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  • mutations
  • Finally, we use our unique 30-year ecological dataset and rich collection of DNA samples of the great reed warbler to test the widely accepted but poorly supported sexual antagonism hypothesis suggesting that sexually antagonistic mutations accumulate on the sex chromosomes and drive their evolution. (lu.se)
  • To understand the interplay between sex chromosomes and sexual conflicts by studying whether sexually antagonistic mutations accumulate on sex chromosomes, and whether sexual conflicts drive sex chromosome evolution. (lu.se)
  • gene
  • Second, the neo-sex chromosome is homologous to the sex chromosomes of mammals, which makes it possible - for the first time - to study mammalian X gene homologs in a novel, avian Z-linked environment where females are the heterogametic sex (ZW), and thus to draw direct parallels over the avian ZW-mammalian XY boundary. (lu.se)
  • investigate
  • This is an ideal situation for research on sex chromosomes, because the processes we wish to study have had some time to leave detectable genomic footprints, but have not yet removed the material we want to investigate. (lu.se)
  • We therefore applied a novel image analysis technique to investigate the relationship between sex chromosome dosage and structural brain asymmetry. (ox.ac.uk)
  • males
  • In particular, females with Turner's syndrome (TS) who have only one X-chromosome exhibit deficits of spatial ability whereas males with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) who possess a supernumerary X-chromosome are delayed in acquiring words. (ox.ac.uk)
  • system
  • In the cichlid genus Tilapia and its close relatives, sex is determined by two pairs of chromosomes, one of which functions as an XY system and the other as ZW . (genetics.org)
  • specifically
  • This culling mechanism is specifically activated by unsynapsed pairing centers, cis -acting chromosome sites that are also required to promote synapsis in Caenorhabditis elegans . (sciencemag.org)
  • Specifically, we tested Crow's prediction that the magnitude of the brain torque (i.e., a combination of rightward frontal and leftward occipital asymmetry) would, as a function of sex chromosome dosage, be respectively decreased in TS women and increased in KS men, relative to genotypically normal controls. (ox.ac.uk)
  • metaphase
  • In contrast to the sexual diploids, the pairing of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least one chiasma per chromosome often appears to be necessary to stabilise bivalents along the metaphase plate during separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • Chromosomes are linear arrangements of condensed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and histone proteins, which form a complex called chromatin . (wn.com)
  • mammalian
  • The giemsa G-banding technique is commonly used to identify mammalian chromosomes, utilizing the technology on plant cells was difficult due to the high degree of chromosome compaction in plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Parthenogenetic offspring in species that use either the XY or the X0 sex-determination system have two X chromosomes and are female. (wikipedia.org)
  • In species that use the ZW sex-determination system, they have either two Z chromosomes (male) or two W chromosomes (mostly non-viable but rarely a female), or they could have one Z and one W chromosome (female). (wikipedia.org)
  • highly homologous
  • In E. coli, the direction for orisome assembly are built into a short stretch of nucleotide sequence called as origin of replication (oriC) which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). (wikipedia.org)
  • however it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions and influencing susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS), also known as dup(17)p11.2p11.2 syndrome, trisomy 17p11.2 or duplication 17p11.2 syndrome, is a contiguous gene syndrome involving the microduplication of band 11.2 on the short arm of human chromosome 17 (17p11.2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Differences between the X chromosome and Y chromosome versions of the amelogenin gene (AMELX and AMELY respectively) enable it to be used in sex determination of unknown human samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The system for determining sex in Silene latifolia is close to that found in humans because in both cases the Y chromosome determines what reproductive mechanisms will be expressed in the offspring. (wikipedia.org)