• phenotype
  • Knockout mice exhibit modifications in phenotype (observable traits) and thereby provide important clues about the function of individual genes. (britannica.com)
  • DUSP3-/- bone marrow transfer to lethally irradiated DUSP3+/+ mice was sufficient to transfer the phenotype to DUSP3+/+ mice, indicating that hematopoietic cells compartment was involved in the increased tumour cell dissemination to lung tissues. (ac.be)
  • This strategy can bypass the limits that are usually observed with conventional Knockout (constitutive KO) models (e.g. embryonic lethality, compensatory mechanisms or complex phenotype). (genoway.com)
  • SIRT6 deficiency in mice leads to a degenerative aging-like phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos
  • After a few days, the cells are injected into early mouse embryos, which subsequently are implanted into the uterus of a surrogate female, where they eventually develop and are carried to term. (britannica.com)
  • Studies using embryos from different species (fly, chick, zebrafish, xenopus, and mouse) have shed some light on the cardiogenic induction process. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mouse cells were first transformed in 1979, followed by mouse embryos in 1980. (wikipedia.org)
  • null mice
  • Homozygous null mice (Fkh6 −/− ) did not express Fkh6 mRNA. (bmj.com)
  • Although all four epithelial cell types (enterocytes, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, and Paneth cells) were present in the null mice, goblet cell numbers were increased in the proximal intestine. (bmj.com)
  • When null mice reached an age of 50 days or more, the increased proliferation had resulted in longer villi. (bmj.com)
  • Strategies for generating mutants include spontaneous or radiation-induced mutations and gene targeting to produce null mice or conditional knockouts, using Cre/loxP or Flp/FRT technology. (biologists.org)
  • There are several examples in which null mice completely lacking neural crest genes (e.g. (biologists.org)
  • phenotypic
  • Furthermore, knocking out a gene may not produce any phenotypic change, and the changes observed in mouse models may be quite different from those observed in humans when the same gene is inactivated in both species. (britannica.com)
  • Given that phenotypic changes in Bmi1 knockout mice are numerous and that Bmi1 has very broad tissue distribution, it is possible that it regulates the self-renewal of other types of somatic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammary
  • Insertional mutagenesis using transposons, retrovirus such as mouse mammary tumor virus and murine leukemia virus may be used to identify genes involved in carcinogenesis and to understand the biological pathways of specific cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • deletion
  • In mouse model, DUSP3 deletion prevents neo-angiogenesis and b-FGF-induced microvessel out- growth. (ac.be)
  • sequence
  • Knockout mouse , genetically engineered laboratory mouse ( Mus musculus ) in which a specific gene has been inactivated, or "knocked out," by the introduction of a foreign (artificial) DNA sequence. (britannica.com)
  • We found that human MFH-1 protein is 501 amino acids long and the amino acid sequence of the forkheah domain is identical in human and mouse. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Usually, the new sequence is also given a marker gene, a gene that normal mice don't have and that confers resistance to a certain toxic agent (e.g., neomycin) or that produces an observable change (e.g. colour or fluorescence). (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In this Spotlight article, we discuss these species-specific differences, suggest possible explanations for the divergent phenotypes in mouse and urge the community to consider these issues and the need for further research in complementary systems. (biologists.org)
  • Mice are currently the laboratory animal species most closely related to humans for which the knockout technique can easily be applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiology
  • They are widely used in knockout experiments, especially those investigating genetic questions that relate to human physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first recorded knockout mouse was created by Mario R. Capecchi, Martin Evans, and Oliver Smithies in 1989, for which they were awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Hence, information from knockout mouse models can shed light on the biological roles of specific genes as well as on the involvement of those genes in human disease . (britannica.com)
  • Thus, the functions of those genes cannot be studied to the full extent, and their roles in human biology and disease cannot be established through knockout approaches in animals. (britannica.com)
  • Human thymic tissue and genetically modified human hematopoietic stem cells are transplanted into immunocompromised mice. (jove.com)
  • The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model is the most well-characterized animal model of human type 1 diabetes and has provided important insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of this increasingly prevalent autoimmune disease ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Publications] Miura,N.: 'Isolation of the mouse and human NFH-1 (Mescnchyme Fork Head-1) genes reveals conscrvation of their gone and protein structures. (nii.ac.jp)
  • approaches
  • Here using optogenetic approaches in mice, we show that neurons that produce hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) regulate corticosterone release and a variety of behaviours and physiological hallmarks of the stress response. (stanford.edu)
  • model
  • Using a Lewis Lung carcinoma (LLC) experimental metastasis model, we observed that DUSP3-/- mice devel- oped larger lung metastases than littermate controls. (ac.be)
  • Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with chronic otitis media with effusion and recurrent otitis media (COME/ROM), a hearing loss disorder, and the knockout of the homologous mouse gene results in the deaf mouse mutant Jeff (Jf), a single gene model of otitis media. (nih.gov)
  • An inducible Knockout mouse defines a conditional biological model in which the target gene of interest can be specifically inactivated at a given time point. (genoway.com)
  • Inducible Knockouts enable to more accurately model age-related diseases. (genoway.com)
  • The design process of creating an inducible Knockout model requires a thorough analysis in order to avoid endogenous gene deregulation or truncated protein expression. (genoway.com)
  • genOway provides a one-stop solution for the design, creation and analysis of your custom Knockout mouse model. (genoway.com)
  • cells
  • Artificial DNA sequences typically are introduced into mouse ES cells using a retrovirus or other viral vector, and the modified ES cells are then grown in cell cultures . (britannica.com)
  • We generated IL-21R-deficient NOD mice and C57Bl/6 mice expressing IL-21 in pancreatic β-cells, allowing the determination of the role of insufficient and excessive IL-21 signaling in type 1 diabetes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This receptor complex delivers IL-21 signals to a variety of immune cells including CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells, B-cells, NK cells, NKT cells, and dendritic cells ( 8 - 13 ), all of which can play some role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse ( 14 - 20 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the Fkh6 −/− mice, proliferating cells were scattered throughout the villous surface. (bmj.com)
  • For this example, we will take stem cells from a white mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colon cancer stem cells in mouse xenografts could be eliminated by inhibiting BMI-1 gene, providing a novel potential method to treat colorectal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • We recorded calcium activity using fiber photometry in freely behaving mice and found arousal-state-dependent alterations in VTA dopaminergic neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • Normally
  • Normally in fetal mice, the small intestine develops from a stratified into a columnar epithelium. (bmj.com)
  • For example, the p53 knockout mouse is named after the p53 gene which codes for a protein that normally suppresses the growth of tumours by arresting cell division and/or inducing apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • compartment
  • however, in the Fkh6 −/− mice, the crypt compartment was enlarged and the crypts were often branched. (bmj.com)
  • examples
  • Examples of research in which knockout mice have been useful include studying and modeling different kinds of cancer, obesity, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, substance abuse, anxiety, aging and Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)