• species
  • Despite the wealth of information gained from these studies, the unique characteristics of mouse immunity as well as the species specificity of viral diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection led to the development of humanized mouse models. (jove.com)
  • In fact, the only land-based bird species found over a larger geographic area is not always naturally occurring, but one widely introduced by humans, the rock pigeon, which in turn now supports many peregrine populations as a prey species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial species in BV. (jove.com)
  • Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a recurring polymicrobial syndrome that is characterized by a change in the "normal" microbiota from Lactobacillus -dominated to a microbiota dominated by a number of bacterial species, including Gardnerella vaginalis , Atopobium vaginae , and others 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • an aerobic bacterial swab was positive for Corynebacterium species. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • Pitted keratolysis is caused by a cutaneous infection with either Micrococcus sedentarius (now renamed as Kytococcus sedentarius), Dermatophilus congolensis and the Corynebacterium species. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • Actinomycosis is a rare infectious bacterial disease caused by Actinomyces species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection can also be caused by other Actinomyces species, as well as Propionibacterium propionicus, which presents similar symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, in spring 2009 the source of the infection was identified as a new species, Geomyces destructans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • thrush
  • 1 month Oral [candidiasis] ([thrush]) Oral hairy leucoplakia Pulmonary tuberculosis Severe bacterial infections (i.e. pneumonia, pyomyositis) And/or performance scale 3: bedridden (wikipedia.org)
  • In healthy (immunocompetent) persons, candidiasis is usually a localized infection of the skin, fingernails or toenails (onychomycosis), or mucosal membranes, including the oral cavity and pharynx (thrush), esophagus, and the genitalia (vagina, penis, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of infection of the male genitalia (balanitis thrush) include red skin around the head of the penis, swelling, irritation, itchiness and soreness of the head of the penis, thick, lumpy discharge under the foreskin, unpleasant odour, difficulty retracting the foreskin (phimosis), and pain when passing urine or during sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schistosomiasis
  • 116) Blastomycotic infection (117) Other mycoses (118) Opportunistic mycoses (120) Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) (121) Other trematode infections (122) Echinococcosis (123) Other cestode infection (124) Trichinosis (125) Filarial infection and dracontiasis (126) Ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis (127) Other intestinal helminthiases (127.0) Ascariasis (127.1) Anisakiasis (127.2) Strongyloidiasis (127.3) Trichuriasis (127.4) Enterobiasis (127.5) Capillariasis (127.6) Trichostrongyliasis (128) Other and unspecified helminthiases (129) Intestinal parasitism, unspecified (130) Toxoplasmosis (130.9) Toxoplasmosis, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Upon bacterial infection, epithelial lesions and redistribution of intracellular junction protein N-cadherin were observed at the nasal epithelial mucosa, especially at the olfactory epithelium, which is functionally and anatomically connected to the CNS. (jove.com)
  • The host response to G. vaginalis infection was characterized by robust vaginal epithelial cell exfoliation in the absence of histological inflammation. (jove.com)
  • As neutrophilic inflammation including increased release of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a salient feature of AECOPD, we hypothesized that HNE impairs airway epithelial defense against NTHi by degrading airway epithelial host defense proteins such as short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1). (jove.com)
  • We use primary human respiratory epithelial tissues raised to the air-liquid interface, the EpiAirway model (MatTek, Ashland, MA). (jove.com)
  • endemic
  • The infection is endemic in Africa, India and Central and South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trichophyton verrucosum is endemic in cattle, and almost exclusively the fungus that is isolated from cattle with ringworm, with younger cattle being more prone to infection due to their skin having higher pH, and having weaker immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • Even though not fully replacing experiments with animals or human tissues obtained post mortem , the model described here allows identification and validation of disease mechanisms and therapeutic targets that may be highly relevant to various human diseases. (jove.com)
  • Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology classified the organism as bacterial in 1939, but the disease remained classified as a fungus in the 1955 edition of the Control of Communicable Diseases in Man. (wikipedia.org)
  • Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g., rice blast disease) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral
  • Many factors such as host susceptibility and immune function, health care and co-infections, as well as factors relating to the viral strain may affect the rate of clinical disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Several strains of GAS bind to human-specific complement inhibitors, C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and/or Factor H (FH), to curtail complement C3 (a critical opsonin) deposition. (umassmed.edu)
  • GAS infection with strains that bound C4BP and FH resulted in enhanced mortality in each of the three transgenic mouse models compared to infection in wild type mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • L. pneumophila infection can be modeled in mice however most mouse strains are not permissive, leading to the search for novel infection models. (jove.com)
  • We examined the microRNA profiles of THP-1 macrophages upon the MTB infection of Beijing/W and non-Beijing/W clinical strains. (jove.com)
  • Candidiasis
  • 112) Candidiasis (112.0) Moniliasis, oral (112.1) Moniliasis, vulva/vagina (112.2) Monilial balanitis (112.3) Moniliasis, skin/nails (114) Coccidioidomycosis (115) Histoplasmosis (115.0) Histoplasma infection, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • In animal care facilities the presence of P. pneumotropica causes severe to lethal infection in immunodeficient mice, being also a potential source for human contamination. (jove.com)
  • To understand the interplay between MRSA and host immunity leading to more severe infection, the availability of animal models is critical, permitting the study of host and bacterial factors. (jove.com)
  • It has a worldwide distribution, however human infection is more common in rural areas where contact with animals is more frequent, and can cause severe inflammation of the afflicted region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most candidal infections result in minimal complications such as redness, itching, and discomfort, though complications may be severe or even fatal if left untreated in certain populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection of the vagina or vulva may cause severe itching, burning, soreness, irritation, and a whitish or whitish-gray cottage cheese-like discharge. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • While distribution is worldwide, T. verrucosum and other zoophilic dermatophytes are the most frequently isolated fungi from skin lesions in Southern Europe and the Middle East (T. rubrum, a dermatophyte that more commonly infects humans, is the most prevalent in other regions). (wikipedia.org)
  • vaginal
  • Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis of the vaginal flora characterized by a shift from a Lactobacillus-dominant environment to a polymicrobial mixture including Actinobacteria and gram-negative bacilli. (jove.com)
  • BV is a common vaginal condition in women and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth. (jove.com)
  • Here we present a new murine vaginal infection model with a clinical isolate of G. vaginalis. (jove.com)
  • G. vaginalis was capable of ascending uterine infection, which correlated with the degree of vaginal infection and level of vaginal sialidase activity. (jove.com)
  • This is the first time vaginal infection by a BV associated bacterium in an animal has been shown to parallel the human disease with regard to clinical diagnostic features. (jove.com)
  • Little evidence supports probiotics for either prevention or treatment even among those with frequent vaginal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolates
  • Within this CC8 group, human and bovine isolates further segregated into three subgroups, among which two contained a mix of human and bovine isolates, and one contained only bovine isolates. (jove.com)
  • With about 15,000 fungal and about 35,000 bacterial living isolates, it is the largest collection of this kind in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolation
  • The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. (jove.com)
  • inflammation
  • Once introduced into this model, N. meningitidis adhere exclusively to the human vessels, resulting in extensive vascular damage, inflammation and in some cases the development of purpuric rash. (jove.com)
  • As the disease progresses, the skin may crack, leading to bacterial skin infection and inflammation of the lymphatic vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • Mouse models studying macrophage biology suffer from the phenotypic and functional differences between murine and human monocyte-derived macrophages. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, we here describe an in vitro model to generate and study primary human macrophages. (jove.com)
  • We also studied the microRNA profiles of the host macrophages by microarray in a small cohort with active MTB disease, latent infection (LTBI), and from healthy controls. (jove.com)
  • skin
  • Fungal bacterial infections in the human body are referred to as mycoses and have an affect on only the outer layer of skin. (free-blogz.com)
  • In this protocol, we describe a humanized model for this infection in which human skin, containing dermal microvessels, is grafted onto immunocompromised mice. (jove.com)
  • At a cellular level, GVHD is associated with the infiltration of human CD4+ T cells into the skin and a shift towards Th1 cytokine production. (jove.com)
  • The human skin harbors a complex microbial ecosystem with transient, short-term resident and long-term resident biota, based on the consistency with which they are isolated. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • Treatment of bacterial skin infections in ED observation units: factor" by John P. Haran, Gregory Wu et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • OBJECTIVE: The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) publishes evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. (umassmed.edu)
  • METHODS: This prospective cohort enrolled adult patients discharged from an EDOU at an academic medical center after treatment for a skin or soft tissue infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • Standardized antibiotic protocols for treatment of skin and soft tissue infections to IDSA guidelines in the EDOU would minimize physician bias. (umassmed.edu)
  • MRSA is a worldwide threat to public health, and MRSA skin and soft-tissue infections now account for more than half of all soft-tissue infections in the United States. (jove.com)
  • Infection is initiated via inhalation or traumatic implantation in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In preparing samples for diagnosis, a scraping of the skin from the active border of infection is taken, and is inoculated directly onto the test medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiome) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin, typically human skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major non-human skin flora is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a chytrid and non-hyphal zoosporic fungus that causes chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease thought to be responsible for the decline in amphibian populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study by the National Human Genome Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, researched the DNA of human skin fungi at 14 different locations on the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Mice bearing a "humanized" immune system are valuable tools to experimentally manipulate human cells in vivo and facilitate disease models not normally possible in laboratory animals. (jove.com)
  • Small animal models such as mice have been extensively used to study human disease and to develop new therapeutic interventions. (jove.com)
  • One of the main limitations of both of these models was the lack of stable reconstitution of human immune cells in the periphery to make them a more physiologically relevant model to study HIV disease. (jove.com)
  • Thus, this method to study functional differences of antigen-specific antibodies in clinical samples will facilitate correlation of the phagocytic potential of antibodies to disease state, susceptibility to infection, progression, or clinical outcome. (jove.com)
  • WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease in Adults and Adolescents was first produced in 1990 by the World Health Organization and updated in September 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following infection with HIV, the rate of clinical disease progression varies enormously between individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interim proposal for a WHO Staging System for HIV infection and Disease" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • An affected human often has recently had dental work, poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, radiation therapy, or trauma (broken jaw) causing local tissue damage to the oral mucosa, all of which predispose the person to developing actinomycosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The important side effects of TNF inhibitors include lymphomas, infections (especially reactivation of latent tuberculosis), congestive heart failure, demyelinating disease, a lupus-like syndrome, induction of auto-antibodies, injection site reactions, and systemic side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous fungal disease of humans, affecting mainly the limbs, and sometimes the abdominal and chest walls or the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first modern description of Madura foot was made in 1842 from Madurai (the city after which the disease was named Madura mycosis) in India, by Gill. (wikipedia.org)
  • 001) Cholera disease (002) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (003) Other Salmonella infections (003.0) Salmonella gastroenteritis (004) Shigellosis (004.9) Shigellosis, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement and consequent phagocytosis. (umassmed.edu)
  • The assessment of the in vivo role of bacterial fitness or virulence factors is of utmost importance to unravel S. pneumoniae pathogenicity mechanisms. (jove.com)
  • Given the ability of P. pneumotropica to fully disseminate in the organism, it is quite relevant to study the role of the complement system to control the infection as well as the possible evasion mechanisms involved in bacterial survival. (jove.com)
  • However, the mechanisms underlying bacterial infections during AECOPD remain poorly understood. (jove.com)
  • It is also aimed at research on pathogenicity mechanisms of fungal causative agents of a variety of mycoses in animals and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • This novel hu-C4BPxFH tg model may prove invaluable in studies of GAS pathogenesis and for developing vaccines and therapeutics that rely on human complement activation for efficacy. (umassmed.edu)
  • describe
  • Herein we describe the course of GAS infection in three human complement inhibitor transgenic (tg) mouse models that examined each inhibitor (human C4BP or FH) alone, or the two inhibitors together (C4BPxFH or 'double' tg). (umassmed.edu)
  • Here we describe a form of GVHD that develops in NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human fetal bone marrow, liver and thymus (NS BLT mice). (jove.com)
  • immune
  • While the properties of the variable domains of antibodies have long been considered critical to in vivo function, the ability of antibodies to recruit innate immune cells via their Fc domains has become increasingly appreciated as a major factor in their efficacy, both in the setting of recombinant monoclonal antibody therapy, as well as in the course of natural infection or vaccination 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • Infections of the mouth are most common among children less than one month old, the elderly, and those with weak immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efforts to prevent infections of the mouth include the use of chlorhexidine mouth wash in those with poor immune function and washing out the mouth following the use of inhaled steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • These are non-immortalized, well-differentiated, 3-dimensional tissues that contain tight junctions, ciliated and nonciliated cells, goblet cells that produce mucin, and retain the ability to produce cytokines in response to infection. (jove.com)
  • colonies
  • The performance of these different identification and AST systems applied directly on the blood culture bacterial pellets is very similar to the performance normally obtained from isolated colonies grown on agar plates. (jove.com)
  • Researchers at North Carolina State University, led by Jiri Hulcr, then grew the samples in a culture until the bacterial colonies were large enough to be photographed and then these pictures were posted on the Belly Button Biodiversity Project's website (volunteers were given sample numbers so that they could view their own samples online). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotic
  • We present here a simple and fast bacterial pellet preparation from a positive blood culture that can be used as a sample for several essential downstream applications such as identification by MALDI-TOF MS, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) by disc diffusion assay or automated AST systems and by automated PCR-based diagnostic testing. (jove.com)
  • clinical
  • HIV encephalopathy: clinical findings of disabling cognitive and/or motor dysfunction interfering with activities of daily living, progressing over weeks to months, in the absence of a concurrent illness or condition other than HIV infection which could explain the findings. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • Reaching sexual maturity at one year, it mates for life and nests in a scrape, normally on cliff edges or, in recent times, on tall human-made structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals, they normally live in the small spaces between the teeth and gums, causing infection only when they can multiply freely in anoxic environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The former can also be distinguished by the presence of sclerotia, or granules, which are typically absent in pseudallescheriasis-type infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • While "fungus balls" can also form in other organs, they are commonly derived from host necrotic tissue resulting from nodular infarction and thrombosis of lung vessels following infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. (jove.com)
  • Contact with horse blankets and cattle posts can also cause infection, and T. verrucosum has also been isolated from flies, although it is unknown whether flies can serve as vectors of transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection of the hair is ectothrix, and can cause tinea capitis (with potential for kerions and irreversible scarring and alopecia), as well as tinea corporis, tinea manuum, tinea barbae, and tinea profunda. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 20 types of Candida can cause infection with Candida albicans being the most common. (wikipedia.org)