• binds
  • It is responsible for most of the cytoplasmic HAT activity in yeast, and it binds strongly to histone H4 by virtue of its association with an additional subunit, Hat2. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the viral oncoprotein El A binds to p300 and inhibits its activity, whereas phosphorylation of CBP by cyclin E/Cdk2 kinase activates its HAT activity. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The linker histone H1 binds the nucleosome at the entry and exit sites of the DNA, thus locking the DNA into place and allowing the formation of higher order structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • modifications
  • This review provides a summary of the recent findings in genetic background of TS, followed by an overview on different epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in the regulation of gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transactivation mediated by CBP and p300 is regulated by multiple signaling pathways that promote posttranslational modifications on their transactivation domains (TAD), such as sumoilation, phosphorylation, methylation, and autoacetylation ( 25 , 26 , 27 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • NF-κB is in turn able to influence the chromatin state through a variety of mechanisms, including the recruitment of chromatin modifying co-activator complexes such as p300, the competitive eviction of negative chromatin modifications, and the recruitment of components of the general transcriptional machinery. (frontiersin.org)
  • The histone tails insert themselves in the minor grooves of the DNA and extend through the double helix, which leaves them open for modifications involved in transcriptional activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modifications of histones can not only cause secondary structural changes at their specific points, but can cause many structural changes in distant locations which inevitably affects function. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Degradation of IκBα exposes the nuclear localization sequence on NF-κB, allowing for translocation into the nucleus, where NF-κB can initiate gene transcription ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • protein
  • The transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein and p300 regulate inducible transcription in multiple cellular processes and during the establishment of inflammatory and immune response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Several viruses have been shown to interfere with CREB-binding protein/p300 function, modulating their transcriptional activity. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we report that the viral protein A238L interacts with the amino-terminal region of p300, inhibiting the acetylation and transcriptional activation of NF-ATc2, NF-κB, and c-Jun in stimulated human T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • On one hand, they act as a molecular bridge to connect the transcription factors with the transcriptional machinery, including TATA binding protein, transcription factor II B, transcription factor II D, and RNA polymerase II ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Among the many factors involved in these defense processes against DNA damage, p21 CDKN1A protein - known also as p21 (WAF1/CIP1/SDI1) - plays a key role in several fundamental biological processes, such as cell cycle control, DNA replication/repair, gene transcription, apoptosis, and cell motility [ 3 - 6 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Hung HL, Kim AY, Hong W, Rakowski C, Blobel GA. Stimulation of NF-E2 DNA binding by CREB-binding protein (CBP)-mediated acetylation. (proteopedia.org)
  • This essay focuses on one well-studied epigenetic control, histone (de)acetylation, and the recent development of cancer therapy aiming at altering the balance of histone and protein acetylation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The mammalian FOXO family of forkhead transcription factors, Foxo1 (also known as FKHR), Foxo3a (also known as FKHRL1), and Foxo4 (also known as AFX) plays a key role in transmitting insulin signaling downstream of protein kinase B (also called Akt). (pnas.org)
  • p3×IRS-MLP-luc was generated by inserting three copies of the insulin-response sequence derived from the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 promoter into the luciferase reporter gene vector containing an adenovirus major late promoter. (pnas.org)
  • lysine 16
  • Although preferentially cytosolic, SIRT2 transiently shuttles to the nucleus during the G2/M transition of the cell cycle, where it has a strong preference for histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16Ac), thereby regulating chromosomal condensation during mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • canonical
  • All members of this family contain a MYST region of about 240 amino acids with a canonical acetyl-CoA-binding site and a C2HC-type zinc finger motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histones are subdivided into canonical replication-dependent histones that are expressed during the S-phase of cell cycle and replication-independent histone variants, expressed during the whole cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • In contrast with the negative cell-cycle regulation, p21 may also serve as an assembly factor for cyclin D-CDK4/6 complexes, thus promoting cyclin D-dependent events, and downstream activation of cyclin E-CDK2 [ 7 , 8 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Thus, histone acetylation may simply be a by-product of anchoring the multi-functional HAT complexes to the target loci. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • differentiation
  • The diversity of cell-specific NF-κB-mediated transcriptional programs is established at the chromatin level during cell differentiation by lineage-defining transcription factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • When committed to differentiation, those transcription programs designed for cellular proliferation are repressed, or uncontrolled division and malignancies may occur. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • this transcription factor functions in neuronal and pancreatic β-cell differentiation and is essential for insulin gene transcription. (pnas.org)
  • Isx increased the expression and secretion of insulin in islets that made little insulin after prolonged ex vivo culture and increased expression of neurogenic differentiation 1 and other regulators of islet differentiation and insulin gene transcription. (pnas.org)
  • Among the most important of these transcription factors are neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1, also known as BETA2), pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1), and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which activate the insulin gene promoter synergistically and are essential for glucose-stimulated insulin gene transcription. (pnas.org)
  • Expression of one or more of these factors helps promote differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells from various stem cell populations ( 6 , 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • regulation
  • chronic myeloid leukemia PATH:ko05220 Histone acetylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent data are accumulating about the roles of diverse histone variants highlighting the functional links between variants and the delicate regulation of organism development. (wikipedia.org)