• Welfare
  • Questions or comments about the new edition of the Guidelines and/or the Panel on Euthanasia may be directed to Dr. Gail Golab ( ggolab@avma.org ) or Dr. Emily Patterson-Kane ( ekane@avma.org ) in the AVMA's Animal Welfare Division. (avma.org)
  • Some utilitarians argue for a weaker approach which is closer to the animal welfare position, whereas others argue for a position that is similar to animal rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • These arguments have prompted some to suggest that animals' well-being should enter a social welfare function directly, not just indirectly via its effect only on human well-being. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be done in part by maintaining a common meeting ground for all the people where there will be full, free, and open public discussion of all vital questions affecting human welfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Belgium
  • A study published published in the NEJM in March 2015 on the experience with euthanasia in the Flanders region of Belgium indicates that approximately 1000 Belgian deaths were hastened without explicit request in 2013 . (blogspot.com)
  • death penalty
  • On the death penalty, Oderberg supports the state's right to enforce capital punishment, because justice must be retributive and death, being the worst punishment, is the suitable punishment for the worst crime - e.g. murder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opponents of capital punishment argue that it is a violation of the right to life, while its supporters argue that the death penalty is not a violation of the right to life because the right to life should apply with deference to a sense of justice. (wikipedia.org)
  • But until the thirty-eight death penalty states and the federal government abolish the death penalty, international human rights law requires them to use execution methods that will produce the least possible physical and mental suffering. (docplayer.net)
  • evolution
  • The evolution of human rights as a concept took place slowly in multiple areas in many different ways, with the right to life being no exception to this trend, and the past millennium in particular has seen a large set of national and international law or legal documents (examples being the Magna Carta and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) codifying the general ideal into specifically worded principles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charles Darwin, by presenting the theory of evolution, revolutionized the way that humans viewed their relationship with other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through evolution, man has indeed been a fishlike and apelike being, but never an animal apelike being. (wikipedia.org)
  • Man has always been ahead of animals and plants in terms of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1938), "The Press and the War" (1939), "America's Responsibility in the Present Crisis" (1941), "America's Responsibility Today" (1942) Agee, Philip: "Dirty Work: The CIA in Central American and the World" (1988) Agronsky, Martin: "As I Saw the Australian Front" (1942) Ahern, Reverend Michael J.,: "What a Scientist-Theologian Believes of Evolution" (1925), "Euthanasia: Is Merciful Release Wrong? (wikipedia.org)
  • whereby
  • The International Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement has created a system whereby it is recognised that international human rights law is binding upon all State actors, and that said State actors must know and be capable of applying international standards for human rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • moral
  • We cannot just expect these people that are supposedly considerate of the animals they're treating to act upon their own internal moral code, hoping it mirrors ours. (avma.org)
  • Oderberg's position on animal rights is similar to that of Aquinas - rejecting in principle the idea that humans have duties to animals because they are not moral agents, he nonetheless believes that humans still have duties in respect of them to treat them kindly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The right to life is a moral principle based on the belief that a human being has the right to live and, in particular, should not be killed by another human being. (wikipedia.org)
  • Darwin believed that not only did human beings have a direct kinship with other animals, but the latter had social, mental and moral lives too. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Some animal species are better equipped than humans to detect hypoxia, and these species are more uncomfortable in low-oxygen environments that result from inert gas exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though we have not yet brought an extinct species back to life Survival - Survival is simply the need to live, the only real purpose of an organism is to generate offspring Indefinite lifespan - term used in the life extension movement and transhumanism to refer to the hypothetical longevity of humans (and other life-forms) under conditions in which aging is effectively and completely prevented and treated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human extinction - hypothesized end of the human species. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • Next time you're looking for reasons to grumble that we Americans treat our pets better than our fellow human beings, contrast that frictionless procedure with the dysfunctional workings of death row. (straightdope.com)
  • arises
  • This leads to asphyxiation (death from lack of oxygen) without the painful and traumatic feeling of suffocation (the hypercapnic alarm response, which in humans arises mostly from carbon dioxide levels rising), or the side effects of poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • believes
  • As the local religion of Buddhism, in the case of Tibet, believes that the body after death is only an empty shell, there are more practical ways than burial of disposing of a body, such as leaving it for animals to consume. (wikipedia.org)
  • life
  • In human history, there has not been a general acceptance of the concept of a right to life that is innate to individuals[citation needed] rather than granted as a privilege by those holding social and political power. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opponents believe that capital punishment is the worst violation of human rights, because the right to life is the most important, and capital punishment violates it without necessity and inflicts to the condemned a psychological torture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The right to life is for the most part an inalienable right granted to every human upon the planet, however, there are certain situations in which State actors are required to take drastic action, which can result in civilians being killed by law enforcement agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • But in taking on municipal animal control duties, these agencies abandoned their lifesaving and life-enhancing platforms when those beliefs conflicted with their contractual responsibilities. (all-creatures.org)
  • Death refers to the permanent termination of life-sustaining processes in an organism, i.e. when all biological systems of a human being cease to operate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another argument supporting the use of euthanasia is that everyone would benefit if it were legal to show mercy when death becomes preferable over life. (freeessay.com)
  • of a human - This element presents the issue of when life begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four states of mind recognized as constituting "malice" are: Intent to kill, Intent to inflict grievous bodily harm short of death, Reckless indifference to an unjustifiably high risk to human life (sometimes described as an "abandoned and malignant heart"), or Intent to commit a dangerous felony (the "felony murder" doctrine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Under state of mind (iii), an "abandoned and malignant heart", the killing must result from the defendant's conduct involving a reckless indifference to human life and a conscious disregard of an unreasonable risk of death or serious bodily injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • When these cells died, new life emerged from their rot: animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • argue
  • Utilitarian advocates argue from the position of costs and benefits and vary in their conclusions as to the allowable treatment of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • beings
  • He aims to refute views like those of Peter Singer, who suggests that we deny that it is always wrong to intentionally kill innocent human beings. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • While a number of euthanasia methods have been proposed for various invertebrate taxa, many have not been adequately vetted, and more research is needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, euthanasia methods should be used that minimize the potential for pain or distress. (wikipedia.org)
  • malice
  • Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wildlife
  • The Animal Ark is a non-profit wildlife sanctuary and animal education center based in Reno, Nevada. (blogspot.com)
  • Let's enter the wonderful world of animal and wildlife forensic toxicology. (blogspot.com)
  • While I work in a postmortem toxicology laboratory, the instrumentation used in animal and wildlife forensic toxicology is the same - high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), liquid chromatography with tandem (triple quadrupole) mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (LC/ToF or LC/qTOF), etc. (blogspot.com)
  • people
  • The final article concerned grieving that many people experience after the euthanasia death of a pet. (blogspot.com)
  • Beginning in 1939, gas chambers were used as part of the Nazi euthanasia program aimed at eliminating physically and intellectually disabled people. (wikipedia.org)
  • These opposing sides have many different reasons for believing what they do, some reasons people give for euthanasia are intriguing and very thought provoking. (freeessay.com)
  • While the views of many people may be against the use of euthanasia, it sad to say that in all actuality it goes on almost everyday. (freeessay.com)
  • While these views and arguments are very interesting and thought provoking there are many more people who believe that euthanasia is wrong. (freeessay.com)
  • process
  • Insect euthanasia is the process of killing insects "in a way that minimizes or eliminates pain and distress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal and plant cells normally reproduce and function during the whole period of natural existence, but the aging process derives from deterioration of cellular activity and ruination of regular functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals, the process involves the fusion of an ovum with a sperm, which eventually leads to the development of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process repeated over and over again: new cells emerged from the rot of these animal cells and so forth. (wikipedia.org)
  • wrong
  • As we grow from a young child to a mature adult, we are taught many things such as that killing another human being is wrong, it is against the law and goes against most people's religious beliefs. (freeessay.com)
  • include
  • Topics to be studied include working capital, current and non-current liabilities, and income determination. (google.com)
  • murder
  • The Unlawful - This distinguishes murder from killings that are done within the boundaries of law, such as capital punishment, justified self-defence, or the killing of enemy combatants by lawful combatants as well as causing collateral damage to non-combatants during a war. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • A typical human breathes between 12 and 20 times per minute at a rate primarily influenced by carbon dioxide concentration, and thus pH, in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Controlled atmosphere killing (CAK) or controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS) is a method for slaughtering animals such as chickens by placing the animals in a container in which the atmosphere lacks oxygen and consists of an asphyxiant gas (one or more of argon, nitrogen or carbon dioxide), causing the animals to lose consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1940 gas chambers using bottled pure carbon monoxide were established at six euthanasia centres in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • public
  • Programs like ensuring public access to affordable spay/neuter services, allowing rescue groups to save animals on death row, and communitywide Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) for feral cats. (all-creatures.org)
  • But the agencies that the public expects to protect animals are instead killing more than five million animals annually. (all-creatures.org)
  • justification
  • Itexamines such matters as the justification and purpose of government,anarchism, justice, equality, and human rights.Cross-referenced in political science. (nwciowa.edu)
  • guidelines
  • While vertebrate animal experimentation typically requires approval by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee in the United States, use of invertebrate animals has few guidelines, and many research papers make no mention of how their invertebrate subjects were killed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The long-awaited 2013 edition of the AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals has been published and it, together with an Executive Summary , can be accessed as a .pdf on the AVMA website. (avma.org)
  • years
  • More than three years of intense work and deliberation by more than 60 individuals-including veterinarians, animal scientists, animal behaviorists, physiologists, psychologists and an animal ethicist-resulted in the commentary and recommendations contained in the 2013 edition. (avma.org)
  • And that incompetence hasn't abated in the years since - capital punishment has if anything become an even less professional undertaking, as reputation-protecting drug manufacturers and physicians edge away from the institution and states grow cagier about what happens in the death chamber. (straightdope.com)
  • The debate of euthanasia has been ongoing for many years and as of now, there is no end in sight. (freeessay.com)
  • another
  • It may help to premedicate the animal with another injected or inhaled drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another argument that is given in favor or euthanasia is that the role of the physician is to do whatever is best for their patient. (freeessay.com)
  • Also, in the Zodiac series by Romina Russell, it states that "history tells us the original human colonizers came from a distant and long-gone planet called Earth, and they traveled through a portal in Helios to get here-but the portal is just another myth. (wikipedia.org)
  • idea
  • Many cultures and religions have the idea of an afterlife, and also hold the idea of reward or judgement and punishment for past sin. (wikipedia.org)
  • consciousness
  • In Cartesian dualism, consciousness was unique to human among all other animals and linked to physical matter by divine grace. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, close analysis shows that many human features such as complex sign usage, tool use, and self-consciousness can be found in some animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • better
  • Truth is, the answer is not just in better ways of euthanasia, but also in finding ways to curb the need for such things in the eyes that have the power. (avma.org)
  • justice
  • 1921) Adamson, Rebecca: "The Color of Wealth: The Story Behind the U.S. Racial Wealth Divide" (2006) Adler, Alfred: "Active and Passive Failures" (1934) Adler, Mortimer J.: "The Tragic Nature of Human Happiness" (1950), "The Questions Science Cannot Answer" (1940) Adler, Stephen: "American Justice on Trial: Who Chooses the Jury" (1995) Adzadzio, Najim: "Afghanistan's Untold Story and the Road Ahead" (2009) Agar, Herbert: "Can Civilization Continue Under the Capitalist System? (wikipedia.org)