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  • binds
  • Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells ( APC ) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. (rcsb.org)
  • 1992
  • 1992. HLA-DR typing by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) in 2 hours: An alternative to serological DR typing in clinical practice including donor-recipient matching in cadaveric transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • exogenous
  • Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. (rcsb.org)
  • As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. (rcsb.org)
  • presentation
  • Because class II MHC is loaded with extracellular proteins, it is mainly concerned with presentation of extracellular pathogens (for example, bacteria that might be infecting a wound or the blood). (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL , leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). (rcsb.org)
  • Technically, it is an ex-vivo cellular immune assay that occurs between two allogeneic lymphocyte populations (same species but genetically distinct). (wikipedia.org)
  • This cellular response to the histocompatibility antigens that occurs in the MLR is also involved in cell-mediated immune responses within an individual and offered an in vitro correlate of cellular immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • a trimer) to prevent it from binding cellular peptides or peptides from the endogenous pathway (such as those that would be loaded onto class I MHC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding to Ii might also prevent binding of peptides from the endogenous pathway to the groove of MHC class II. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • It is then cleaved by cathepsin S (cathepsin L in cortical thymic epithelial cells), leaving only a small fragment called CLIP which blocks peptide binding until HLA-DM interacts with MHC II, releasing CLIP and allowing other peptides to bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells then bind to antigens on the surface of B-cells stimulating B-cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • The DR β-chain is encoded by 4 loci, however no more than 3 functional loci are present in a single individual, and no more than two on a single chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • HLA-DR is an αβ heterodimer, cell surface receptor, each subunit of which contains two extracellular domains, a membrane-spanning domain and a cytoplasmic tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, and exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is encoded by 6 exons, exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. (rcsb.org)
  • extracellular proteins are endocytosed, digested in lysosomes, and the resulting epitopic peptide fragments are loaded onto MHC class II molecules prior to their migration to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invariant chain also facilitates the export of class II MHC from the ER to the golgi, followed by fusion with a late endosome containing endocytosed, degraded proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the eleven proteins that are encoded for by the genome, two are nonstructural, while the remaining nine are structural. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD74
  • In addition to APC s, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APC s, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. (rcsb.org)
  • cell
  • The stable class II MHC is then presented on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altogether, this complex contributes to maintain MHC-II loaded vesicles within the Immature Dendritic Cell, impeding its translocation to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex of HLA-DR (Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related) and its ligand, a peptide of 9 amino acids in length or longer, constitutes a ligand for the T-cell receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA (human leukocyte antigens) were originally defined as cell surface antigens that mediate graft-versus-host disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased abundance of DR 'antigen' on the cell surface is often in response to stimulation, and, therefore, DR is also a marker for immune stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This response became quantifiable when incorporating radioactivity, [3H] thymidine or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), into the mixed cell suspension. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mice demonstrate that β2 microglobulin is necessary for cell surface expression of MHC class I and stability of the peptide binding groove. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Superantigens bind first to the MHC Class II and then coordinate to the variable alpha or beta chain of T-cell Receptors (TCR) SAgs show preference for the HLA-DQ form of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein belongs to the subfamily B class of LIR receptors which contain two or four extracellular immunoglobulin domains, a transmembrane domain, and two to four cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, an antigen is a molecule that binds to Ag-specific receptors, but cannot necessarily induce an immune response in the body by itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was expanded to refer to any molecule or a linear molecular fragment that can be recognized by highly variable antigen receptors (B-cell receptor or T-cell receptor) of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukocyte
  • Supertypes are groups of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles which bind overlapping sets of peptides due to sharing specific residues at the anchor positions-the B and F pockets-of the peptide-binding region (PBR). (springer.com)
  • Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3 (LILR-A3) also known as CD85 antigen-like family member E (CD85e), immunoglobulin-like transcript 6 (ILT-6), and leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 4 (LIR-4) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LILRA3 gene located within the eukocyte receptor complex on chromosome 19q13.4. (wikipedia.org)
  • however it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions and influencing susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-A36 (A36) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • Despite extensive research on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of this host-pathogen system over the past two decades, the immunological responses of house finches to MG infection remain poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • We characterized cytokine responses in these two tissues for 60 house finches experimentally inoculated either with media alone (sham) or one of two MG isolates: the earliest known pathogen isolate from house finches (VA1994) or an evolutionarily more derived isolate collected in 2006 (NC2006), which is known to be more virulent. (frontiersin.org)
  • They contain DNA that codes for specific proteins (antigens) from a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins work together to: trigger the recruitment of inflammatory cells "tag" pathogens for destruction by other cells by opsonizing, or coating, the surface of the pathogen form holes in the plasma membrane of the pathogen, resulting in cytolysis of the pathogen cell, causing the death of the pathogen rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • Using clones of antigen-specific B and T cells, he demonstrated that B cells efficiently capture, via membrane immunoglobulins, the specific antigen, which is then internalized, and processed into peptides, which are presented to T helper cells in an extraordinarily efficient manner (1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens are usually peptides (amino acid chains), polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) or lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, saccharides and lipids (as opposed to peptides) qualify as antigens but not as immunogens since they cannot elicit an immune response on their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells) it must be a large enough size, since peptides too small will also not elicit an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • To test our previous hypothesis that the segment between amino acid position 63 to 73 of the H-2D d antigen forms a major allo-antigenic site, mutations were introduced into the H-2L d gene in a sequential fashion, which replaced the codons for amino acid position 63, 65, 66, 70 and 73 of the H-2L d antigen with those of the H-2D d antigen. (springer.com)
  • 1984. H-40, an antigen controlled by an Igh-linked gene and recognized by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • AJ506054 - Homo sapiens partial HLA-B gene for MHC class I antigen, HLA-B*51 allele, exon 4. (usc.edu)
  • AJ440716 - Homo sapiens partial mRNA for MHC class I antigen (HLA-C gene, HLA-Cw*07 allele), exons 2 and 3. (usc.edu)
  • Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1, also known as HLA-DQA1, is a human gene present on short arm of chromosome 6 (6p21.3) and also denotes the genetic locus which contains this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive
  • Immunological memory: While the property of memory in the adaptive system had been known for decades, it was Lanzavecchia's laboratory that described in humans a fundamental division of memory T cells into two major subtypes, central memory and effector memory T cells, which play distinct roles in secondary immune responses (11). (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Based on original studies on the roles of T cell receptor triggering, sustained signalling and costimulation in T cell activation (12-14), Lanzavecchia also proposed a progressive model of T cell differentiation to explain the generation of central and effector memory T cells within a single clone of antigen-primed T cells (15). (wikipedia.org)
  • polymorphic
  • New polymorphic microsatellite markers in the human MHC class III region. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Less commonly, SAgs attach to the polymorphic MHC class II β-chain in an interaction mediated by a zinc ion coordination complex between three SAg residues and a highly conserved region of the HLA-DR β chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Based on initial screening that indicated strong pro-inflammatory cytokine expression during MG infection at the periorbital sites in particular, we selected two key house finch tissues for further characterization: the nictitating membrane, i.e., the internal eyelid in direct contact with MG, and the Harderian gland, the secondary lymphoid tissue responsible for regulation of periorbital immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • immunity
  • Immunity, 2007;26: 593 †Leavenworth JW, †Schellack C, †Kim H-J, Lu L, Spee P, and Cantor H. Analysis of the cellular mechanism underlying inhibition of EAE after treatment with anti-NKG2A F(ab)′2. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domain, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region, and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. (usc.edu)
  • amino
  • The amino acid substitutions at position 63, 65, and 66 led to the acquisition of multiple serological H-2D d specificities which were expressed in the mutant H-2L d antigen. (springer.com)
  • An alto CTL epitope of the H-2D d antigen was also localized to this stretch of amino acid sequence, as one of several H-2D d specific CTL clones reacted with the mutant molecule in which amino acids were replaced at position 63 to 70. (springer.com)
  • A hallmark of this class is the presence of a von Willebrand factor type A domain (Pfam:PF00092) (I-domain) of approximately 200 amino acid residues at the N terminus, which confers divalent cation binding properties. (githubusercontent.com)
  • distinct
  • I. The generation of functionally distinct T-cell subclasses is a differentiative process independent of antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two alternative transcripts encoding distinct isoforms, one membrane associated and one secreted, have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Almost all of the HLA class I polymorphisms are clustered in exons 2 and 3, which code for the α1 and α2 extracellular domains of the HLA molecule. (springer.com)
  • It is composed of an N-terminal extracellular domain containing two Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains, followed by a single-pass transmembrane segment and a cytoplasmic C-terminal tail. (githubusercontent.com)
  • chains
  • Proteases cleave the invariant chains in multiple locations, leaving behind the class-II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP) in the binding pocket. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The functional coreceptor is either a homodimer composed of two alpha chains, or a heterodimer composed of one alpha and one beta chain. (wikipedia.org)