• Ligand
  • Ligand binding to TβR-II initiates a heteromeric complex formation between TβR-II and TβR-I, followed by phosphorylation of TβR-I by TβR-II. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The LBD also contains the activation function 2 (AF-2) whose action is dependent on the presence of bound ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal (A/B), DNA-binding (C), and ligand binding (E) domains are independently well folded and structurally stable while the hinge region (D) and optional C-terminal (F) domains may be conformationally flexible and disordered. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • The expression patterns of specific DNA-binding factors that control eye development add an additional layer of complexity ( K umar and M oses 1997 ). (genetics.org)
  • heterodimer
  • Together, Ku70 and Ku80 make up the Ku heterodimer, which binds to DNA double-strand break ends and is required for the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway of DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heterodimer formation is based on the interaction of hydrophobic amino acid residue interactions between the two proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large molar excess of period (PER) and timeless (TIM) proteins causes formation of the PER-TIM heterodimer which prevents the CLK-CYC heterodimer from binding to the E-boxes of per and tim, essentially blocking per and tim transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Histone post-translational modifications were first identified and listed as having a potential regulatory role on the synthesis of RNA in 1964. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Dr. Paolo Sassone-Corsi and colleagues demonstrated in vitro that CLOCK mediated HAT activity is necessary to rescue circadian rhythms in Clock mutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • This subunit contains two independent protein kinase domains at the N- and C-terminals, but also possesses acetyltransferase activity and can act as a ubiquitin-activating/conjugating enzyme. (genecards.org)
  • In both invertebrates and mammals, Numb is localized using the Pins/GαI complex and the PAR complex of Bazooka (Par3 in mammals), Par6, and aPKC (atypical protein kinase C). In the sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell, the PAR proteins localize to the posterior pole of the cell, and the Pins/GαI complex is localized to the anterior pole of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • The protein consists of several isoforms with a common internal region and variable N- and C- termini [ PMID: 12242014 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A large number of transcript variations exist, encoding different isoforms or chimeric proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the isoforms has been shown to preclude binding of one of the other TFIID subunits, thereby reducing transcription and initiating signals that trigger apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • localization
  • Another proposed component of the localization complex is Partner of Numb (PON), which is asymmetrically localized during mitosis and acts as an adaptor protein by binding and mediating the anchoring of Numb. (wikipedia.org)
  • octamer
  • These interactions keep the DNA and histone octamer loosely associated and ultimately allow the two to re-position or separate entirely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Richmond and his research group has been able to elucidate the crystal structure of the histone octamer with DNA wrapped up around it at a resolution of 7 Å in 1984. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleosomes consist of a histone octamer surrounded by 147 base pairs of DNA wrapped in a superhelical manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to compacting the DNA, the histone octamer plays a key role in the transcription of the DNA surrounding it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interactions between the histone octamer and DNA, however, are not permanent. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tetramer further combines with two H2a-H2b dimers to form the compact Histone octamer core. (wikipedia.org)
  • modifications
  • These variants with a variety of covalent modifications on the N-terminal can be added to histones making possible different chromatin structures that are required for DNA function in higher eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • TGF-β, along with other TGF-β family ligands such as bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and activin are involved in regulating important cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and matrix production. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear receptors
  • In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligands that bind to and activate nuclear receptors include lipophilic substances such as endogenous hormones, vitamins A and D, and xenobiotic endocrine disruptors. (wikipedia.org)