• coli
  • E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shiga toxin is an infectious disease caused by the rod shaped Shigella dysenteriae as well as Escherichia coli (STEC), and is also known as Stx. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shiga-like toxins 1 and 2 (SLT-1 and 2 or Stx-1 and 2) are the Shiga toxins produced by some E. coli strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • A growing body of research, though, has examined environmentally persistent E. coli which can survive for extended periods outside a host. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The replicated genomes then combine with newly synthesized viral proteins to make more viruses, which are released from the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram negative pathogens may secrete outer membrane vesicles containing lipopolysaccharide endotoxin and some virulence proteins in the bounding membrane along with some other toxins as intra-vesicular contents, thus adding a previously unforeseen dimension to the well-known eukaryote process of membrane vesicle trafficking, which is quite active at the host-pathogen interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CDCs Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumolysin, Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin O, and Listeria monocytogenes listeriolysin O cause specific modifications of histones in the host cell nucleus, resulting in down-regulation of several genes that encode proteins involved in the inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name RTX (repeats in toxin) refers to the glycine and aspartate-rich repeats located at the C-terminus of the toxin proteins, which facilitate export by a dedicated T1SS encoded within the rtx operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general rtx gene cluster encodes three protein types: the RTX toxin, an RTX activating acyltransferase, and T1SS proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The GM1 binding site will be targeted using a functionalized GM1 mimic recently developed in the host laboratory which binds to CT and allows conjugation to aglycons. (europa.eu)
  • The ganglioside GM1 binds cholera toxin (CT) on host cells and carries it retrograde from the plasma membrane (PM) through endosomes, the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to induce toxicity. (upenn.edu)
  • The B subunit is a pentamer that binds to specific glycolipids on the host cell, specifically globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). (wikipedia.org)
  • enterotoxins
  • The main objective of our project is to develop new dual-site ligands for cholera toxin inhibition featuring 2 pharmacophoric fragments, a GM1 mimic and a blood group mimic, connected across a linker able to span the two binding sites of enterotoxins. (europa.eu)
  • pathogen
  • Innate immune sensors detect not only pathogen- but also host-derived factors such as nucleic acids and cause inflammatory responses. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Using both invertebrate and vertebrate models to coordinately manipulate host and pathogen genomes, we are exploring the mechanisms by which intestinal pathogens modulate host metabolism. (childrenshospital.org)
  • The acetate switch of an intestinal pathogen disrupts host insulin signaling and lipid metabolism. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Bacillus
  • His conclusions were based upon the constant finding of the peculiar "comma bacillus" in the stools of cholera patients, and the failure to demonstrate this organism in the feces of other persons. (wikipedia.org)
  • diarrhea
  • This will replace the water and electrolyte loss in the cholera-induced diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary symptoms of cholera are profuse diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • An untreated person with cholera may produce 10 to 20 litres (3 to 5 US gal) of diarrhea a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • People infected with cholera often have diarrhea, and disease transmission may occur if this highly liquid stool, colloquially referred to as "rice-water", contaminates water used by others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some symptoms of this toxin include chronic and widespread watery diarrhea and dehydration that, in some cases, leads to death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Von Pettenkofer developed merely a transient diarrhea, but Emmerich suffered from a typical and severe attack of cholera. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Some symptoms caused by this toxin are a decrease in platelet count in the blood or thrombocytopenia, an increase in white blood cell count or leukocytosis, and renal cell damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some infectious diseases, the severity of symptoms has been shown to be dependent on specific genetic traits of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • anthrax
  • PA protein forms the central part of the complete anthrax toxin, and translocates the A moiety into host cells after assembling as a heptamer in the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthrax is also considered a zoonotic disease and is transmitted to humans via contact with an infected animal host. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • Biopsies taken from cholera patients indicate that the intestinal epithelium remains intact during the infectious stage, although abnormal distention of the apical intracellular junctions has been observed. (asmscience.org)
  • exotoxin
  • The development of subunits and subunit analogs of the cholera exotoxin by recombinant DNA techniques provides vaccine products that can retain their biological activity and immunogenicity, and can confer protection against disease challenge. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or disrupting normal cellular metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is another example of an AB toxin that targets the eukaryotic elongation factor 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Other systems for classifying or identifying toxins include: By organism generating the toxin By organism susceptible to the toxin By secretion system used to release the toxin (for example, toxic effectors of type VI secretion system) By tissue target type susceptible to the toxin (neurotoxins affect the nervous system, cardiotoxins affect the heart, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • In hosts with both an inner and outer membrane adhesion zones are created by gp4, a process that may also involve gp1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane-damaging toxins exhibit hemolysin or cytolysin activity in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane-damaging toxins can be divided into two categories, the channel-forming toxins and toxins that function as enzymes that act on the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "A" subunit possesses enzyme activity, and is transferred to the host cell following a conformational change in the membrane-bound transport "B" subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The portion entering the membrane, referred to as the head, is usually apolar and hydrophobic, this produces an energetically favorable insertion of the pore-forming toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1854
  • The study of cholera in England by John Snow between 1849 and 1854 led to significant advances in the field of epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whilst John Snow's edpidemiology maps were well recognised, and led to the removal of the Broad Street pump handle, e.g. 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • clostridial
  • The Transporter Classification Database divides the RTX-toxin superfamily into 3 different families of homologues based on bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis: 1.C.11 - The Pore-forming RTX Toxin (RTX-toxin) Family 1.C.56 - The Pseudomanas syringae HrpZ Cation Channel (HrpZ) Family 1.C.57 - The Clostridial Cytotoxin (CCT) Family RTX toxins were originally divided into hemolysins and leukotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-ray crystallographic structures have revealed some commonalities: α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin S are structurally related, as are aerolysin and Clostridial Epsilon-toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • When the cholera patient is given a solution containing water, sodium and glucose, the SGLT1 receptor will reabsorb sodium and glucose, while water will be passively absorbed with the sodium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I toxins bind to a receptor on the cell surface and stimulate intracellular signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • This B subunit ring is also capable of binding to a receptor on the surface of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • Genetically-engineered modifications of the subunits result in products that retain immunogenicity, yet are reduced in, or are essentially free of, enzymatic activity associated with toxin reactogenicity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The toxin has two subunits-designated A (mol. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic
  • 3. The modified cholera toxin of claim 1, which is obtained by site-specific mutagenesis resulting in a mutation of catalytic subunit A which is less active or essentially inactive as determined by assay of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The improved vaccine of claim 5, wherein the modified cholera toxin has been derived by site-specific mutagenesis resulting in a mutation of catalytic subunit A which has less or essentially no ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The A subunit is then able to use its catalytic machinery to take over the host cell's regular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • The bacterium was first reported in 1849 by Gabriel Pouchet, who discovered it in stools from patients with cholera, but he did not appreciate the significance of this presence. (wikipedia.org)