• species
  • Despite the wealth of information gained from these studies, the unique characteristics of mouse immunity as well as the species specificity of viral diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection led to the development of humanized mouse models. (jove.com)
  • In fact, the only land-based bird species found over a larger geographic area is not always naturally occurring, but one widely introduced by humans, the rock pigeon, which in turn now supports many peregrine populations as a prey species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial species in BV. (jove.com)
  • Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a recurring polymicrobial syndrome that is characterized by a change in the "normal" microbiota from Lactobacillus -dominated to a microbiota dominated by a number of bacterial species, including Gardnerella vaginalis , Atopobium vaginae , and others 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • an aerobic bacterial swab was positive for Corynebacterium species. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • Pitted keratolysis is caused by a cutaneous infection with either Micrococcus sedentarius (now renamed as Kytococcus sedentarius), Dermatophilus congolensis and the Corynebacterium species. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • Actinomycosis is a rare infectious bacterial disease caused by Actinomyces species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection can also be caused by other Actinomyces species, as well as Propionibacterium propionicus, which presents similar symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, in spring 2009 the source of the infection was identified as a new species, Geomyces destructans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonization
  • Understanding the kinetics of, and immune responses to, nasopharyngeal colonization is an important aspect of S. pneumoniae infection models. (jove.com)
  • Our mouse model of intranasal colonization is adapted from human models 3 and has been used by multiple research groups in the study of host-pathogen responses in the nasopharynx 4-7 . (jove.com)
  • In the first part of the model, we use a clinical isolate of S. pneumoniae to establish a self-limiting bacterial colonization that is similar to carriage events in human adults. (jove.com)
  • The procedure detailed herein involves preparation of a bacterial inoculum, followed by the establishment of a colonization event through delivery of the inoculum via an intranasal route of administration. (jove.com)
  • The clinical presentation of the disease includes subcutaneous abscesses, respiratory tract colonization and systemic infections. (jove.com)
  • Remaining questions are whether the new LPXTG-protein plays a role in bovine colonization or infection, and whether the new SCC could further acquire antibiotic-resistance genes and carry them back to human. (jove.com)
  • Feeding off organic residues ubiquitously present on historical glass, such as dust or dead fungal and bacterial material, fungal colonization by Geomyces may ultimately lead to etching, pit corrosion, or the formation of cracks or patinas due to secretion of acidic metabolic byproducts, or penetration of fungal mycelia into the paint layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Upon bacterial infection, epithelial lesions and redistribution of intracellular junction protein N-cadherin were observed at the nasal epithelial mucosa, especially at the olfactory epithelium, which is functionally and anatomically connected to the CNS. (jove.com)
  • The host response to G. vaginalis infection was characterized by robust vaginal epithelial cell exfoliation in the absence of histological inflammation. (jove.com)
  • Here we present an optimized protocol to grow H. pylori in varying conditions of iron availability prior to co-culture with human gastric epithelial cells. (jove.com)
  • As neutrophilic inflammation including increased release of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a salient feature of AECOPD, we hypothesized that HNE impairs airway epithelial defense against NTHi by degrading airway epithelial host defense proteins such as short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1). (jove.com)
  • We use primary human respiratory epithelial tissues raised to the air-liquid interface, the EpiAirway model (MatTek, Ashland, MA). (jove.com)
  • Schistosomiasis
  • 116) Blastomycotic infection (117) Other mycoses (118) Opportunistic mycoses (120) Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) (121) Other trematode infections (122) Echinococcosis (123) Other cestode infection (124) Trichinosis (125) Filarial infection and dracontiasis (126) Ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis (127) Other intestinal helminthiases (127.0) Ascariasis (127.1) Anisakiasis (127.2) Strongyloidiasis (127.3) Trichuriasis (127.4) Enterobiasis (127.5) Capillariasis (127.6) Trichostrongyliasis (128) Other and unspecified helminthiases (129) Intestinal parasitism, unspecified (130) Toxoplasmosis (130.9) Toxoplasmosis, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • endemic
  • The infection is endemic in Africa, India and Central and South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trichophyton verrucosum is endemic in cattle, and almost exclusively the fungus that is isolated from cattle with ringworm, with younger cattle being more prone to infection due to their skin having higher pH, and having weaker immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral
  • Many factors such as host susceptibility and immune function, health care and co-infections, as well as factors relating to the viral strain may affect the rate of clinical disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Candidiasis
  • 112) Candidiasis (112.0) Moniliasis, oral (112.1) Moniliasis, vulva/vagina (112.2) Monilial balanitis (112.3) Moniliasis, skin/nails (114) Coccidioidomycosis (115) Histoplasmosis (115.0) Histoplasma infection, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • In animal care facilities the presence of P. pneumotropica causes severe to lethal infection in immunodeficient mice, being also a potential source for human contamination. (jove.com)
  • To understand the interplay between MRSA and host immunity leading to more severe infection, the availability of animal models is critical, permitting the study of host and bacterial factors. (jove.com)
  • It has a worldwide distribution, however human infection is more common in rural areas where contact with animals is more frequent, and can cause severe inflammation of the afflicted region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most candidal infections result in minimal complications such as redness, itching, and discomfort, though complications may be severe or even fatal if left untreated in certain populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection of the vagina or vulva may cause severe itching, burning, soreness, irritation, and a whitish or whitish-gray cottage cheese-like discharge. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • While distribution is worldwide, T. verrucosum and other zoophilic dermatophytes are the most frequently isolated fungi from skin lesions in Southern Europe and the Middle East (T. rubrum, a dermatophyte that more commonly infects humans, is the most prevalent in other regions). (wikipedia.org)
  • vaginal
  • Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis of the vaginal flora characterized by a shift from a Lactobacillus-dominant environment to a polymicrobial mixture including Actinobacteria and gram-negative bacilli. (jove.com)
  • BV is a common vaginal condition in women and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth. (jove.com)
  • Here we present a new murine vaginal infection model with a clinical isolate of G. vaginalis. (jove.com)
  • G. vaginalis was capable of ascending uterine infection, which correlated with the degree of vaginal infection and level of vaginal sialidase activity. (jove.com)
  • This is the first time vaginal infection by a BV associated bacterium in an animal has been shown to parallel the human disease with regard to clinical diagnostic features. (jove.com)
  • Little evidence supports probiotics for either prevention or treatment even among those with frequent vaginal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of topical antifungal medications may be used for vaginal infections including clotrimazole. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolates
  • Staphylococcus aureus can colonize and infect both humans and animals, but isolates from both hosts tend to belong to different lineages. (jove.com)
  • Within this CC8 group, human and bovine isolates further segregated into three subgroups, among which two contained a mix of human and bovine isolates, and one contained only bovine isolates. (jove.com)
  • With about 15,000 fungal and about 35,000 bacterial living isolates, it is the largest collection of this kind in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • antifungal
  • The objective is to develop hLF1-11 as an effective and safe antibacterial and antifungal for the treatment of fungal and bacterial infections that develop during the neutropenia that results from myeloablative therapy to prepare for a haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) formerly referred to as bone marrow transplant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Treatment of infections with P. boydii is complicated by its resistance to many of the standard antifungal agents normally used to treat infections by filamentous fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • L. pneumophila infection can be modeled in mice however most mouse strains are not permissive, leading to the search for novel infection models. (jove.com)
  • We examined the microRNA profiles of THP-1 macrophages upon the MTB infection of Beijing/W and non-Beijing/W clinical strains. (jove.com)
  • Pathology
  • We now aimed to quantify vacA mRNA expression in the human stomach, define its genetic determinants and assess how well it predicted gastric pathology. (openaire.eu)
  • macrophages
  • We also studied the microRNA profiles of the host macrophages by microarray in a small cohort with active MTB disease, latent infection (LTBI), and from healthy controls. (jove.com)
  • commonly
  • While "fungus balls" can also form in other organs, they are commonly derived from host necrotic tissue resulting from nodular infarction and thrombosis of lung vessels following infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiome) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin, typically human skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • less commonly in healthy individuals, the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and respiratory tract are sites of candida infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Mice bearing a "humanized" immune system are valuable tools to experimentally manipulate human cells in vivo and facilitate disease models not normally possible in laboratory animals. (jove.com)
  • Small animal models such as mice have been extensively used to study human disease and to develop new therapeutic interventions. (jove.com)
  • One of the main limitations of both of these models was the lack of stable reconstitution of human immune cells in the periphery to make them a more physiologically relevant model to study HIV disease. (jove.com)
  • WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease in Adults and Adolescents was first produced in 1990 by the World Health Organization and updated in September 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following infection with HIV, the rate of clinical disease progression varies enormously between individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interim proposal for a WHO Staging System for HIV infection and Disease" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • An affected human often has recently had dental work, poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, radiation therapy, or trauma (broken jaw) causing local tissue damage to the oral mucosa, all of which predispose the person to developing actinomycosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The important side effects of TNF inhibitors include lymphomas, infections (especially reactivation of latent tuberculosis), congestive heart failure, demyelinating disease, a lupus-like syndrome, induction of auto-antibodies, injection site reactions, and systemic side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous fungal disease of humans, affecting mainly the limbs, and sometimes the abdominal and chest walls or the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first modern description of Madura foot was made in 1842 from Madurai (the city after which the disease was named Madura mycosis) in India, by Gill. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major non-human skin flora is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a chytrid and non-hyphal zoosporic fungus that causes chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease thought to be responsible for the decline in amphibian populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • 001) Cholera disease (002) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (003) Other Salmonella infections (003.0) Salmonella gastroenteritis (004) Shigellosis (004.9) Shigellosis, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotic
  • We present here a simple and fast bacterial pellet preparation from a positive blood culture that can be used as a sample for several essential downstream applications such as identification by MALDI-TOF MS, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) by disc diffusion assay or automated AST systems and by automated PCR-based diagnostic testing. (jove.com)
  • Peptidoglycan's central importance to bacterial physiology underlies its use as an antibiotic target and has motivated genetic, structural, and cell biological studies of how it is robustly assembled during growth and division. (jove.com)
  • colonies
  • The performance of these different identification and AST systems applied directly on the blood culture bacterial pellets is very similar to the performance normally obtained from isolated colonies grown on agar plates. (jove.com)
  • Researchers at North Carolina State University, led by Jiri Hulcr, then grew the samples in a culture until the bacterial colonies were large enough to be photographed and then these pictures were posted on the Belly Button Biodiversity Project's website (volunteers were given sample numbers so that they could view their own samples online). (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory tract
  • Further, since the source for the EpiAirway is normal human tracheo-bronchial cells rather than an immortalized line, each is an excellent representation of actual human upper respiratory tract tissue, both in structure and in function 4 . (jove.com)
  • inflammation
  • Once introduced into this model, N. meningitidis adhere exclusively to the human vessels, resulting in extensive vascular damage, inflammation and in some cases the development of purpuric rash. (jove.com)
  • normally
  • Reaching sexual maturity at one year, it mates for life and nests in a scrape, normally on cliff edges or, in recent times, on tall human-made structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals, they normally live in the small spaces between the teeth and gums, causing infection only when they can multiply freely in anoxic environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • gram
  • Helicobacter pylori is a helical-shaped, gram negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric niche of half of the human population 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • typically
  • The former can also be distinguished by the presence of sclerotia, or granules, which are typically absent in pseudallescheriasis-type infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • preparation
  • Together, these results demonstrate that the rapid preparation of a blood culture bacterial pellet has a significant impact on the identification and AST turnaround time and thus on the successful outcome of patients suffering from bloodstream infections. (jove.com)
  • bone
  • Here we describe a form of GVHD that develops in NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human fetal bone marrow, liver and thymus (NS BLT mice). (jove.com)
  • tissues
  • These are non-immortalized, well-differentiated, 3-dimensional tissues that contain tight junctions, ciliated and nonciliated cells, goblet cells that produce mucin, and retain the ability to produce cytokines in response to infection. (jove.com)
  • Models
  • The earlier models involved the use of C. B 17 scid/scid mice and the transplantation of human fetal thymus and fetal liver termed thy/liv (SCID-hu) 1, 2 or the adoptive transfer of human peripheral blood leukocytes (SCID-huPBL) 3 . (jove.com)
  • Both models were mainly utilized for the study of HIV infection. (jove.com)
  • Using traditional experimental methods for this purpose can be very costly and time-consuming, and also uncertain since animal models are not always good predictors for pathogenicity in humans. (jove.com)
  • cause
  • It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. (jove.com)
  • Contact with horse blankets and cattle posts can also cause infection, and T. verrucosum has also been isolated from flies, although it is unknown whether flies can serve as vectors of transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection of the hair is ectothrix, and can cause tinea capitis (with potential for kerions and irreversible scarring and alopecia), as well as tinea corporis, tinea manuum, tinea barbae, and tinea profunda. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 20 types of Candida can cause infection with Candida albicans being the most common. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • A study by the National Human Genome Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, researched the DNA of human skin fungi at 14 different locations on the body. (wikipedia.org)