• protein
  • Lipolysis, lipid oxidation, ketone body synthesis, tailored endogenous glucose production and uptake, and decreased glucose oxidation serve to protect against excessive erosion of protein mass, which is the predominant supplier of carbon chains for synthesis of newly formed glucose. (physiology.org)
  • These processes are crucial for survival and serve to protect the organism from excessive erosion of protein mass, which is the predominant supplier of carbon chains that can be used for synthesis of newly formed glucose ( 14 , 26 , 87 , 99 ). (physiology.org)
  • Studies conducted in obese mouse models found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to insulin resistance, and treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a bile acid derivative that acts as a chemical chaperone to enhance protein folding and ameliorate ER stress, increases insulin sensitivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Disruption of ER homeostasis results in an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to restore ER folding capacity and mitigate stress. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Additionally, central resistin promotes the activation of the serine kinases Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, enhances the serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, and increases the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in the hypothalamus and key peripheral insulin-sensitive tissues. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The hCHGA gene is located on chromosome 14q32.12, which spans 12,192 bp and gives rise to a transcript of 2,041 bp that encodes a 439-amino acid (aa) mature protein ( 85 ). (physiology.org)
  • Arabic numbers denote amino acids in the mature protein (minus signal peptide). (physiology.org)
  • Insulin binding to the IR results in activation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) protein and subsequent signaling to the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 pathways, resulting in translocation of Glut4 vesicles, glucose uptake, cell proliferation, and survival. (cellsignal.com)
  • As adipose tissue expands, adipocytes enlarge and the adipose tissue starts to produce chemotactic factors, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) -1, that attract monocytes/macrophages into adipose tissue ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • One promising approach has been the expansion of brown adipose tissues that express uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 and thus can uncouple mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This is possible owing to the presence of the uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 ( 2 ), a long-chain fatty acid anion/proton symporter ( 3 ), in the inner mitochondrial matrix, which allows the return of protons after they have been pumped across the mitochondrial inner membrane by the electron transport chain, thereby bypassing ATP synthase. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein hormone which is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adiponectin is a 244-amino-acid-long polypeptide (protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, two receptors have been identified with homology to G protein-coupled receptors, and one receptor similar to the cadherin family: Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) Adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) T-cadherin - CDH13 These have distinct tissue specificities within the body and have different affinities to the various forms of adiponectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first evidence for this distinct glucose transport protein was provided by David James in 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, this is not the same as the presence of Myf5 protein, which is involved in the development of many tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • When compared to other macronutrient classes (carbohydrates and protein), fatty acids yield the most ATP on an energy per gram basis, when they are completely oxidized to CO2 and water by beta oxidation and the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long chain free fatty acids enter the metabolizing cells (i.e. most living cells in the body except red blood cells and neurons in the central nervous system) through specific transport proteins, such as the SLC27 family fatty acid transport protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human insulin protein is composed of 51 amino acids, and has a molecular mass of 5808 Da. (wikipedia.org)
  • obesity
  • From an evolutionary perspective, this lipid-induced effect on glucose oxidation and uptake is very strong and may therefore help to understand why insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is difficult to treat. (physiology.org)
  • Obesity is strongly associated to insulin resistance, inflammation, and elevated plasma free fatty acids, but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully comprehended. (springer.com)
  • In addition to insulin resistance and inflammation, obesity is strongly related to elevated plasma free fatty acids (FFA), but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully comprehended. (springer.com)
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that changes in adipose-secreted factors in obesity, including release of inflammatory cytokines, dramatically affect insulin sensitivity ( 3 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Since obesity results from an imbalance in the ratio of energy intake to energy expenditure, it can be treated with reduced caloric uptake and/or increasing energy expenditure. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • An imbalance in glucose intake and energy expenditure has been shown to lead to both adipose cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which lead to obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central obesity is associated with glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • And it is waistline adipose tissue (central obesity) which seems to be the foremost type of fat deposits contributing to rising levels of serum resistin. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycerol
  • Here, we showed that serum FGF21 level is increased in mice after a single bout of acute exercise, and that this is accompanied by increased serum levels of free fatty acid, glycerol and ketone body. (mendeley.com)
  • Triacylglycerol consists of three fatty acids bound to a glycerol molecule and is considered the most neutral and harmless type of intracellular lipid storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once freed from glycerol, the free fatty acids enter the blood, which transports them, attached to plasma albumin, throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • The maintenance of glucose homeostasis is an essential physiological process that is regulated by hormones. (cellsignal.com)
  • Adiponectin is secreted from adipose tissue (and also from the placenta in pregnancy) into the bloodstream and is very abundant in plasma relative to many hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abdominal fat is especially active hormonally, secreting a group of hormones called adipokines that may possibly impair glucose tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids can also be cleaved, or partially cleaved, from their chemical attachments in the cell membrane to form second messengers within the cell, and local hormones in the immediate vicinity of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prostaglandins made from arachidonic acid stored in the cell membrane, are probably the most well known group of these local hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Furthermore, analysis of the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of adipose tissue revealed that the autonomic nervous system modulates the fat cell number and other processes, such as adipokine expression levels, lipogenesis/lipolysis, fatty acid uptake, and glucose uptake. (nature.com)
  • As the gut microbiota continues to be implicated in an increasing number of disease processes, a plethora of new literature surrounding its complexity and role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis has become available. (omicsonline.org)
  • When insulin binds to the insulin receptor, it leads to a cascade of cellular processes that promote the usage or, in some cases, the storage of glucose in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a diprotic acid, succinic acid undergoes two successive deprotonation reactions: (CH2)2(CO2H)2 → (CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)− + H+ (CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)− → (CH2)2(CO2)22− + H+ The pKa of these processes are 4.3 and 5.6, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreas
  • Pancreastatin (PST) is a regulatory peptide containing 49 amino acids, first isolated from porcine pancreas. (physiology.org)
  • One of these peptides, PST inhibits the rapid phase of insulin release when the rat pancreas is stimulated with glucose ( 11 ). (physiology.org)
  • In the profusion rat pancreas, PST can inhibit not only glucose-induced insulin release but also insulin release in response to arginine, tolbutamide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin (CCK-8) ( 11 ). (physiology.org)
  • When carbohydrates are consumed, digested, and absorbed the pancreas senses the subsequent rise in blood glucose concentration and releases insulin to promote an uptake of glucose from the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the beta-cells of the pancreas, glucose enters through the GLUT 2 receptors (process described below). (wikipedia.org)
  • The glucose that goes in the bloodstream after food consumption also enters the beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • As we eat and glucose levels increase, insulin is released from the pancreas and into the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • translocation
  • We show that β 3 -adrenoceptors stimulate glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue via a signaling pathway that is comprised of two different parts: one part dependent on cAMP-mediated increases in GLUT1 transcription and de novo synthesis of GLUT1 and another part dependent on mTOR complex 2-stimulated translocation of newly synthesized GLUT1 to the plasma membrane, leading to increased glucose uptake. (rupress.org)
  • citric acid
  • This mechanism replenishes the intermediates of the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta oxidation, in the mitochondrial matrix, then cuts the long carbon chains of the fatty acids (in the form of acyl-CoA molecules) into a series of two-carbon (acetate) units, which, combined with co-enzyme A, form molecules of acetyl CoA, which condense with oxaloacetate to form citrate at the "beginning" of the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • One of the main regulators of gene expression in fat is the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), which is a fatty acid- and eicosanoid-dependent nuclear receptor that plays key roles in the development and maintenance of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • In humans it is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene and it is produced in adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • The expression of these adipokines is an integrated response to various signals received from many organs, which depends heavily on the integrity and physiological status of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • type 2 diabet
  • TAK-559 is a novel oxyiminoalkanoic acid under investigation for use as an oral agent in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Rise in the blood PST level in Type 2 diabetes suggests that PST is a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. (physiology.org)
  • The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive and peripheral tissue insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • P C Tsiotra C Tsigos S A Raptis Individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetes may benefit from the regular inclusion of cinnamon in their daily diet to prevent and control elevated glucose and lipid levels. (bestcities.eu)
  • CVS: TRUE result blood donation diabetes type 1 your affect does gums Blood Glucose Meter $12.99 Moneymaker. (bestcities.eu)
  • synthesis
  • Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysregulation of succinate synthesis, and therefore ATP synthesis, happens in some genetic mitochondrial diseases, such as Leighs disease, and Melas disease, and degradation can lead to pathological conditions, such as malignant transformation, inflammation and tissue injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common industrial routes of synthesis include partial hydrogenation of maleic acid, oxidation of 1,4-butanediol, and carbonylation of ethylene glycol. (wikipedia.org)