to create cloned stem cell lines that contain the same genetic mutation that results in these neurological disorders. (bionity.com)
  • We feel that the development of disease-specific human embryonic stem cell lines from individuals suffering from genetic forms of neurodegenerative disorders will stimulate both basic research and the development of new treatments for devastating brain diseases," Dr. Stephen Minger, of the stem cell biology laboratory at King's College London, said in a release. (bionity.com)
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2001, George W. Bush requested a review of the NIH's guidelines, and after a policy discussion within his circle of supporters, implemented a policy in August of that year to limit the number of embryonic stem cell lines that could be used for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The present study focuses on attitudes towards one biotechnology application: research with embryos for the purpose of obtaining stem cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • In particular, it analyzes how far public opinion is informed about stem cells, expectations and reservations regarding research with embryonic stem cells and differences in support for such research depending on the origin of the embryos used. (innovations-report.com)
  • In contrast, people had a poor understanding about how stem cells are extracted and the consequences for the embryo, with percentages no higher than 30% in the United States, between 15% and 20% in a further six countries and lower still in the remainder. (innovations-report.com)
  • In most societies there is a broad consensus around the usefulness of research with few-day-old human embryos in order to obtain stem cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Hence the data show considerable reservations about the risks entailed by researching with human embryos that are a few days old for the purpose of obtaining stem cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Debate and regulations regarding research with embryonic stem cells try to weigh up the medical benefits that may be obtained in future (the end pursued) against the moral reservations felt about this kind of research (the means utilized). (innovations-report.com)
  • The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain pluripotent cells from a cloned embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bill would allow regulated research using hybrid or "admix" embryos, where the nuclei of human cells are inserted into animal eggs. (indcatholicnews.com)
  • The resulting embryos would be kept for up to 14 days to harvest stem cells. (indcatholicnews.com)
  • Panayiotis Zavos, the operator of a U.S. fertility laboratory, reported in 2003 that he had created around 200 cow-human hybrid embryos that lived for about two weeks and grew to several hundred cells in size, beyond the stage at which cells showed the first signs of developing into tissues and organs. (scienceblogs.com)
  • That was a quick leap from clumps of cells with mixed genes or cells to walking, talking human-chimp chimeras which, as far as I can tell, no scientists are considering of ever making, except mad scientists in cartoons. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Only human embryos that have been physically mixed with one or more animal cells are allowed - true animal-animal hybrids, made by the fusion of sperm and eggs, remain outlawed. (newscientist.com)
  • Hybrids made by taking animal egg cells (from a cow, for example), removing its nucleus and replacing it with the nucleus from a human cell are an extremely useful research tool for investigating a range of diseases, including Parkinson's. (newscientist.com)
  • All human cells, even individual sperm and eggs, are 'living. (rxpgnews.com)
  • In the HSCI experiments, aimed at understanding diseases, the nuclei will be taken from skin cells donated by patients suffering from diabetes, blood diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Melton and Eggan's first nuclear transfer experiments will attempt to create diabetes specific stem cells by removing the nuclei from skin cells taken from diabetic volunteers at the Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center at Columbia University Medical Center and inserting them into donor eggs from which the nuclei have been removed. (rxpgnews.com)
  • And it also legalised the creation of 'chimeras' in which human cells are mixed with animal embryos. (christian.org.uk)
  • The Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine, which drew heavy criticism last summer when it revealed it had fertilized donated human eggs solely for the purpose of generating stem cells, has changed its priorities. (sciencemag.org)
  • After many mitotic divisions in culture, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with almost identical DNA to the original organism. (bootstrike.com)
  • The impetus for SCNT-based stem cell research has been decreased by the development and improvement of alternative methods of generating stem cells. (bootstrike.com)
  • Methods to reprogram normal body cells into pluripotent stem cells were developed in humans in 2007. (bootstrike.com)
  • Some scientists working on SCNT-based stem cell research have recently moved to the new methods of induced pluripotent stem cells. (bootstrike.com)
  • Meanwhile, scientists at the Salk Institute in San Diego created unique human-mouse chimeras whose brains are made up of 0.1% human brain cells. (seedmagazine.com)
  • Researchers hope the procedure, which involved injecting 100,000 human embryonic stem cells into two-week-old mice embryos, will lead to the creation of better animal models for human neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's. (seedmagazine.com)
  • The resulting egg cell was tricked into acting like an embryo, dividing and becoming all the differentiated cells of a new individual. (hubpages.com)
  • What is however important to recognize is that both human cloning and cloning human beings raise important ethical questions, as whether stem cells needed for cloning of human parts leads to the dilemma if research on embryonic stem cells is embryo research that comes under the congressional ban. (hubpages.com)
  • Prior to gastrulation, they argue, the developing cluster of human cells can't be a person, since it hasn't clarified whether it will become one organism or two. (slate.com)
  • A human life, we know scientifically, begins upwards, even into two weeks of human development, where this little ball of cells decides, "I'm going to become one person," or "I am going to be two persons. (slate.com)
  • Research advances are making all cells 'embryonic,' "ACT Vice President Robert Lanza explained to U.S. News . (slate.com)
  • Provision (F) is very much like Provisions (B) and (C) since the most likely to way to combine human haploid cells with animal haploid cells to produce a diploid embryo would be to combine animal and human eggs and sperm. (reason.com)
  • Provision (G) would outlaw a technique in which human stem cells might be injected into an early animal embryo (say, a mouse) and some of those cells might differentiate into human sperm producing or egg producing cells in mice. (reason.com)
  • And Provision (H) would apparently ban experiments like the ones in which human embryonic stem cells are injected into the brains of embryonic mice where they develop into functioning human neurons . (reason.com)
  • Doing a similar experiment with chimpazees gets closer to an ethical line since it is more likely that installing human brain cells in a chimp might confer some human characteristics, say language ability, on such a chimp/human chimera. (reason.com)
  • Isolate and purify all the DNA from a sample of human cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It was used in a National Geographic article to describe an experiment in 2003, during which Chinese scientists at the Shanghai Second Medical University successfully fused human cells with rabbit eggs. (bionity.com)
  • Other experiments aim to reveal knowledge about the function of the human body, e.g. by creating mice with a human-like immune system to study AIDS or with a brain incorporating human nerve cells. (bionity.com)
  • The team used two enzymes to erase the epigenetic memory of the transferred nuclei of being somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this experiment, the researchers developed a protocol for using SCNT in human cells, which differs slightly from the one used in other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans it has been found that the cells here also form a subpial layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryomics is the identification, characterization and study of the diverse cell types which arise during embryogenesis, especially as this relates to the location and developmental history of cells in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell markers consist of select RNAs and proteins present inside, and surface antigens present on the surface of, the cells making up the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an embryo develops from a fertilized egg, the single egg cell splits into many cells, which grow in number and migrate to the appropriate locations inside the embryo at appropriate times during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire process of embryogenesis can be described with the aid of two maps: an embryo map, a temporal sequence of 3-dimensional images of the developing embryo, showing the location of cells of the many cell types present in the embryo at a given time, and an embryogenic tree, a diagram showing how the cell types are derived from each other during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the inner cell mass (embryoblast), which are known as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), will further differentiate to form four structures: the amnion, the yolk sac, the allantois, and the embryo itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo development begins with a sperm fertilizing an egg to become a zygote which undergoes many cleavages to develop into a ball of cells called a morula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the two growth phases into the cell cycle allows for the cells to increase in size, as up to this point the blastomeres undergo reductive divisions in which the overall size of the embryo does not increase, but more cells are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's research goals at Harvard were to understand how nuclear transplantation works, and to make stem cells that carry genes for specific diseases such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), and Alzheimer's. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's work as of 2007[update] has succeeded in developing a technique of merging stem and skin cells that has obtained considerable public attention as a possible avenue to avoid moral objections regarding stem cell research in the context of serious illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's team reported that they had created cells similar to human embryonic stem cells without destroying embryos, a major step toward someday possibly defusing the central objection to stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • These discoveries sparked extensive debate in the United States Congress, with opponents of the use of embryonic stem cells from fetuses arguing that these or similar methods of creating stem cells from skin might be eventually used instead to satisfy the conflicting demands of medical research and morals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans there are many types of stem cells, each with varying levels of potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stem cells can differentiate into all other cells in the human body and are the subject of much scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until recently, the principal source of human embryonic stem cells has been donated embryos from fertility clinics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, privately funded research led to the breakthrough discovery of human Embryonic stem cells (hESC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Originating from the lateral ganglionic eminence, one of the three embryonic structures that eventually become specific parts of the brain, the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) is a group of cells that develop along the surface of the ventricular layer of the brain, following the creation of the cortical plate in embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • He was appointed OBE in 1999 for services to embryo development and knighted in the 2008 New Year Honours. (wikipedia.org)
  • viable
  • Scientists describing the same processes used terminology such as, "insert an isolated nucleus from the donor to produce a dividing and viable embryo" into an enulceated egg" One reason why Christian fundamentalist pastors would be more apt to use terminology which includes "DNA" more prominently is that DNA is a "value-laden" term which carries religious significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Human gametes might then be harvested from the mice and combined using IVF techniques to produce a completely human baby. (reason.com)
  • Neurons formed in the ventricular zone migrate to their final locations in one of the six layers of the cortex The process occurs from embryonic day 10 to 17 in mice and between gestational weeks seven to 18 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were isolated in mice in 1981, and in humans in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • If the goal of provisions (B) and (C) is to prevent the creation of bovine/humans or canine/humans by interspecies mixing of sperm and eggs, they are superfluous since fertilization between species that widely separated by evolution is highly unlikely. (reason.com)
  • Experiments from more than 30 years ago have shown that human sperm can penetrate gibbon eggs . (reason.com)
  • In addition, the only known experiments in which a Russian biologist tried to fertilize chimpanzees using human sperm failed . (reason.com)
  • Finally, would these provisions outlaw a fairly common IVF assay in which human sperm are tested for fertility using hamster eggs ? (reason.com)
  • gastrulation
  • On Meet the Press , West argued that since ACT plans to destroy its cloned embryos before gastrulation, "Scientifically, the entities we're creating are not an individual. (slate.com)
  • Therefore, society can permit destructive research on pre-gastrulation embryos without sliding toward destructive research on more advanced embryos. (slate.com)
  • ethical
  • While there is revulsion in some quarters that such creations appear to blur the distinction between animals and humans, it could be argued that they are less human than, and therefore pose fewer ethical problems for research than fully human embryos, the committee wrote. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Being against the release of horrific NAZI research done on unwilling human subjects doesn't make one anti-science and neither does having a higher ethical standard. (newscientist.com)
  • There are grave ethical and moral objections to this research and the way it is being promoted. (indcatholicnews.com)
  • While the FDA has stated that the agency "recognizes" that there are "ethical and social policy issues" to be considered-and despite the fact that forty-four countries have already banned this kind of genetic manipulation-the FDA won't bother to discuss if human clinical trials should take place (that's considered to be "outside the scope" of the meeting). (pearltrees.com)
  • Ethical, moral, and legal issues of "parahuman research" are speculative extensions of existing issues that arise in actual research . (bionity.com)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Dolly the sheep was successfully cloned on 5 July 1996, and the possibility of cloning humans became a reality, Christian leaders have been pressed to take an ethical stance on its morality. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003, scientists at Cambridge University, U.K. conducted experiments involving fusing the nucleus of a human cell into frog eggs. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The embryos developed to the approximately 100-cell stage that forms after about four days of development. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The resulting cell is subject to a chemical, or electrical, charge that triggers cell division and the creation of an embryo genetically identical to the donor of the nuclei. (rxpgnews.com)
  • This includes the creation of 'cybrids' in which a human nucleus is implanted into an animal cell. (christian.org.uk)
  • At the same time, the nucleus of an egg cell is removed. (bootstrike.com)
  • Proposals to use nucleus transfer techniques in human stem cell research raise a set of concerns beyond the moral status of any created embryo. (bootstrike.com)
  • The technique involved transplanting the nucleus from an undifferentiated cell of one sheep into the egg of another sheep from which nucleus had been removed. (hubpages.com)
  • Last weekend, Michael West, the CEO of Advanced Cell Technology, announced that his company had created the first cloned human embryo. (slate.com)
  • A stem cell is defined by two properties (see A stem cell research lexicon ). (jci.org)
  • Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, which are located in the fluid that surrounds the nucleus (the cytoplasm). (pearltrees.com)
  • Restrictions on cloning and stem cell research makes chimera research a more attractive alternative in some researchers' eyes. (bionity.com)
  • The only bovine element would be found in DNA outside the nucleus of the cell. (bionity.com)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell type may be determined according to several criteria: location in the developing embryo, gene expression as indicated by protein and nucleic acid markers and surface antigens, and also position on the embryogenic tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryogenic tree is a diagram which shows the temporal development of each of the cell lines in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, instead of each branch on this tree representing a species, as in the tree of life, each branch represents a particular cell type present in the embryo at a particular time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of the blastula and of cell specification has many implications on the field of stem cell research as well as the continued improvement of fertility treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan began to explore both this process and also the reasons that cloned animals often appeared to develop abnormally, with organ defects and immunological problems - his first contact with stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time, stem cell research in the United States was threatened by political pressure due to concerns over the ethics of human embryo research, and research such as this was at risk of potentially being made illegal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal funding for stem cell research had recently been removed, and part of his role was to obtain private funding to replace it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first one, first messenger cross through the cell membrane, binding and activating intracellular receptors localized at nucleus or cytosol, which then act as transcriptional factors regulating directly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • No federal law ever did ban stem cell research in the United States, but only placed restrictions on funding and use, under Congress's power to spend. (wikipedia.org)
  • On July 18, 2006, the Senate passed three different bills concerning stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • Even if there were no risk of creating a genuine human embryo, it is a form of reproductive perversion to use a human nucleus to substitute in this way for animal reproductive material. (indcatholicnews.com)
  • On the other hand, according to a survey of Christian fundamentalist pastors, responses indicated a "common account of human cloning as primarily reproductive in nature, proscribed by its violation of God's will and role. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these things may contribute to why many fundamentalist Christian pastors see human reproductive cloning as simply "forbidden territory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning
  • This technique is currently the basis for cloning animals (such as the famous Dolly the sheep ), and in theory could be used to clone humans. (bootstrike.com)
  • Human cloning raises some important questions about our ability to choose wisely, about our view of human nature, about our capacities. (hubpages.com)
  • A few days after the announcement of Dolly, President Clinton banned federal funds for human cloning urging private biological firms to do the same. (hubpages.com)
  • He asked a little known commission to make recommendations in 90 days about the ethics of human cloning. (hubpages.com)
  • NABC recommended a federal law to ban any attempt to create a human by cloning, with stiff penalties to enforce it. (hubpages.com)
  • The commission probably didn't want to go against the popular emotion and recommended overwhelmingly against human cloning. (hubpages.com)
  • But the public mistrust of human cloning might itself be seen in the biased role played by the media - both print and visual - that have described only the most evil reasons why anyone would want to clone humans. (hubpages.com)
  • Human cloning is an ambiguous expression. (hubpages.com)
  • The other meaning of human cloning is the creation of human tissues of varying kinds such as skin, bone marrow, organs etc for the purposes of transplantation. (hubpages.com)
  • The primary reason for the NBAC's recommending a ban on cloning human beings is that it poses a threat to safety: "It is important to recognize that the technique that produced Dolly the sheep was successful in only 1 of 277 attempts. (hubpages.com)
  • In 1993, researchers from GeorgeWashingtonUniversity revealed that they had devised a technique for cloning human beings. (hubpages.com)
  • Advocates of human cloning are drawing this line in order to avoid the abortion debate. (slate.com)
  • Insoo Hyun of Case Western Reserve University questioned whether this meant that human cloning would be next. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy (or clone) of a human. (wikipedia.org)
  • The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • This would have been the first major breakthrough in human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006 his book After Dolly: The Uses and Misuses of Human Cloning was published, co-authored with Roger Highfield. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the debate on the morality of human cloning, Christians take multiple positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hard to pinpoint any one, definite stance of the Christian religion, since there are so many Christian denominations and so few official statements from each of them concerning the morality of human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are certain Protestant denominations that do not disagree with the acceptability of human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these pastors acknowledged the reason for this violation being rooted in the religiously motivated view that human cloning is an example of scientists 'playing God. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some scientists do argue that the puberty of views comes from the differing understandings of what exactly human cloning is. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • The product of this union, when incubated, begins to grow into an organism genetically identical (with the trivial exception of non-nuclear DNA) to the organism from which its nucleus was taken. (slate.com)
  • scientists
  • In 2005, U.K. scientists transplanted a human chromosome into mouse embryos. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The proposals only allow the creation of hybrids for research into serious diseases and scientists would require a licence. (newscientist.com)
  • I think it is an important step for UK science and for research in general, and will give British scientists an edge over their competitors in more restrictive countries. (newscientist.com)
  • 200,000 years earlier than scientists previously thought humans had migrated to northern Europe. (seedmagazine.com)
  • Scientists have also done extensive research into the combination of genes from different species, e.g. adding human (and other animal) genes to bacteria and farm animals to mass-produce insulin and spider silk proteins . (bionity.com)
  • vertebrate
  • Human embryogenesis is the referent here, but embryogenesis in other vertebrate species closely follows the same pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the vertebrate embryo, a rhombomere is a transiently divided segment of the developing neural tube, within the hindbrain region (a neuromere) in the area that will eventually become the rhombencephalon. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT
  • In January 2008, Dr. Andrew French and Samuel Wood of the biotechnology company Stemagen announced that they successfully created the first five mature human embryos using SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethically
  • Critics have questioned the need for such controversial research warning that it "discredits us as a country" because it cannot be ethically justified. (christian.org.uk)
  • experiments
  • Some ethicists worry that the experiments might force society to make confounding decisions on whether, say, a human-chimp mix would have human rights. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The problem with the Nazi research is that some of it was genuinely useful, as far as I understand - for example data gathered from experiments on the effects of extreme cold on bodies by the Nazis was used by Canadian researchers many years later. (newscientist.com)
  • A meeting at the FDA on experiments to create GMO humans has brought disturbing information to light. (pearltrees.com)
  • researchers
  • However, most researchers believe that in the foreseeable future it will not be possible to use this technique to produce a human clone that will develop to term. (bootstrike.com)
  • controversial
  • The bill was withdrawn, but Gosden says the institute hopes to secure federal funds that can't go to research involving the controversial embryos. (sciencemag.org)
  • A morphological analysis of 81 8,000-year-old skulls found in southeastern Brazil supports a controversial theory that two different populations of humans colonized the Americas. (seedmagazine.com)
  • hybrids
  • I am interested in what was said in the article, how are these hybrids supposed to help in disease research? (newscientist.com)
  • There are currently three laboratories in the UK which are licensed to carry out such research, but they have all stopped creating animal-human hybrids due to a lack of funding. (christian.org.uk)
  • Preventing the advent of human-animal hybrids and chimeras is an ongoing obsession of Sen. Brownback. (reason.com)
  • Parahumans are also referred to as "human-animal hybrids. (bionity.com)
  • species
  • Some inter-species mixtures are powerful research tools, the report said. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The unique dignity of the human species, for which life and reproduction have a special meaning, needs to be safeguarded," Dr Watt added. (indcatholicnews.com)
  • Earlier this year the government gave its backing to "inter-species entities" in the draft human tissue and embryos bill. (indcatholicnews.com)
  • The term is sometimes used to sensationalize research that involves mixing biological materials from humans and other species. (bionity.com)
  • If parahumans are created using germline engineering, they breed true, and are different enough from ordinary humans to be unable to breed with them, this would qualify them as being a distinct species. (bionity.com)
  • Many of these rhombomeres have been mapped to an extent in species other than human. (wikipedia.org)
  • chimeras
  • This will lead to a new era where humans have the ability to create monsters and chimeras. (newscientist.com)
  • So if that's what Brownback and Landrieu are really worried about they should advocate banning primate/human brain chimeras and leave the other research alone. (reason.com)
  • Some individuals, particularly those with deep religious ideals, see the creation of chimeras to devalue the uniqueness of human life or to be tampering with a divine plan. (bionity.com)
  • tissues
  • H) a non-human life form engineered such that it contains a human brain or a brain derived wholly or predominantly from human neural tissues. (reason.com)
  • tissue
  • At about 10.30 last night, MPs voted against a bill will would have banned the creation of 'saviour siblings - babies born from embryos selected because they are a tissue match for a sick older brother or sister with a genetic condition. (indcatholicnews.com)
  • sheep
  • It might refer to the creation of new human beings through the technology Ian Wilmut used to create Dolly, the sheep. (hubpages.com)
  • While this was tried many times, it was never successfully accomplished until 1996, in the creation of the sheep Dolly by Ian Wilmut and colleagues in Scotland . (encyclopedia.com)