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  • pathogen
  • Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. (umassmed.edu)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and one of the most common causes of bacteremia in humans. (jove.com)
  • Neisseria meningitidis is a human-specific pathogen with capacity to cause septic shock and meningitis. (jove.com)
  • Our mouse model of intranasal colonization is adapted from human models 3 and has been used by multiple research groups in the study of host-pathogen responses in the nasopharynx 4-7 . (jove.com)
  • These results show that P. pneumotropica has evolved mechanisms to evade the human complement system that may increase the efficiency by which this pathogen is able to gain access to and colonize inner tissues where it may cause severe infections. (jove.com)
  • Legionella pneumophila , the causative agent of a severe pneumonia named Legionnaires' disease, is an important human pathogen that infects and replicates within alveolar macrophages. (jove.com)
  • Diseases
  • Even though not fully replacing experiments with animals or human tissues obtained post mortem , the model described here allows identification and validation of disease mechanisms and therapeutic targets that may be highly relevant to various human diseases. (jove.com)
  • Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology classified the organism as bacterial in 1939, but the disease remained classified as a fungus in the 1955 edition of the Control of Communicable Diseases in Man. (wikipedia.org)
  • Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g., rice blast disease) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies. (wikipedia.org)
  • thrush
  • 1 month Oral [candidiasis] ([thrush]) Oral hairy leucoplakia Pulmonary tuberculosis Severe bacterial infections (i.e. pneumonia, pyomyositis) And/or performance scale 3: bedridden (wikipedia.org)
  • In healthy (immunocompetent) persons, candidiasis is usually a localized infection of the skin, fingernails or toenails (onychomycosis), or mucosal membranes, including the oral cavity and pharynx (thrush), esophagus, and the genitalia (vagina, penis, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of infection of the male genitalia (balanitis thrush) include red skin around the head of the penis, swelling, irritation, itchiness and soreness of the head of the penis, thick, lumpy discharge under the foreskin, unpleasant odour, difficulty retracting the foreskin (phimosis), and pain when passing urine or during sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Several strains of GAS bind to human-specific complement inhibitors, C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and/or Factor H (FH), to curtail complement C3 (a critical opsonin) deposition. (umassmed.edu)
  • GAS infection with strains that bound C4BP and FH resulted in enhanced mortality in each of the three transgenic mouse models compared to infection in wild type mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • L. pneumophila infection can be modeled in mice however most mouse strains are not permissive, leading to the search for novel infection models. (jove.com)
  • We examined the microRNA profiles of THP-1 macrophages upon the MTB infection of Beijing/W and non-Beijing/W clinical strains. (jove.com)
  • Schistosomiasis
  • 116) Blastomycotic infection (117) Other mycoses (118) Opportunistic mycoses (120) Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) (121) Other trematode infections (122) Echinococcosis (123) Other cestode infection (124) Trichinosis (125) Filarial infection and dracontiasis (126) Ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis (127) Other intestinal helminthiases (127.0) Ascariasis (127.1) Anisakiasis (127.2) Strongyloidiasis (127.3) Trichuriasis (127.4) Enterobiasis (127.5) Capillariasis (127.6) Trichostrongyliasis (128) Other and unspecified helminthiases (129) Intestinal parasitism, unspecified (130) Toxoplasmosis (130.9) Toxoplasmosis, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonization
  • Understanding the kinetics of, and immune responses to, nasopharyngeal colonization is an important aspect of S. pneumoniae infection models. (jove.com)
  • In the first part of the model, we use a clinical isolate of S. pneumoniae to establish a self-limiting bacterial colonization that is similar to carriage events in human adults. (jove.com)
  • The procedure detailed herein involves preparation of a bacterial inoculum, followed by the establishment of a colonization event through delivery of the inoculum via an intranasal route of administration. (jove.com)
  • The clinical presentation of the disease includes subcutaneous abscesses, respiratory tract colonization and systemic infections. (jove.com)
  • Feeding off organic residues ubiquitously present on historical glass, such as dust or dead fungal and bacterial material, fungal colonization by Geomyces may ultimately lead to etching, pit corrosion, or the formation of cracks or patinas due to secretion of acidic metabolic byproducts, or penetration of fungal mycelia into the paint layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • endemic
  • The infection is endemic in Africa, India and Central and South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trichophyton verrucosum is endemic in cattle, and almost exclusively the fungus that is isolated from cattle with ringworm, with younger cattle being more prone to infection due to their skin having higher pH, and having weaker immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • Upon bacterial infection, epithelial lesions and redistribution of intracellular junction protein N-cadherin were observed at the nasal epithelial mucosa, especially at the olfactory epithelium, which is functionally and anatomically connected to the CNS. (jove.com)
  • While distribution is worldwide, T. verrucosum and other zoophilic dermatophytes are the most frequently isolated fungi from skin lesions in Southern Europe and the Middle East (T. rubrum, a dermatophyte that more commonly infects humans, is the most prevalent in other regions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Efficacy
  • This novel hu-C4BPxFH tg model may prove invaluable in studies of GAS pathogenesis and for developing vaccines and therapeutics that rely on human complement activation for efficacy. (umassmed.edu)
  • While the properties of the variable domains of antibodies have long been considered critical to in vivo function, the ability of antibodies to recruit innate immune cells via their Fc domains has become increasingly appreciated as a major factor in their efficacy, both in the setting of recombinant monoclonal antibody therapy, as well as in the course of natural infection or vaccination 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • Candidiasis
  • 112) Candidiasis (112.0) Moniliasis, oral (112.1) Moniliasis, vulva/vagina (112.2) Monilial balanitis (112.3) Moniliasis, skin/nails (114) Coccidioidomycosis (115) Histoplasmosis (115.0) Histoplasma infection, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuberculosis
  • Despite the availability of therapy and vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly and widespread bacterial infections in the world. (jove.com)
  • The important side effects of TNF inhibitors include lymphomas, infections (especially reactivation of latent tuberculosis), congestive heart failure, demyelinating disease, a lupus-like syndrome, induction of auto-antibodies, injection site reactions, and systemic side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaginal
  • BV is a common vaginal condition in women and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth. (jove.com)
  • Here we present a new murine vaginal infection model with a clinical isolate of G. vaginalis. (jove.com)
  • G. vaginalis was capable of ascending uterine infection, which correlated with the degree of vaginal infection and level of vaginal sialidase activity. (jove.com)
  • This is the first time vaginal infection by a BV associated bacterium in an animal has been shown to parallel the human disease with regard to clinical diagnostic features. (jove.com)
  • Little evidence supports probiotics for either prevention or treatment even among those with frequent vaginal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolation
  • The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. (jove.com)
  • disease
  • Mice bearing a "humanized" immune system are valuable tools to experimentally manipulate human cells in vivo and facilitate disease models not normally possible in laboratory animals. (jove.com)
  • Small animal models such as mice have been extensively used to study human disease and to develop new therapeutic interventions. (jove.com)
  • One of the main limitations of both of these models was the lack of stable reconstitution of human immune cells in the periphery to make them a more physiologically relevant model to study HIV disease. (jove.com)
  • Thus, this method to study functional differences of antigen-specific antibodies in clinical samples will facilitate correlation of the phagocytic potential of antibodies to disease state, susceptibility to infection, progression, or clinical outcome. (jove.com)
  • We also studied the microRNA profiles of the host macrophages by microarray in a small cohort with active MTB disease, latent infection (LTBI), and from healthy controls. (jove.com)
  • WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease in Adults and Adolescents was first produced in 1990 by the World Health Organization and updated in September 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following infection with HIV, the rate of clinical disease progression varies enormously between individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many factors such as host susceptibility and immune function, health care and co-infections, as well as factors relating to the viral strain may affect the rate of clinical disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interim proposal for a WHO Staging System for HIV infection and Disease" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • An affected human often has recently had dental work, poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, radiation therapy, or trauma (broken jaw) causing local tissue damage to the oral mucosa, all of which predispose the person to developing actinomycosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous fungal disease of humans, affecting mainly the limbs, and sometimes the abdominal and chest walls or the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first modern description of Madura foot was made in 1842 from Madurai (the city after which the disease was named Madura mycosis) in India, by Gill. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major non-human skin flora is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a chytrid and non-hyphal zoosporic fungus that causes chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease thought to be responsible for the decline in amphibian populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • 001) Cholera disease (002) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (003) Other Salmonella infections (003.0) Salmonella gastroenteritis (004) Shigellosis (004.9) Shigellosis, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the disease progresses, the skin may crack, leading to bacterial skin infection and inflammation of the lymphatic vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • In animal care facilities the presence of P. pneumotropica causes severe to lethal infection in immunodeficient mice, being also a potential source for human contamination. (jove.com)
  • It has a worldwide distribution, however human infection is more common in rural areas where contact with animals is more frequent, and can cause severe inflammation of the afflicted region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most candidal infections result in minimal complications such as redness, itching, and discomfort, though complications may be severe or even fatal if left untreated in certain populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection of the vagina or vulva may cause severe itching, burning, soreness, irritation, and a whitish or whitish-gray cottage cheese-like discharge. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • Mouse models studying macrophage biology suffer from the phenotypic and functional differences between murine and human monocyte-derived macrophages. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, we here describe an in vitro model to generate and study primary human macrophages. (jove.com)
  • skin
  • Fungal bacterial infections in the human body are referred to as mycoses and have an affect on only the outer layer of skin. (free-blogz.com)
  • In this protocol, we describe a humanized model for this infection in which human skin, containing dermal microvessels, is grafted onto immunocompromised mice. (jove.com)
  • At a cellular level, GVHD is associated with the infiltration of human CD4+ T cells into the skin and a shift towards Th1 cytokine production. (jove.com)
  • The human skin harbors a complex microbial ecosystem with transient, short-term resident and long-term resident biota, based on the consistency with which they are isolated. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • B00-B09 Viral infections characterized by skin a. (icd10data.com)
  • Infection is initiated via inhalation or traumatic implantation in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In preparing samples for diagnosis, a scraping of the skin from the active border of infection is taken, and is inoculated directly onto the test medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiome) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin, typically human skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study by the National Human Genome Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, researched the DNA of human skin fungi at 14 different locations on the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • bactericidal
  • Here, we show for the first time that P. pneumotropica is able to survive the bactericidal activity of the human complement system. (jove.com)
  • immune
  • Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement and consequent phagocytosis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Infections of the mouth are most common among children less than one month old, the elderly, and those with weak immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efforts to prevent infections of the mouth include the use of chlorhexidine mouth wash in those with poor immune function and washing out the mouth following the use of inhaled steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonies
  • The performance of these different identification and AST systems applied directly on the blood culture bacterial pellets is very similar to the performance normally obtained from isolated colonies grown on agar plates. (jove.com)
  • Researchers at North Carolina State University, led by Jiri Hulcr, then grew the samples in a culture until the bacterial colonies were large enough to be photographed and then these pictures were posted on the Belly Button Biodiversity Project's website (volunteers were given sample numbers so that they could view their own samples online). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotic
  • We present here a simple and fast bacterial pellet preparation from a positive blood culture that can be used as a sample for several essential downstream applications such as identification by MALDI-TOF MS, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) by disc diffusion assay or automated AST systems and by automated PCR-based diagnostic testing. (jove.com)
  • inhibitors
  • Herein we describe the course of GAS infection in three human complement inhibitor transgenic (tg) mouse models that examined each inhibitor (human C4BP or FH) alone, or the two inhibitors together (C4BPxFH or 'double' tg). (umassmed.edu)
  • and Blom, Anna M., "Virulence of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced by Human Complement Inhibitors" (2015). (umassmed.edu)
  • clinical
  • HIV encephalopathy: clinical findings of disabling cognitive and/or motor dysfunction interfering with activities of daily living, progressing over weeks to months, in the absence of a concurrent illness or condition other than HIV infection which could explain the findings. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • Reaching sexual maturity at one year, it mates for life and nests in a scrape, normally on cliff edges or, in recent times, on tall human-made structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals, they normally live in the small spaces between the teeth and gums, causing infection only when they can multiply freely in anoxic environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The former can also be distinguished by the presence of sclerotia, or granules, which are typically absent in pseudallescheriasis-type infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Once introduced into this model, N. meningitidis adhere exclusively to the human vessels, resulting in extensive vascular damage, inflammation and in some cases the development of purpuric rash. (jove.com)
  • cause infection
  • Contact with horse blankets and cattle posts can also cause infection, and T. verrucosum has also been isolated from flies, although it is unknown whether flies can serve as vectors of transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 20 types of Candida can cause infection with Candida albicans being the most common. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • The following risk factors were found in multiple studies to be significantly associated with IFD: surgery, total parenteral nutrition, fungal colonisation, renal replacement therapy, infection and/or sepsis, mechanical ventilation, diabetes, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) or APACHE III score. (biomedcentral.com)
  • fungus
  • While "fungus balls" can also form in other organs, they are commonly derived from host necrotic tissue resulting from nodular infarction and thrombosis of lung vessels following infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major non-human skin flora is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a chytrid and non-hyphal zoosporic fungus that causes chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease thought to be responsible for the decline in amphibian populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dermatophytids are fungus-free skin lesions that sometimes form as a result of a fungus infection in another part of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • though this fungus may be transmitted from mice and their danders to humans, it generally infects skin and not nails. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nail fungus tends to affect men more often than women, and is associated with a family history of this infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Her research has mainly focused on molecular epidemiology of: fascioliasis and its lymnaeid snail vectors worldwide, planorbid snail vectors of schistosomiasis, triatomine insects transmitting Chagas disease in Latin America, culicid vectors of medical importance, and malaria transmission risk and spread in Europe and the likely impact of environment, human behaviour and climate changes on these parasitic diseases. (tropicalmedicine2016.com)
  • Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g., rice blast disease) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Some human diseases have been associated with changes in the human mycobiome. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • and its relationship to basal mitochondrial content in mouse, rat and human muscles using in situ immunolabeling and histochemical methods on muscle serial cross-sections. (jove.com)
  • Chlamydia
  • Chlamydia pneumoniae disturbs cholesterol homeostasis in human THP-1 macrophages via JNK - PPARĪ³ dependent signal transduction pathways. (blogspot.com)
  • Skin
  • After primary lung infection it progresses into a systemic infection on the skin, in the urinary reproductive system, and the central nervous system [ 7 ]. (kcdcphrp.org)
  • In preparing samples for diagnosis, a scraping of the skin from the active border of infection is taken, and is inoculated directly onto the test medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiome) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin, typically human skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of infection of the male genitalia (balanitis thrush) include red skin around the head of the penis, swelling, irritation, itchiness and soreness of the head of the penis, thick, lumpy discharge under the foreskin, unpleasant odour, difficulty retracting the foreskin (phimosis), and pain when passing urine or during sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • lungs
  • Human infection takes one of two forms: mycetoma (99% of infections), a chronic, subcutaneous disease, and pseudallescheriasis, which includes all other forms of the disease commonly presented in the central nervous system, lungs, joints and bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptibility
  • Many factors such as host susceptibility and immune function, health care and co-infections, as well as factors relating to the viral strain may affect the rate of clinical disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common
  • Growth of P. boydii can be seen in environments where nitrogen-containing compounds are common, usually due to human pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections of the mouth are most common among children less than one month old, the elderly, and those with weak immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • In this paper, we report the results of a systematic review performed to identify and summarise the important risk factors derived from published multivariable analyses, risk prediction models and clinical decision rules for IFD in critically ill adult patients to inform the primary data collection for the Fungal Infection Risk Evaluation Study. (biomedcentral.com)