• phenotype
  • Knockout mice exhibit modifications in phenotype (observable traits) and thereby provide important clues about the function of individual genes. (britannica.com)
  • DUSP3-/- bone marrow transfer to lethally irradiated DUSP3+/+ mice was sufficient to transfer the phenotype to DUSP3+/+ mice, indicating that hematopoietic cells compartment was involved in the increased tumour cell dissemination to lung tissues. (ac.be)
  • SIRT6 deficiency in mice leads to a degenerative aging-like phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apparent function of HMGA2 in proliferation and differentiation of cells during development is supported by the observation that mice with mutant HMGA2 genes are unusually small (pygmy phenotype), and genome-wide association studies linking HMGA2-associated SNPs to variation in human height. (wikipedia.org)
  • null mice
  • Homozygous null mice (Fkh6 −/− ) did not express Fkh6 mRNA. (bmj.com)
  • Although all four epithelial cell types (enterocytes, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, and Paneth cells) were present in the null mice, goblet cell numbers were increased in the proximal intestine. (bmj.com)
  • When null mice reached an age of 50 days or more, the increased proliferation had resulted in longer villi. (bmj.com)
  • Strategies for generating mutants include spontaneous or radiation-induced mutations and gene targeting to produce null mice or conditional knockouts, using Cre/loxP or Flp/FRT technology. (biologists.org)
  • There are several examples in which null mice completely lacking neural crest genes (e.g. (biologists.org)
  • inactivation
  • The role of G2A in LPC-mediated cell migration may be relevant to the autoimmune syndrome associated with genetic inactivation of this G protein-coupled receptor in mice. (jove.com)
  • 1998
  • The first scientific publication about identification of the function of a hitherto unknown gene utilizing knockout moss appeared 1998 and was authored by Ralf Reski and coworkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypic
  • Furthermore, knocking out a gene may not produce any phenotypic change, and the changes observed in mouse models may be quite different from those observed in humans when the same gene is inactivated in both species. (britannica.com)
  • Given that phenotypic changes in Bmi1 knockout mice are numerous and that Bmi1 has very broad tissue distribution, it is possible that it regulates the self-renewal of other types of somatic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The ES cell recognizes the homologous flanking sequences and exchanges the existing target gene DNA for segments of the foreign DNA. (britannica.com)
  • Artificial DNA sequences typically are introduced into mouse ES cells using a retrovirus or other viral vector, and the modified ES cells are then grown in cell cultures . (britannica.com)
  • mammary
  • Insertional mutagenesis using transposons, retrovirus such as mouse mammary tumor virus and murine leukemia virus may be used to identify genes involved in carcinogenesis and to understand the biological pathways of specific cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • deletion
  • In mouse model, DUSP3 deletion prevents neo-angiogenesis and b-FGF-induced microvessel out- growth. (ac.be)
  • species
  • In this Spotlight article, we discuss these species-specific differences, suggest possible explanations for the divergent phenotypes in mouse and urge the community to consider these issues and the need for further research in complementary systems. (biologists.org)
  • Mice are currently the laboratory animal species most closely related to humans for which the knockout technique can easily be applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The same mutations that lead to pituitary adenomas in mice can be found in similar cancers in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiology
  • They are widely used in knockout experiments, especially those investigating genetic questions that relate to human physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first recorded knockout mouse was created by Mario R. Capecchi, Martin Evans, and Oliver Smithies in 1989, for which they were awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • identical
  • We found that human MFH-1 protein is 501 amino acids long and the amino acid sequence of the forkheah domain is identical in human and mouse. (nii.ac.jp)
  • approaches
  • Thus, the functions of those genes cannot be studied to the full extent, and their roles in human biology and disease cannot be established through knockout approaches in animals. (britannica.com)
  • Here using optogenetic approaches in mice, we show that neurons that produce hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) regulate corticosterone release and a variety of behaviours and physiological hallmarks of the stress response. (stanford.edu)
  • cells
  • We generated IL-21R-deficient NOD mice and C57Bl/6 mice expressing IL-21 in pancreatic β-cells, allowing the determination of the role of insufficient and excessive IL-21 signaling in type 1 diabetes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This receptor complex delivers IL-21 signals to a variety of immune cells including CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells, B-cells, NK cells, NKT cells, and dendritic cells ( 8 - 13 ), all of which can play some role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse ( 14 - 20 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the Fkh6 −/− mice, proliferating cells were scattered throughout the villous surface. (bmj.com)
  • For this example, we will take stem cells from a white mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colon cancer stem cells in mouse xenografts could be eliminated by inhibiting BMI-1 gene, providing a novel potential method to treat colorectal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Hence, information from knockout mouse models can shed light on the biological roles of specific genes as well as on the involvement of those genes in human disease . (britannica.com)
  • The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model is the most well-characterized animal model of human type 1 diabetes and has provided important insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of this increasingly prevalent autoimmune disease ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Publications] Miura,N.: 'Isolation of the mouse and human NFH-1 (Mescnchyme Fork Head-1) genes reveals conscrvation of their gone and protein structures. (nii.ac.jp)
  • model
  • Using a Lewis Lung carcinoma (LLC) experimental metastasis model, we observed that DUSP3-/- mice devel- oped larger lung metastases than littermate controls. (ac.be)
  • ERCC1 protein expression was also reduced in a diet-related mouse model of colon cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • We recorded calcium activity using fiber photometry in freely behaving mice and found arousal-state-dependent alterations in VTA dopaminergic neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • Normally
  • Normally in fetal mice, the small intestine develops from a stratified into a columnar epithelium. (bmj.com)
  • For example, the p53 knockout mouse is named after the p53 gene which codes for a protein that normally suppresses the growth of tumours by arresting cell division and/or inducing apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • compartment
  • however, in the Fkh6 −/− mice, the crypt compartment was enlarged and the crypts were often branched. (bmj.com)
  • however
  • Surprisingly, however, mouse mutants of the same genes often lack comparable phenotypes, at least at early stages of neural crest development. (biologists.org)
  • examples
  • Examples of research in which knockout mice have been useful include studying and modeling different kinds of cancer, obesity, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, substance abuse, anxiety, aging and Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)