• waterborne
  • Food and Waterborne Parasitology publishes high quality papers containing original research findings, investigative reports, and scientific proceedings on parasites which are transmitted to humans via the consumption of food or water. (elsevier.com)
  • Animals and plants from both terrestrial and aquatic sources are included, as well as studies related to potable and other types of water which serve to harbor, perpetuate or disseminate food and waterborne parasites. (elsevier.com)
  • Manuscripts with scientifically generated information on associations between food and waterborne parasitic diseases and lifestyle, culture and economies are also welcome. (elsevier.com)
  • Since 1971 CDC has tabulated data on waterborne disease outbreaks separately from those for foodborne disease outbreaks and compiled these data in annual reports. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to waterborne disease outbreaks associated with water intended for drinking, the Water-Related Disease Surveillance Report cites reports of 1) outbreaks of illness associated with exposure to recreational water and 2) epidemiologic investigation of gastroenteritis outbreaks on ocean-going passenger vessels that call at U.S. ports. (cdc.gov)
  • A waterborne disease outbreak occurs when two or more persons experience a similar illness after consumption or use of water intended for drinking and epidemiologic evidence implicates the water as the source of illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Disease outbreaks associated with water used for recreational purposes meet the same criteria used for waterborne outbreaks associated with drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, the Health Effects Research Laboratory of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contacts all state water-supply agencies annually to obtain information about waterborne disease outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • Representatives from CDC and EPA review and summarize outbreak data and also work together to investigate and evaluate waterborne disease outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • The number of waterborne disease outbreaks reported to CDC and EPA clearly represents only a fraction of the total number that occur. (cdc.gov)
  • filariasis
  • They are among roundworms that cause the parasitic disease filariasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans (for B. malayi and B. timori), and animals (for B. pahangi and B. patei) acts as the definitive hosts in which the adult worms cause filariasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections with parasitic filarial worms cause disease conditions generically known as filariasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ones that mainly occupy lymph vessels and cause conditions such as adenolyrophangitis, elephantiasis, and filarial fever are: Brugia malayi Brugia timori Wuchereria bancrofti Three other medically important parasitic species are: Loa loa causes Loa loa filariasis also known as Calabar swelling Mansonella streptocerca, which causes streptocerciasis, an itchy condition that creates depigmented skin lesions sometimes mistaken for the first signs of leprosy. (wikipedia.org)
  • veterinary medicine
  • Claire Pomeroy, vice chancellor for human health sciences and dean of the UC Davis School of Medicine, and Patricia Conrad , a professor and veterinary parasitologist in the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, have been elected to the Institute of Medicine, one of the nation's highest honors in health and medicine. (ucdavis.edu)
  • It is quite fitting that together, they represent the field of One Health, which encompasses both human and veterinary medicine and is one of UC Davis' exceptional strengths as it addresses vitally important health issues at home and abroad,' Katehi said. (ucdavis.edu)
  • larvae
  • Life-cycle is a complete metamorphosis with larvae that are non-parasitic, living in environments such as pools of water, soil, streams. (wikipedia.org)
  • How myiasis affects the human body depends on where the larvae are located. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human ophthalmomyiasis, both external and internal, has been caused by the larvae of the botfly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease (called Toxocariasis) caused by migrating T. canis larvae (toxocariasis) results in two syndromes: visceralis larva migrans and ocularis larva migrans. (wikipedia.org)
  • L2 larvae may also be ingested by a variety of animals like mice or rabbits, where they stay in a dormant stage inside the animals' tissue until the intermediate host has been eaten by a dog, where subsequent development is confined to the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • The fish tapeworm ( Dibothriocephalus latus, or Diphyllobothrium latum ), most common in waters of the Northern Hemisphere, infests humans and other mammals that eat fish, particularly bears and dogs. (britannica.com)
  • Most of Filarioidea parasitise wild species, birds in particular, but some, especially in the family Onchocercidae, attack mammals, including humans and some domestic animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • After trypanosomes, Babesia is thought to be the second-most common blood parasite of mammals, and they can have a major impact on health of domestic animals in areas without severe winters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parasitic mites that cause mange in mammals embed themselves either in skin or hair follicles in the animal, depending upon their genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, these two types of mite infections, which would otherwise be known as "mange" in furry mammals, are instead known respectively as scabies and demodicosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is among the most populous large mammals in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is one of the most numerous large mammals on the planet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ancestor of the domestic pig is the wild boar, which is one of the most numerous and widespread large mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • hosts
  • Found worldwide, T. gondii is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals, but felids such as domestic cats are the only known definitive hosts in which the parasite can undergo sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feeding by adult flies on the blood of their hosts exposes the hosts to pathogenic organisms that are infecting the fly, this can lead to acute disease of the host's blood and other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are not well adapted to humans as hosts and seldom develop properly though they may cause various confusing symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the eastern and central U. S. the blacklegged tick, often referred to as the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis , is the species responsible for transmitting B. burgdorferi to humans and other vertebrate hosts. (usda.gov)
  • Humans are infected, like other paratenic hosts, by ingestion of embryonated T. canis eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • host's
  • If the embryos, which pass out with the host's feces, are eaten by a mammal such as a dog, camel, pig, monkey, or human being , the larva emerges in the digestive tract. (britannica.com)
  • phylum
  • Tapeworm , also called cestode , any member of the invertebrate class Cestoda (phylum Platyhelminthes), a group of parasitic flatworms containing about 5,000 species. (britannica.com)
  • Diagnostic
  • The burrow tracks are often linear, to the point that a neat "line" of four or more closely placed and equally developed mosquito-like "bites" is almost diagnostic of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic
  • Onchocerca volvulus causes cutaneous onchocerciasis and river blindness The other three are less seriously pathogenic but commonly parasitise humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • The lifecycle of T. gondii can be broadly summarized into two components: a sexual component that occurs only within cats (felids, wild or domestic), and an asexual component that can occur within virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans, cats, and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • endemic
  • An endemic focus of urinary schistosomiasis was reported from Gimvi village of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra with infrequent occurrence of schistosome eggs in human stools. (hindawi.com)
  • Even with presence of nine schistosome species, existence of human schistosomiasis is marred with controversies despite confirming an endemic focus of urinary schistosomiasis (probably by a new schistosome species) in Gimvi village of Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In and about endemic regions filarial diseases have been public health concerns for as long as we can tell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Where the diseases are endemic many times more are exposed routinely to infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • A number of studies have suggested that subtle behavioral or personality changes may occur in infected humans, and infection with the parasite has recently been associated with a number of neurological disorders, particularly schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • These problems occur wherever domestic animals are reared. (wikipedia.org)
  • primates
  • Other veterinarians work at federal agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where they deal with the implications of diseases affecting human health that originate in nonhuman primates. (avma.org)
  • The AVMA fully supports animal health professionals who work with nonhuman primates in conservation and biomedical research efforts. (avma.org)
  • The data support this belief: according to the Captive Wild Animal Protection Coalition, 1 more than 80% of health and behavioral issues with nonhuman primates arise from those that are kept as pets. (avma.org)
  • Because nonhuman primates pose significant risks to the health of the public and domestic animals - including the possibility of severe injury to the humans and domestic animals with which they come in contact - the AVMA opposes private ownership of these animals. (avma.org)
  • Furthermore, the AVMA also does not support the use of nonhuman primates as assistance or service animals because of animal welfare concerns, the potential for serious injury, and zoonotic risks. (avma.org)
  • The risks posed to and by nonhuman primates maintained by private individuals fall into four broad categories: inadequate husbandry, physical injury to humans and other domestic animals, disease transmission, and ecosystem concerns. (avma.org)
  • Precise numbers are difficult to elucidate, but Born Free USA and the Captive Wild Animal Protection Coalition estimate 4 that more than 15,000 nonhuman primates are owned by private individuals in the United States today. (avma.org)
  • Privately owned nonhuman primates have attacked humans and other animals, and they have escaped from their cages to roam freely in communities. (avma.org)
  • Nonhuman primates are highly intelligent and social animals that present unique husbandry challenges. (avma.org)
  • 6 If multiple nonhuman primates are kept, consideration must be given to providing sufficient numbers of food and water stations, an adequate number and appropriate type of nest boxes, and visual barriers that prevent direct eye contact with dominant animals. (avma.org)
  • parasitism
  • Conditions that result from parasitism by Onchocercidae include some of the most troublesome diseases of the warmer regions, including river blindness and elephantiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human culture, parasitism has negative connotations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonhuman
  • In nonhuman animals, Babesia canis rossi, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis cause particularly severe forms of the disease, including a severe haemolytic anaemia, with positive erythrocyte-in-saline-agglutination test indicating an immune-mediated component to the haemolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • nation's
  • As one of the nation's leading infectious disease physicians, Pomeroy has conducted significant research on the role of a group of proteins known as cytokines in modulating viral infections. (ucdavis.edu)
  • cause
  • Some are beneficial to man directly or indirectly, others are very harmful as they cause various plant and animal diseases. (preservearticles.com)
  • These infestations and infections cause distress to companion animals, and in livestock industry the financial costs of these diseases are high. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although rare, being in contact with soil that contains infectious eggs can also cause human infection, especially handling soil with an open wound or accidentally swallowing contaminated soil, as well as eating under cooked or raw meat of an intermediate host of the parasite such as lamb or rabbit. (wikipedia.org)
  • livestock
  • Thus, mange includes mite-associated skin disease in domestic animals (cats and dogs), in livestock (such as sheep scab), and in wild animals (for example, coyotes, cougars, and bears). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because some animals (particularly domestic animals) cannot react as effectively as humans to the causes and effects of myiasis, such infestations present a severe and continuing problem for livestock industries worldwide, causing severe economic losses where they are not mitigated by human action. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherever
  • The pork tapeworm ( Taenia solium, or Taeniarhynchus solium ), found wherever raw pork is eaten, lives in the human intestine in its adult stage. (britannica.com)
  • It is distributed globally throughout the warm countries, wherever humans with their dogs live. (wikipedia.org)
  • India
  • In the beginning of twentieth century, India also attracted attention of the scientists on the subject as this was the period of new discoveries on the schistosomes and also because of reporting of several cases of human schistosomiasis from different parts of the country. (hindawi.com)
  • causes
  • citation needed] In bovine species, the organism causes hemolytic anemia, so an infected animal shows pale mucous membranes initially. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • The mite plays an important part in the disease, however, by preparing the ground for the invasion of the bacterium by dilating the follicles and sweat-glands, and possibly also carries and introduces the germ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these species are also important to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • eaten
  • When this animal is eaten by a predator, the parasite survives the digestion process and matures into an adult. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • After the cell theory of Schwann and Schleiden (1838-39), this group was modified in 1848 by Carl von Siebold to include only animal-like unicellular organisms, such as foraminifera and amoebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formal taxonomic category Protoctista was first proposed in the early 1860s by John Hogg, who argued that the protists should include what he saw as primitive unicellular forms of both plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • goats
  • BTV also infects goats, cattle and other domestic animals as well as wild ruminants (for example, blesbuck, white-tailed deer, elk, and pronghorn antelope). (wikipedia.org)
  • public health
  • AVMA policy, based on considerable research and deliberation, supports limiting or prohibiting private ownership of indigenous and non-native wild animals that pose a substantial risk to public health, domestic animal health, or the ecosystem, or whose welfare is unacceptably compromised. (avma.org)
  • health
  • More people, activities and resources requires greater funding support, and it s been very encouraging to see the College s supporters governments, corporations, individuals and other stakeholders invest in innovative ideas that hold the potential to improve the health of animals, people and our environment. (docplayer.net)
  • The concept of One Health recognizes that the health of people is connected to the health of animals and the environment. (hindawi.com)
  • One Health is a global movement that promotes collaborative efforts between health professionals from various fields, working with other disciplines to find solutions to human and animal health challenges and environmental change. (ucdavis.edu)
  • State health departments report water-related disease outbreaks to CDC on a standard reporting form. (cdc.gov)
  • The likelihood of an outbreak's coming to the attention of health authorities varies considerably from one locale to another and depends largely upon consumer awareness, physician interest, and disease surveillance activities of state and local health and environmental agencies. (cdc.gov)
  • cattle
  • The study revealed that the prevalence of disease in cattle (3.00%) was highest followed by buffalo (2.05%), pig (1.28%), sheep (0.09%) and goat (0.01%), by PM examination. (degruyter.com)
  • In cattle, constant changing of position of the feet gives bluetongue the nickname The Dancing Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • wild
  • 2 The AVMA thereby supports related regulatory efforts to limit or prohibit private ownership, and importation for the purpose of private ownership, of such indigenous and non-native wild animals. (avma.org)
  • Humans have introduced pigs into Australia, North and South America, and numerous islands, either accidentally as escaped domestic pigs which have gone feral, or as wild boar. (wikipedia.org)