• interneuron
  • Transcriptome profiling of Ptf1a-misexpressing cells using RNA-seq reveals that Ptf1a significantly alters pyramidal cell gene expression, upregulating numerous Ptf1a-dependent inhibitory interneuron markers and ultimately generating a gene expression profile that resembles the transcriptomes of both Ptf1a-expressing spinal interneurons and endogenous cortical interneurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Horizontal cells and other retinal interneuron cells are less likely to be near neighbours of the same subtype than would occur by chance, resulting in 'exclusion zones' that separate them. (wikipedia.org)
  • opsins
  • In light, however, light strikes the photoreceptor which causes the photoreceptor to be inhibited (hyperpolarized) due to the activation of opsins which activate All trans-Retinal, giving energy to stimulate G-Protein coupled receptors to activate phosphodiesterase (PDE) which cleaves cGMP into 5'-GMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromophore
  • When the protein comes in contact with light at a wavelength within its spectral range, the 11-cis-retinal chromophore becomes excited. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • The main excitatory inputs to the amacrine cells are believed to originate from the bipolar cells while the amacrine cell itself is thought to provide the main inhibitory inputs to the ganglion cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thus Ptf1a is sufficient, even in a dramatically different neuronal precursor, to cell autonomously promote characteristics of an inhibitory peptidergic identity, providing the first example of a single transcription factor that can direct an inhibitory peptidergic fate. (jneurosci.org)
  • GABAergic, glycinergic, or neither: Amacrine cells can be either GABAergic, glycinergic or neither depending on what inhibitory neurotransmitter they express (GABA, glycine, or neither). (wikipedia.org)
  • neuron types
  • Prior to this discovery, the identity of neuron types participating in retinal networks was largely known, but the specific physiological roles of the identified morphological structures were poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • In addition, spontaneous current events, carried by chloride ions through GABA_A receptors, were recorded in most of the amacrine cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Integrins are the major family of cell surface receptors that mediate cell attachment to the ECM and can also mediate cell-cell interactions (Hynes, 1992 , 1999 ). (wiley.com)
  • While it is known that an important cell in the process is the horizontal cell, the exact sequence of receptors and molecules is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Briefly, Wnt signaling proteins bind to their receptors, the Frizzled receptor family, and cause activation of molecular cascades within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • if many sensory receptors all form synapses with a single cell further up, they collectively form the receptive field of that cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • During retinal morphogenesis, the neural tube evaginates to form a pseudostratified optic vesicle that invaginates to form the two-layered optic cup (Jacobson, 1966 ). (wiley.com)
  • During embryogenesis, retinal cells originate from the anterior portion of the neural plate termed the eye field. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurones
  • Dacey DM (1988) Dopamine-accumulating retinal neurones revealed by in vitro fluorescence display a unique morphology. (springer.com)
  • Djamgoz MBA, Downing JEG, Wagner H-J (1987) Retinal neurones of cyprinid fish: Intracellular marking with horseradish peroxidase and correlative morphological analysis. (springer.com)
  • melanopsin
  • A third type, melanopsin in some of the retinal ganglion cells (RGC), part of the body clock mechanism, is probably not involved in conscious vision, as these RGC do not project to the lateral geniculate nucleus but to the pretectal olivary nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitation
  • Excitation of retinal ganglion cells results in an increased firing rate while inhibition results in a depressed rate of firing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded is a G-protein coupled receptor with embedded 11-cis-retinal, whose light excitation causes a cis-trans conformational change that begins the process of chemical signalling to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • Reeler mice appear to be a good model for exploring the cross-talk between NGF and Reelin in development/maintenance of a physiological retinal function. (arvojournals.org)
  • Spectral
  • Analysis of cone inputs to primate parvocellular ganglion cells suggests that red-green spectral opponency results when connections segregate input from long wavelength (L) or middle wavelength (M) sensitive cones to receptive field centers and surrounds. (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, in principle, epiretinal implants could provide visual perception to individuals even if all other retinal layers have been damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphology
  • Moreover, Ptf1a alters neuronal morphology, inducing the radial redistribution and branching of neurites in cortical pyramidal cells. (jneurosci.org)