• organisms
  • Parasites comprise a group of organisms that cause a massive infectious disease problem for humans and several animals of veterinary importance. (omicsonline.org)
  • In the process of adapting to their host niche, these organisms have evolved reduced metabolic capacity, often drastically so, while expanding mechanisms for avoiding host defense and utilizing metabolites from their hosts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, many biological communities may be made up of organisms that despite their complex biological interactions have very little evolutionary history with each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mode of selection is likely to occur in interactions between unicellular organisms and viruses due to large population sizes, short generation times, often haploid genomes and horizontal gene transfer, which increase the probability of beneficial mutations arising and spreading through populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhizophydiales are parasites of a range of organisms, including invertebrates, other chytrids and algae, and they may have a role in natural control of aquatic populations, especially phytoplankton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roles
  • This review examines the surfaces of both the plant cell and the nematode, specifically their composition, and how this changes during parasitism, and their functional roles, which are relevant to the understanding of both compatible and incompatible interactions. (brillonline.com)
  • The examples provided indicate crucial roles of PCD in parasite biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • vaccine
  • Thus, understanding the mechanisms involved in immunoendocrine modulation and its effects on parasites is essential for developing new drugs, finding vaccine targets and devising new therapies for several infectious diseases. (omicsonline.org)
  • Relationship
  • There is a close relationship between hormones, cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters that modulate the host immune response by several effector mechanisms, including both cellular and humoral immunity. (omicsonline.org)
  • pathogens
  • The interaction and survival of pathogens in hostile environments and in confrontation with host immune responses are important mechanisms for the establishment of infection. (hindawi.com)
  • Unlike the MAMP or PAMP class of avr genes that are recognized by the host PRRs, the targets of bacterial effector avr proteins appear to be proteins involved in plant innate immunity signaling, as homologues of Avr genes in animal pathogens have been shown to do this. (wikipedia.org)
  • systems biology
  • As a means of understanding the broader host response to infection with these parasites at the systems biology level, integrated data analyses were performed on quantitative data from the transcriptome, proteome and phosphoproteome of host cells infected with the two parasites. (bl.uk)
  • infection
  • phosphopeptide enrichment, combined with LC MS/MS has been used to study the global response in the host signalling pathway through protein phosphorylation and signal transduction in response to infection with T. gondii and N. caninum. (bl.uk)
  • about one-third of the phosphoproteomes of the host cell in response to infection by T. gondii and N. caninum was different. (bl.uk)
  • Data analyses showed that host cells produce more proteins in response to infection with T. gondii than with N. caninum after 36 hours post infection (p.i. (bl.uk)
  • We find that they lessen the negative effects of infection on hosts and reduce infectivity by directly competing with parasites. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The role of cuscutain and its inhibitor during the host parasite interaction was studied by external application of an inhibitor suspension, which induced a significant reduction of successful infection events. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recent ecological studies in invertebrates show that the outcome of an infection is dependent on the specific pairing of host and parasite. (duhnnae.com)
  • By measuring the expression of putative bumblebee homologues of antimicrobial peptides in response to infection by their gut trypanosome Crithidia bombi, we demonstrate that expression differences are associated with the specific interactions. (duhnnae.com)
  • responses
  • Conversely, parasites themselves are phylogenetically diverse, target a range of different tissues, and have evolved numerous alternative strategies to evade or inhibit protective immune responses by strategies, such as antigenic variation, molecular mimicry or affecting antigen processing and presentation. (omicsonline.org)
  • role
  • Little is known about the role of ecto-phosphatases in host-pathogen interactions. (hindawi.com)
  • Several interesting complexes were identified in N. caninum tachyzoites and include mitochondrial complexes, proteasome, glideosome and moving junction molecules that play an important role in the physiology and invasion of host cells. (bl.uk)
  • TgGRA2 was successfully purified by HPLC and attempts have been made to study its role in host-parasite interactions using a pull-down assay. (bl.uk)
  • Marine
  • They are found in soil as well as marine and fresh water habitats where they function as parasites and decomposers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zoospores of Rhizophydium littoreum, a parasite of marine green algae, are positively phototactic toward blue light, a mechanism that might assure that zoospores swim to the photic zone where its host resides. (wikipedia.org)
  • importance
  • Starting The download the biogeography of host-parasite offender has, under newspaper murderous) of the Code, a effect whether or forth to respond the legitimate importance once the factors accused out in the Landlord are hidden. (stpetescorer.com)
  • Due to the importance of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and multiple protein complexes (MPCs) in host-parasite interactions, blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) was used to study T. gondii and N. caninum tachyzoites. (bl.uk)
  • defence
  • These beneficial microbes can be a significant component of host defence that complement or replaces a repertoire of immunity, but they can also be costly. (ox.ac.uk)
  • traits
  • He observed that the existing defense traits of plants were likely produced by co-evolution with herbivores or parasites that no longer co-occurred with the plants, but that these traits were continuing to protect the plants against new attacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • diversity
  • We present information on Nycteribiidae flies parasitizing the bat families Pteropodidae, Miniopteridae and Vespertilionidae from the Malagasy Region, contributing insight into their diversity and host preference. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On Madagascar, previous studies of nycteribiid diversity [ 5 , 11 ], along with molecular data [ 12 ], have provided an overview of host preference and aspects of their evolutionary history. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Some, like the African trypanosome are so adept at avoiding the host defense mechanisms that they grow freely in the blood stream, where they are bathed in nutrients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • important
  • Plasma membranes of cells contain enzymes that are oriented with their active sites facing the external medium rather than the cytoplasm, which are important for host-parasite interactions [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, in T. gondii the microneme MIC1/6 complex was found migrated and/or co-associated with the important surface antigen glycoprotein SAG1, which is critical in the initial interaction with host surface peptidoglycan. (bl.uk)
  • attaches
  • Some algal parasites practice oogamy: a motile male gamete attaches itself to a nonmotile structure containing the female gamete. (wikipedia.org)
  • The zoospore has to use its own stored food reserves (lipids and glycogen) as it swims until it attaches to a suitable host or substrate, absorbs its flagellum, produces a wall around itself, grows a germ tube that penetrates the substrate, and develops into a new thallus. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • This paradigm implies that the sexual dimorphism in response to parasites is mediated primarily by the immune system of the host, which disregards the ability of some parasites to directly respond to the distinct sex steroid hormone profiles of their female and male hosts [ 2 , 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Thus
  • These interactions may thus serve as a counter-example to the common notion that evolution can only be detected across extended time. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • We show that costs of host-defensive microbe systems are critical in determining whether a defensive microbe based system or an immune system provides better host protection investment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • cause
  • They cause disease in immunocompromised animals, abortion in the intermediates host and great economic losses to the farming industry. (bl.uk)