• strains
  • Because vaccines generally cover a small ratio of strains of one virus, the recombination of antigenic DNA that lead to diverse pathogens allows these invaders to resist even newly developed vaccinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • While vaccines are created to strengthen the immune response to pathogens, in many cases these vaccines are not able to cover the wide variety of strains a pathogen may have. (wikipedia.org)
  • invasion
  • Bacteria, Archaea, fungi and parasites release membrane vesicles (MVs) containing varied but specialized toxic compounds and biochemical signal molecules, which are transported to target cells to initiate processes in favour of the microbe, which include invasion of host cells and killing of competing microbes in the same niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • The goals of the Host-Pathogen-Environment ( Interaction Hôtes Pathogènes Environnements - IHPE) research unit aims to describe the mechanisms that govern the interactions between marine invertebrates (mainly the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas ), their pathogens and the environment, and also to characterise the physiological and adaptive responses of oysters and their pathogens to environmental pressures. (ifremer.fr)
  • The IFREMER staff belong to the "Mechanisms of interaction and adaptation in the marine environment" group ( Mécanismes d'interaction et d'adaptation en milieu marin ) of UMR 5244 which is located on the University of Montpellier campus. (ifremer.fr)
  • African trypanosomes are parasites that are able to escape the immune responses of its host animal through a range of mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • phagocytes
  • This causes an immune response, resulting in common symptoms as phagocytes break down the bacteria within the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a pathogen breaches the first physical barriers (e.g. damaged skin) of the host, phagocytes represent an important part of the constitutive (in contrast to the immunological) cellular defence. (forschung3r.ch)
  • infects
  • Aeromonas salmonicida infects cold-blooded vertebrates and therefore mammals are not relevant hosts. (forschung3r.ch)
  • Generally, M. perniciosa infects tropical host plants, and host plants in the Upper Amazon River basin on the eastern side of the Andes. (wikipedia.org)
  • And the fourth biotype, the S-biotype, infects a variety of hosts within the Solanaceae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Professor Pierre Cosson's research group (including Mohammed Benghezal, Laeticia Alibaud, Romain Froquet) has been using Dictyostelium as a model to study host-pathogen interactions for the past 10 years. (forschung3r.ch)
  • Collaboration on the part of several researchers has allowed the dissemination of these techniques to other laboratories and the creation of the NEMO network ( project no. 99-05 ), dedicated to the development of alternative models to study bacterial pathogens. (forschung3r.ch)
  • In the present project no. 90-03 , supported by the 3R Research Foundation, unicellular Dictyostelium amoebae were used as alternative hosts to study bacterial pathogens. (forschung3r.ch)
  • In particular, this study highlights new aspects of the metabolism of amino acid Phe operative during the interaction between T. gondii and its host cell. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • This repository allows users to study pathogen Salmonella with details in a standardized and documented format. (omictools.com)
  • organism
  • Although the initial encounter between a susceptible host and a virulent organism frequently results in disease, some organisms can be harbored in the host for years before disease becomes clinically evident. (gkhub.info)
  • In the case of pathogens, iron can be acquired from the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Pathogens include bacteria, fungi and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the bacteria aid in the breaking down of nutrients for the host, and in return, our bodies act as their ecosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vogel's current activities cover the fields of small regulatory RNAs in bacteria, RNA sequencing, RNA localization as well as microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs in infected eukaryotic hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • harmful
  • Although cell-mediated immune response is responsible for the clearance of C. pneumoniae, this response can be harmful to the host because it favours the development of inflammation that can lead to asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • For the most part, the relationship between the pathogen, Neisseria meningitidis, and humans is uneventful. (ox.ac.uk)
  • results
  • The majority of host species refers to mammalia, but also results from experiments with C. elegans, Drosophila melanogaster or Danio rerio are included. (omictools.com)
  • Emphasis will be placed on latest unpublished results, extended discussion periods and direct interactions with leaders in the field. (current-opinion.com)
  • metabolic
  • Constraint-based analysis of metabolic capacity of Salmonella typhimurium during host-pathogen interaction. (ucsd.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggests that there is a robust minimal set of metabolic pathways that is required for successful replication of Salmonella inside the host cell. (ucsd.edu)
  • replicates
  • this is when the virus inserts its DNA or RNA into the host cell, replicates, and eventually causes the cell to lyse, releasing more viruses into the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • It replicates within the host cell cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasite
  • Unravels the host-parasite interactome across 12 human parasites. (omictools.com)
  • This tool (1) incorporates high-confidence intra-species interactions, (2) uses fined grained orthology assignments instead of simple sequence similarity and (3) includes parasite-specific biological context. (omictools.com)
  • research
  • The staff at the IHPE research unit are part of the Joint Research Unit Interactions Hôtes - Pathogènes - Environnements (UMR 5244 IHPE). (ifremer.fr)
  • species
  • The species.all.zip files contain all interactions predictions for each species along with the filter criteria that each interaction passed. (zenodo.org)
  • The species.filter.zip files contains the same information, but only for the subset of interactions that passed the biological and network-level filters. (zenodo.org)
  • search
  • In a search for factors involved in specificity, advantage was taken of the fact that the resistant interaction between soybean cv Altona and Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. (uwo.ca)
  • cells
  • T. gondii tachyzoites are capable of extracting L-Phe(D8) from host cells as soon as it invades the cell. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • differences
  • glycinea race 4 becomes susceptible at 32(DEGREES)C thus providing in a single race-cultivar combination differences in interaction type without the uncertainties introduced when comparisons are made between cultivars or races with different genotypes. (uwo.ca)
  • virus
  • An example of the propensity for pathogens to escape from their usual niche is the alarming 1999 outbreak in New York of encephalitis due to West Nile virus, which had never previously been isolated in the Americas. (gkhub.info)
  • In fact, the severity of asthma can be determined by the elevated titres to C. pneumoniae, but not to other potential pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, adenovirus, influenza A and B or parainfluenza virus. (wikipedia.org)