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  • chromophore
  • When the protein comes in contact with light at a wavelength within its spectral range, the 11-cis-retinal chromophore becomes excited. (wikipedia.org)
  • degeneration
  • In this review, we focus on the genetic characterization of retinal and macular degeneration using NGS technology and discuss the basic framework for further investigations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some, such as RP, congenital and early-onset retinal degeneration including Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), and cone-rod dystrophies, are monogenic and non-syndromic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some syndromic diseases, including Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) and Usher syndrome, exhibit a highly penetrant retinal degeneration phenotype with multiple affected tissues and are also monogenic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Retinal prostheses for restoration of sight to patients blinded by retinal degeneration are being developed by a number of private companies and research institutions worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optimal candidates for retinal implants have retinal diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In subjects with age-related macular degeneration, who may have intact peripheral vision, retinal implants could result in a hybrid form of vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuron types
  • Prior to this discovery, the identity of neuron types participating in retinal networks was largely known, but the specific physiological roles of the identified morphological structures were poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • opsins
  • In light, however, light strikes the photoreceptor which causes the photoreceptor to be inhibited (hyperpolarized) due to the activation of opsins which activate All trans-Retinal, giving energy to stimulate G-Protein coupled receptors to activate phosphodiesterase (PDE) which cleaves cGMP into 5'-GMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cone cells, there are different types of opsins that combine with retinal to form pigments called photopsins. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurones
  • Djamgoz MBA, Downing JEG, Wagner H-J (1987) Retinal neurones of cyprinid fish: Intracellular marking with horseradish peroxidase and correlative morphological analysis. (springer.com)
  • melanopsin
  • A third type, melanopsin in some of the retinal ganglion cells (RGC), part of the body clock mechanism, is probably not involved in conscious vision, as these RGC do not project to the lateral geniculate nucleus but to the pretectal olivary nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • In addition, spontaneous current events, carried by chloride ions through GABA_A receptors, were recorded in most of the amacrine cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • While it is known that an important cell in the process is the horizontal cell, the exact sequence of receptors and molecules is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Briefly, Wnt signaling proteins bind to their receptors, the Frizzled receptor family, and cause activation of molecular cascades within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitation
  • Excitation of retinal ganglion cells results in an increased firing rate while inhibition results in a depressed rate of firing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded is a G-protein coupled receptor with embedded 11-cis-retinal, whose light excitation causes a cis-trans conformational change that begins the process of chemical signalling to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • However, a significant loss of DACs was observed in P17 OIR retinas (in which neovascularization was maximal), with the cell loss being more profound in the central (avascular) than in the peripheral (neovascular) regions. (arvojournals.org)
  • morphology
  • Moreover, Ptf1a alters neuronal morphology, inducing the radial redistribution and branching of neurites in cortical pyramidal cells. (jneurosci.org)