• polymorphism
  • The high level of HLA polymorphism is maintained in populations by balancing selection, specifically pathogen-driven selection with heterozygote advantage. (chori.org)
  • It is also noteworthy that extraordinary levels of variation in the 5'-upstream regulatory region of HLA-G exist, which may provide evidence for an association between a promoter-region single-nucleotide polymorphism and fetal loss rates. (nih.gov)
  • sequence
  • Specifically, marker DNA sequences which detect either directly or indirectly the identity of the codon encoding for the amino acid at position 57 of the DQ-beta protein sequence are disclosed as well as sequences from the DR-beta region. (google.com.au)
  • These two loci are highest sequence variation rate within human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, HLA DNA can be typed either by hybridizing labeled, sequence specific oligonucleotide probes to HLA loci amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or by using PCR to amplify th e HLA DNA directly through differential primer extension. (bio-medicine.org)
  • One of the most commonly employed strategies in HLA DNA typing is to first amplify a given HLA locus, then hybridize it with a labeled, sequence specific oligonucleotide probe. (bio-medicine.org)
  • For those laboratories with access to Sequencers, it may be the most sensitive, specific and cost effective option to sequence certain HLA loci directly. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Sequence-specific oligonucleotides (SSO) can be used to detect individual alleles with a high degree of accuracy by probing dot-blotted DNA, amplified to high copy number by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (ox.ac.uk)
  • proteins
  • In essence, every individual's immune system is tuned to the specific set of HLA and self proteins produced by that individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA research didn't heat up until the 1980s when a group of researchers finally elucidated the shape of the HLA-A*02 protein (just one of many specific HLA proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Even more recently, in 2010, the WHO committee responsible for naming all HLA proteins revised their standards for naming to introduce more clarity and specificity in the naming system. (wikipedia.org)
  • When tolerance to self proteins is lost, DQ may become involved in autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others result in changes in regions that are removed when the proteins is processed to the cell surface, still others result in change in the non-functional regions of the protein, and some changes result in a change of function of the DQ isoform that is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HLA complex helps the immune system distinguish the body's own proteins from proteins made by foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally we are shipping HLA-DMB Antibodies (70) and HLA-DMB Proteins (4) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • molecules
  • Within the DQ molecule both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to 4 different molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HLA class I molecules also act as ligands for killer immunoglobulin receptors (KIR), which regulate the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells. (chori.org)
  • NK cells are effector cells of the innate immune system that recognize the absence of HLA class I molecules from the surface of virally infected cells and target these cells for destruction through cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production1 (Figure 2). (chori.org)
  • HLA-DR molecules are upregulated in response to signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP (class II-associated invariant chain peptide) molecule from the peptide binding site. (antibodies-online.com)
  • imgt
  • http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/imgt/hla/stats.html). (chori.org)
  • To aid in migration of data to the new nomenclature the WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System has provided the IMGT/HLA Nomenclature Conversion Tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • New alleles that have never been assigned with a name prior to the April 2010 update are: Nomenclature of HLA Alleles The IMGT/HLA Database - HLA Dictionary. (wikipedia.org)
  • derived from IMGT/HLA Krasowska-Kwiecień A, Sancewicz-Pach K, Moczulska A (2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin-dependen
  • DNA sequences and corresponding amino acid sequences from the HLA class II beta region of the human genome that are associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) have been identified. (google.com.au)
  • isoform
  • Much of the isoform variation in DQ is within these 'functional' regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each combination of DPA1 allele gene product with each combination of DPB1 'gene' product can potentially recombine to produce one isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • The soluble HLA-G1 isoform downregulates both CD8+ 21 and CD4+ T cell reactivity. (nih.gov)
  • DQ2.2 is shorthand for the DQ α2β2 heterodimeric isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • This is the highest phenotype frequency observed for any DR or DQ phenotype in the human population by a wide margin. (wikipedia.org)
  • With DR3 this DQ2 has the second strongest linkage to Type 1 diabetes, and when paired with HLA-DQ8 is the most abundant phenotype found in late onset, "Type1-Type2" diabetes mellitus type 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0202
  • For example, the allele discovered after HLA-DPB1*9901 was assigned as DPB1*0102, the subsequent allele was named DPB1*0202, then *0302 and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 2010 HLA nomenclature update, all DPB1 alleles, except DPB1*0202 and *0402, discovered after DPB1*9901 were reassigned with new numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Super B8
  • In the Super B8 complex DP locus is more frequently substituted, either as a result of its distance from other loci, or because it was not as actively selected in the evolution of Super B8. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmunity
  • Current Trachtenberg lab research projects include investigating the role of HLA and KIR in autoimmunity, with a special focus on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease). (chori.org)
  • Serological
  • Serological studies of DQ recognized that antibodies to DQ bind primarily to the β-chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years HLA polymorphisms were typed by serological respons. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, the advent of recombinant DNA technology, which paved the way to identifying genetic differences among the HLA loci directly, has led many laboratories to abandon classic serological typing methods. (bio-medicine.org)
  • nucleotide sequences
  • 6. The marker DQ-beta DNA sequences of claim 5 which comprise one or more nucleotide sequences from the second exon of the DQB1.3 allele from about codon 20 to about codon 80. (google.com.au)
  • The majority of the HLA-DPB1 alleles cannot be simply grouped together by their nucleotide sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Dr. Trachtenberg also collaborates on studies of HLA and KIR in stem cell transplantation, a unique environment combining individual donor and recipient immune systems. (chori.org)
  • major
  • Thus, the sensitivity and robustiness of this technique give it major applications in the analysis of histocompatibility and disease associations, particularly in circumstances where facilities for the initial preparation and storage of samples may be limited. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The HLA complex is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species. (nih.gov)
  • humans
  • The HLA-C locus has been found only in humans, gorilla and chimpanzees but not in monkeys 17 . (tripod.com)
  • 18 In humans, natural killer cells are inhibited by HLA-G via NKAT3, which contributes to the survival of the fetal semi-allograft in the mother during pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • polymorphisms
  • Within the DR molecule the beta chain contains all the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clear understanding of the differences between HLA polymorphisms has provided ample insight into why and how foreign tissue is rejected by the host, and as such been a critical enabler of the field of transplantation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The second HLA DNA typing technique is to use the PCR amplification reaction directly to detect HLA polymorphisms. (bio-medicine.org)
  • By constructing an array of PCR primers complementary to the range of HLA polymorphisms, it is possible to detect the HLA alleles directly by PCR. (bio-medicine.org)
  • probes
  • These probes would bind only to complementary HLA DNA amplified by PCR. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Several probes could be used to identify an array of HLA alleles. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In addition, fine resolution of specificities such as the subtypes of DR4 is possible using a combination of SSO probes and group-specific amplification in which PCR primers designed to amplify only DR4 alleles are employed. (ox.ac.uk)
  • peptides
  • HLA-DM mediates a noncooperative release of prebound influenza virus hemagglutinin (show HA ELISA Kits ) peptides from wild-type HLA- DR1 (show DR1 ELISA Kits ) by destabilizing the beta81 hydrogen (H-)bond, since a similar phenomenon is observed when this H-bond is absent. (antibodies-online.com)
  • antibodies
  • Antibodies raised against DQ tend to recognize these functional regions, in most cases the β-subunit. (wikipedia.org)