• interneuron
  • Transcriptome profiling of Ptf1a-misexpressing cells using RNA-seq reveals that Ptf1a significantly alters pyramidal cell gene expression, upregulating numerous Ptf1a-dependent inhibitory interneuron markers and ultimately generating a gene expression profile that resembles the transcriptomes of both Ptf1a-expressing spinal interneurons and endogenous cortical interneurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Horizontal cells and other retinal interneuron cells are less likely to be near neighbours of the same subtype than would occur by chance, resulting in 'exclusion zones' that separate them. (wikipedia.org)
  • opsins
  • In light, however, light strikes the photoreceptor which causes the photoreceptor to be inhibited (hyperpolarized) due to the activation of opsins which activate All trans-Retinal, giving energy to stimulate G-Protein coupled receptors to activate phosphodiesterase (PDE) which cleaves cGMP into 5'-GMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromophore
  • When the protein comes in contact with light at a wavelength within its spectral range, the 11-cis-retinal chromophore becomes excited. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphological
  • Morphological diversity of amacrine cells (ACs) is clearly a general characteristic of vertebrate retinae. (springer.com)
  • Djamgoz MBA, Downing JEG, Wagner H-J (1987) Retinal neurones of cyprinid fish: Intracellular marking with horseradish peroxidase and correlative morphological analysis. (springer.com)
  • Morphological studies have defined discrete classes of amacrine and bipolar cells, whereas neurochemical and physiological studies have investigated the modulatory action of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides on these cells. (uclahealth.org)
  • Prior to this discovery, the identity of neuron types participating in retinal networks was largely known, but the specific physiological roles of the identified morphological structures were poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • In addition, spontaneous current events, carried by chloride ions through GABA_A receptors, were recorded in most of the amacrine cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Integrins are the major family of cell surface receptors that mediate cell attachment to the ECM and can also mediate cell-cell interactions (Hynes, 1992 , 1999 ). (wiley.com)
  • While it is known that an important cell in the process is the horizontal cell, the exact sequence of receptors and molecules is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Briefly, Wnt signaling proteins bind to their receptors, the Frizzled receptor family, and cause activation of molecular cascades within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • Reeler mice appear to be a good model for exploring the cross-talk between NGF and Reelin in development/maintenance of a physiological retinal function. (arvojournals.org)
  • neurones
  • Dacey DM (1988) Dopamine-accumulating retinal neurones revealed by in vitro fluorescence display a unique morphology. (springer.com)
  • prostheses
  • While brain prostheses have yet to be tested in people, clinical results with retinal prostheses are demonstrating that the implants can enable blind patients to locate and recognize objects, orient themselves in an unfamiliar environment, and even perform some reading tasks. (blogspot.com)
  • Retinal prostheses for restoration of sight to patients blinded by retinal degeneration are being developed by a number of private companies and research institutions worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • melanopsin
  • A third type, melanopsin in some of the retinal ganglion cells (RGC), part of the body clock mechanism, is probably not involved in conscious vision, as these RGC do not project to the lateral geniculate nucleus but to the pretectal olivary nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • prosthetic
  • Given this situation, a number of research groups have examined the possibility that a retinal prosthetic capable of transducing light into an electrical signal might restore visual function following photoreceptor degeneration. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Henri Lorach is currently a visiting researcher at Stanford University, where he focuses on prosthetic vision and retinal signal processing. (blogspot.com)
  • macular
  • In subjects with age-related macular degeneration, who may have intact peripheral vision, retinal implants could result in a hybrid form of vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitation
  • Excitation of retinal ganglion cells results in an increased firing rate while inhibition results in a depressed rate of firing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded is a G-protein coupled receptor with embedded 11-cis-retinal, whose light excitation causes a cis-trans conformational change that begins the process of chemical signalling to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • axons
  • Electrical pulses lasting several milliseconds provide selective stimulation of the inner retinal neurons and avoid direct activation of the ganglion cells and their axons, which would otherwise considerably limit patients' ability to interpret the spatial layout of a visual scene. (blogspot.com)
  • Since the nerve fiber layer has similar stimulation threshold to that of the retinal ganglion cells, axons passing under the epiretinal electrodes are stimulated, creating arcuate percepts, and thereby distorting the retinotopic map. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional
  • Among other deficits, they outlined retinal functional and anatomical deficits detected in schizophrenia using respectively flash electroretinogram (fERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). However, we would like to suggest herein that the pattern electroretinogram (PERG), a retinal functional recording, might provide a relevant complementary measurement to enhance understanding of biological mechanisms underlying brain disorders in schizophrenia. (frontiersin.org)