• Receptors
  • The sensation of taste is initiated by the interaction of tastants with their receptors in the taste cells, which are clustered in onion-shape taste buds embedded within the lingual epithelium in tongue and palate as described, e.g., in Lindemann, supra. (google.com)
  • Each taste modality is thought to be mediated by distinct cell surface receptors that are expressed in a subset of taste cells. (google.com)
  • OSM signals through cell surface receptors that contain the protein gp130. (wikipedia.org)
  • This "kink" in effect results in a different special positioning of one extreme of the bundle to the other, significantly affecting the relative positioning of site III with sites I and II (see:Receptor recruitment sites) Receptors for OSM can be found on a variety of cells from a variety of tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The envelope is formed when the capsid buds from the host cell, taking some of the host-cell membrane with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lambda phage is a non-contractile tailed phage, meaning during an infection event it cannot 'force' its DNA through a bacterial cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfatide is primarily found on the extracellular leaflet of the myelin plasma membrane produced by the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and in the Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, sulfatide is also present on the extracellular leaflet of the plasma membrane of many cells in eukaryotic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitro
  • Characterization of Cell-Associated and Soluble Forms of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) Produced by Fibroblast Cells in Vitro," Growth Factor (1998) 15:199-213. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Although DvrA was identified by its limited homology to Candida albicans Bcr1, a ΔdvrA mutant strain of A. fumigatus had wild-type adherence to host constituents in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • As a consequence, HEK 293 cells should not be used as an in vitro model of typical kidney cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Viruses offer an efficient means of delivering genes into cells, which they evolved to do, and are thus of great use as experimental tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • This danger can be avoided by the use of viruses which lack key genes, and which are thus unable to replicate after entering a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoprotein
  • The 196 residue OSM is the predominant form isolated form a variety of cell lines and corresponds to a glycoprotein of 28 KDa, although the larger 227 residue pro-OSM can be isolated from over transfected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Antigen-specific T cell activation depends on T cell receptor (TCR) interaction with peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in conjunction with co-stimulatory signals mediated by accessory molecules. (google.com)
  • molecule
  • Several investigators have suggested that the interaction of the CD28 molecule on the T cell with a ligand, B7, on the antigen-presenting cell (APC) is best characterized among the many cell surface receptor/ligand pairs in delivering this costimulatory activity. (google.com)
  • clones
  • T cell clones encountering nominal antigen/MHC complexes in the absence of appropriate co-stimulation are functionally inactivated. (google.com)
  • Cytotoxic T-Cell Clones Isolated from Ovarian Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes Recognize Common Determinants on Non-Ovarian Tumour Clones," Scand. (patents.com)
  • This typically works by disrupting or removing the lethal gene during the cloning process, and unsuccessful clones where the lethal gene still remains intact would kill the host cells, therefore only successful clones are selected. (wikipedia.org)
  • immature
  • Graham and coworkers provided evidence that HEK 293 cells and other human cell lines generated by adenovirus transformation of human embryonic kidney cells have many properties of immature neurons, suggesting that the adenovirus preferentially transformed a neuronal lineage cell in the original kidney culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of the glycans are therefore stalled as immature 'high-mannose' glycans not normally present on secreted or cell surface human glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutant
  • This increase in damage required direct contact between the mutant and host cells. (nih.gov)
  • mutant strains are unable to lysogenize cells- instead they grow and enter the lytic cycle after superinfecting an already lysogenized cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • Human embryonic kidney cells 293, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comprehensive study of the genomes and transcriptomes of HEK 293 and five derivative cell lines compared the HEK 293 transcriptome with that of human kidney, adrenal, pituitary and central nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the location of the adrenal gland (adrenal means "next to the kidney"), a few adrenal cells could plausibly have appeared in an embryonic kidney derived culture, and could be preferentially transformed by adenovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenoviruses transform neuronal lineage cells much more efficiently than typical human kidney epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most research utilizes mice models, but heterologous expression systems are utilized as well, including, but not limited to, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and COS-7 Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognizes
  • During infection, the phage particle recognizes and binds to its host, E. coli, causing DNA in the head of the phage to be ejected through the tail into the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth
  • HEK 293 cells have been widely used in cell biology research for many years, because of their reliable growth and propensity for transfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human form of OSM was originally isolated in 1986 from the growth media of PMA treated U-937 histiocytic lymphoma cells by its ability to inhibit the growth of cell lines established from melanomas and other solid tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pro-OSM although an order of magnitude less efficacious in growth inhibition assays, displays similar binding affinity toward cells in radio ligand binding assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • It must instead use an existing pathway to invade the host cell, having evolved the tip of its tail to interact with a specific pore to allow entry of its DNA to the hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • This induced nonresponsiveness, termed 'T cell anergy', is defined by the failure of T cells to proliferate and produce lymphokines, such as IL-2. (google.com)
  • high
  • Low temperature, starvation of the cells and high multiplicity of infection (MOI) are known to favor lysogeny (see later discussion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Scatchard analysis of radio ligand binding data from 125I-OSM binding to a variety of OSM responsive cell lines produced curvilinear graphs which the authors interpreted as the presence of two receptor species, a high affinity form with an approximate dissociation constant Kd of 1-10 pM, and a low affinity form of 0.4-1 nM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently it was shown that the presence of gp130 alone was sufficient to reproduce the low affinity form of the receptor, and co-transfection of COS-7 cells with LIFR and gp130 produced a high affinity receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • enter
  • The gag gene provides the basic physical infrastructure of the virus, and pol provides the basic mechanism by which retroviruses reproduce, while the others help HIV to enter the host cell and enhance its reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • line
  • After presumably adapting to tissue culture, cells from this clone developed into the relatively stable HEK 293 line. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • It is around 120 nm in diameter (around 60 times smaller than a red blood cell) and roughly spherical. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However further experiments demonstrated that not all actions of OSM could be replicated by LIF, that is certain cells that are irresponsive to LIF would respond to OSM. (wikipedia.org)
  • order
  • In order to construct a genomic library, the organism's DNA is extracted from cells and then digested with a restriction enzyme to cut the DNA into fragments of a specific size. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • These two single-stranded segments are the "sticky ends" of what is called the cos site. (wikipedia.org)
  • a single unit cell is repeated indefinitely along three principal directions that are not necessarily perpendicular. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Blocking the binding of CD28 on T cells to its ligand, B7/BB-1, during TCR engagement, results in T cell anergy. (google.com)
  • These results indicate that DvrA influences A. fumigatus virulence as well as its capacity to damage host cells and stimulate a proinflammatory response. (nih.gov)
  • state
  • In this state, the λ DNA is called a prophage and stays resident within the host's genome without apparent harm to the host. (wikipedia.org)