• Belgium
  • A study published published in the NEJM in March 2015 on the experience with euthanasia in the Flanders region of Belgium indicates that approximately 1000 Belgian deaths were hastened without explicit request in 2013 . (blogspot.com)
  • organism
  • Death refers to the permanent termination of life-sustaining processes in an organism, i.e. when all biological systems of a human being cease to operate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though we have not yet brought an extinct species back to life Survival - Survival is simply the need to live, the only real purpose of an organism is to generate offspring Indefinite lifespan - term used in the life extension movement and transhumanism to refer to the hypothetical longevity of humans (and other life-forms) under conditions in which aging is effectively and completely prevented and treated. (wikipedia.org)
  • arises
  • This leads to asphyxiation (death from lack of oxygen) without the painful and traumatic feeling of suffocation (the hypercapnic alarm response , which in humans arises mostly from carbon dioxide levels rising), or the side effects of poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • adoption
  • Kittens young enough to be socialized and friendly adult cats may be placed in foster care for eventual adoption into homes as companion animals rather than returned to the outdoors. (wikipedia.org)
  • other goals may include but are not limited to increased adoption rates, increased cat health, increased cat quality of life, and improved human-cat interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetus
  • In such cases, we need to assess facts in order to decide whether the same arguments that apply to killing a human fetus can also be consistently applied to killing a newborn human. (bmj.com)
  • At common law, a fetus was not a human being. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others argue that since they believe the fetus lacks sentience until a certain stage of development, it does not qualify as a human being, and as such may be considered property of the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • Religious
  • As we grow from a young child to a mature adult, we are taught many things such as that killing another human being is wrong, it is against the law and goes against most people's religious beliefs. (freeessay.com)
  • whereby
  • The International Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement has created a system whereby it is recognised that international human rights law is binding upon all State actors, and that said State actors must know and be capable of applying international standards for human rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • life
  • The right to life is a moral principle based on the belief that a human being has the right to live and, in particular, should not be killed by another human being. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human history, there has not been a general acceptance of the concept of a right to life that is innate to individuals[citation needed] rather than granted as a privilege by those holding social and political power. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolution of human rights as a concept took place slowly in multiple areas in many different ways, with the right to life being no exception to this trend, and the past millennium in particular has seen a large set of national and international law or legal documents (examples being the Magna Carta and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) codifying the general ideal into specifically worded principles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opponents of capital punishment argue that it is a violation of the right to life, while its supporters argue that the death penalty is not a violation of the right to life because the right to life should apply with deference to a sense of justice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opponents believe that capital punishment is the worst violation of human rights, because the right to life is the most important, and capital punishment violates it without necessity and inflicts to the condemned a psychological torture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The right to life is for the most part an inalienable right granted to every human upon the planet, however, there are certain situations in which State actors are required to take drastic action, which can result in civilians being killed by law enforcement agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • But in taking on municipal animal control duties, these agencies abandoned their lifesaving and life-enhancing platforms when those beliefs conflicted with their contractual responsibilities. (all-creatures.org)
  • Another argument supporting the use of euthanasia is that everyone would benefit if it were legal to show mercy when death becomes preferable over life. (freeessay.com)
  • of a human - This element presents the issue of when life begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four states of mind recognized as constituting "malice" are: Intent to kill, Intent to inflict grievous bodily harm short of death, Reckless indifference to an unjustifiably high risk to human life (sometimes described as an "abandoned and malignant heart"), or Intent to commit a dangerous felony (the "felony murder" doctrine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Under state of mind (iii), an "abandoned and malignant heart", the killing must result from the defendant's conduct involving a reckless indifference to human life and a conscious disregard of an unreasonable risk of death or serious bodily injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • When these cells died, new life emerged from their rot: animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rights to life, liberty and property derive from the fact that God has granted each person to be the steward of himself and none other, granting him the human authority to manage his own life and property, which morally requires him to do so according to God's Law, but civilly requires him to respect the dignity and property rights of his neighbor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objectivism: Ayn Rand rejected natural or inborn rights theories as well as supernatural claims and instead proposed a philosophy based on observable reality along with a corresponding ethics based on the factual requirements of human life in a social context. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • Cornelia Gunkel and Gregory A. Lewbart suggest that "Until the question of pain in invertebrates is clearly answered, an analgesic should be given to any animal that is subjected to a painful procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • cruelty
  • The legal system recognizes that cruelty will always reflect a standard commensurate with the maturation of a civil society and that punishment should be proportionate to the severity of the crime. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cruelty to animals sometimes encompasses inflicting harm or suffering as an end in itself, defined as zoosadism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Divergent approaches to laws concerning animal cruelty occur in different jurisdictions throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a number of conceptual approaches to the issue of cruelty to animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal cruelty can be broken down into two main categories: active and passive. (wikipedia.org)
  • argue
  • Utilitarian advocates argue from the position of costs and benefits and vary in their conclusions as to the allowable treatment of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some utilitarians argue for a weaker approach which is closer to the animal welfare position, whereas others argue for a position that is similar to animal rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological
  • To help make a distinction between "person" and "biological human", Warren notes that we should respect the lives of highly intelligent aliens, even if they are not biological humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • person
  • Most societies consider murder to be an extremely serious crime, and thus believe that the person charged should receive harsh punishments for the purposes of retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, or incapacitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • malice
  • Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • Insect euthanasia is the process of killing insects "in a way that minimizes or eliminates pain and distress. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process repeated over and over again: new cells emerged from the rot of these animal cells and so forth. (wikipedia.org)
  • moral
  • Oderberg's position on animal rights is similar to that of Aquinas - rejecting in principle the idea that humans have duties to animals because they are not moral agents, he nonetheless believes that humans still have duties in respect of them to treat them kindly. (wikipedia.org)
  • activist
  • The documents were identified as genuine by Kim Sang Hun, a London-based expert on Korea and human rights activist. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Some animal species are better equipped than humans to detect hypoxia, and these species are more uncomfortable in low-oxygen environments that result from inert gas exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human extinction - hypothesized end of the human species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charles Darwin, by presenting the theory of evolution, revolutionized the way that humans viewed their relationship with other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • welfare
  • These arguments have prompted some to suggest that animals' well-being should enter a social welfare function directly, not just indirectly via its effect only on human well-being. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1980, the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) organized the first international scientific symposium on "The Ecology and Control of Feral Cats" in London, where TNR experiences in the U.K. and Denmark were documented. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • While I work in a postmortem toxicology laboratory, the instrumentation used in animal and wildlife forensic toxicology is the same - high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), liquid chromatography with tandem (triple quadrupole) mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (LC/ToF or LC/qTOF), etc. (blogspot.com)
  • carbon
  • When humans breathe in an asphyxiant gas , such as pure nitrogen , helium , neon , argon , sulfur hexafluoride , methane , or any other physiologically inert gas(es), they exhale carbon dioxide without re-supplying oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical human breathes between 12 and 20 times per minute at a rate primarily influenced by carbon dioxide concentration, and thus pH , in the blood . (wikipedia.org)
  • Controlled atmosphere killing (CAK) or controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS) is a method for slaughtering animals such as chickens by placing the animals in a container in which the atmosphere lacks oxygen and consists of an asphyxiant gas (one or more of argon, nitrogen or carbon dioxide), causing the animals to lose consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1940 gas chambers using bottled pure carbon monoxide were established at six euthanasia centres in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • The final article concerned grieving that many people experience after the euthanasia death of a pet. (blogspot.com)
  • Beginning in 1939, gas chambers were used as part of the Nazi euthanasia program aimed at eliminating physically and intellectually disabled people. (wikipedia.org)
  • These opposing sides have many different reasons for believing what they do, some reasons people give for euthanasia are intriguing and very thought provoking. (freeessay.com)
  • While the views of many people may be against the use of euthanasia, it sad to say that in all actuality it goes on almost everyday. (freeessay.com)
  • While these views and arguments are very interesting and thought provoking there are many more people who believe that euthanasia is wrong. (freeessay.com)
  • murder
  • On the death penalty, Oderberg supports the state's right to enforce capital punishment, because justice must be retributive and death, being the worst punishment, is the suitable punishment for the worst crime - e.g. murder. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Unlawful - This distinguishes murder from killings that are done within the boundaries of law, such as capital punishment, justified self-defence, or the killing of enemy combatants by lawful combatants as well as causing collateral damage to non-combatants during a war. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Many of the euthanasia methods developed for vertebrates do not transfer well to invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a number of euthanasia methods have been proposed for various invertebrate taxa, many have not been adequately vetted, and more research is needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, euthanasia methods should be used that minimize the potential for pain or distress. (wikipedia.org)
  • But until the thirty-eight death penalty states and the federal government abolish the death penalty, international human rights law requires them to use execution methods that will produce the least possible physical and mental suffering. (docplayer.net)
  • societies
  • After initial resistance from local animal protection societies, neutering schemes for city cats were accepted in many parts of Italy. (wikipedia.org)
  • state
  • The task of asking the State of Virginia to release Librescu's body as quickly as possible and forgo a full autopsy fell to Rabbi Isaac Lieder, the Chabad leader in the capital of Richmond. (tabletmag.com)
  • another
  • It may help to premedicate the animal with another injected or inhaled drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another argument that is given in favor or euthanasia is that the role of the physician is to do whatever is best for their patient. (freeessay.com)
  • time
  • citation needed] Rulof believed that each human has a certain time to live. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, obese animals will have rapid recoveries, but it will be some time[vague] before it is entirely removed (metabolized) from their bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • And that incompetence hasn't abated in the years since - capital punishment has if anything become an even less professional undertaking, as reputation-protecting drug manufacturers and physicians edge away from the institution and states grow cagier about what happens in the death chamber. (straightdope.com)
  • The debate of euthanasia has been ongoing for many years and as of now, there is no end in sight. (freeessay.com)
  • consciousness
  • In Cartesian dualism, consciousness was unique to human among all other animals and linked to physical matter by divine grace. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, close analysis shows that many human features such as complex sign usage, tool use, and self-consciousness can be found in some animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The next day Animal Ark employees found that two other animals, Maddie the Gray Wolf and Jamar the Cheetah, had become ill with similar symptoms. (blogspot.com)