• Tumors
  • A variety of tumors can arise from adrenal tissue and are commonly found in medical imaging when searching for other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of tumors can arise from adrenal tissue and are commonly found in medical imaging when searching for other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adrenal cancer is the presence of malignant adrenal tumors, and includes neuroblastoma, adrenocortical carcinoma and some adrenal pheochromocytomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most adrenal pheochromocytomas and all adrenocortical adenomas are benign tumors, which do not metastasize or invade nearby tissues, but may cause significant health problems by unbalancing hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, size and weight of the adrenal cortical tumors are no longer considered to be a reliable sign of benignity or malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma are the two most important tumors which arise from the adrenal medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroblastic tumors often produce elevated levels of catecholamine hormone precursors, such as vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid, and may produce severe watery diarrhea through production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • glands are located
  • Some potential side effects are: Trouble sleeping Fatigue Dry skin or hair Concentration difficulties depression Sensitivity to cold temperatures Frequent and heavy menstrual periods Joint and muscle pain The 2 adrenal glands are located on the top of the kidney and have two distinct sections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulate
  • Once released by the plasma pro- stimulate growth of milk ducts, and on the hypothalamic- teins, these hormones are conjugated in the liver to inactive CHAPTER 22 PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 323 forms and then excreted in bile or urine. (avercast.com)
  • sodium
  • Cellular functions include the immune system's production of T-lymphocytes and antibodies, and nonimmune related homeostatic functions such as liver gluconeogenesis, sodium reabsorption, osmoregulation, and brown adipose tissue nonshivering thermogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • gonadotropin-releasi
  • Calcium is the second messenger for angiotensin II, a Hormone Action at the Cellular Level strong vasoconstrictor that participates in control of arterial blood pressure, and for gonadotropin-releasing hormone. (avercast.com)
  • physiological
  • In response to physiological or psychological stress, the medulla releases epinephrine, which prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response by increasing heart and breathing rate, enhancing muscle contraction, and stimulating the release of fatty acids and glucose (sugar) for energy. (thebody.com)
  • neuroendocrine
  • These organs and their interactions constitute the HPA axis, a major neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes, including digestion, the immune system, mood and emotions, sexuality, and energy storage and expenditure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavioral endocrinology is the study of hormonal processes and neuroendocrine systems that influence or regulate behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hormones play a major role in the Neuroendocrine system which regulates the vital body functions of breathing, body weight, heart rate, muscle strength, cholesterol levels, especially body temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • adrenocortical hormones
  • They are the adrenocortical hormones that are essential to the maintenance of adequate fluid volume in the extracellular and intravascular fluid compartments, normal cardiac output, and adequate levels of blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • tumor
  • However, more severe disorders of the sympathoadrenal system such as phaeochromocytoma (a tumor on the adrenal medulla) can affect the body's ability to maintain a homeostatic state. (wikipedia.org)