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  • enzymes
  • In this process, enzymes are secreted into the environment surrounding the organism, where they break down an organic material, and some of the products diffuse back to the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • To fulfill these tasks in a regulated manner, the parietal cell is equipped with an exclusive collection of apical and basolateral ion transporter proteins that are exposed on the membrane whenever their functions are required (see e.g., review Ref. 45 ). (physiology.org)
  • These proteins are usually sequestered within vesicles inside parietal cells. (biologydictionary.net)
  • Cells are highly variable and specialized in both structure and function, although all must at some stage replicate proteins and nucleic acids, use energy, and reproduce themselves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • amino acids
  • As dietary protein is digested, it breaks down into smaller peptides and amino acids, which directly stimulate the G cells to secrete even more gastrin - a positive feedback loop that accelerates protein digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatostatin has two active forms produced by alternative cleavage of a single preproprotein: one of 14 amino acids (shown in infobox to right), the other of 28 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • One such mechanism was first discovered in Y. pestis and showed that toxins could be injected directly from the bacterial cytoplasm into the cytoplasm of its host's cells rather than simply be secreted into the extracellular medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloride and hydrogen ions are secreted separately from the cytoplasm of parietal cells and mixed in the canaliculi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloride and sodium ions are secreted actively from the cytoplasm of the parietal cell into the lumen of the canaliculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This creates a negative potential of -40 mV to -70 mV across the parietal cell membrane that causes potassium ions and a small number of sodium ions to diffuse from the cytoplasm into the parietal cell canaliculi. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that the majority of secreted K+ and Na+ ions return to the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. any of the protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • stimulation
  • Upon stimulation by secretagogues in particular, the acid-secreting pump (H + -K + -ATPase) transits from the intracellular tubulovesicles, where it is stored, towards the apical surface of the cell, and remains there throughout the active acid secretory phase, allowing for the secretion of a proton in exchange for a potassium cation consuming the energy equivalent to one ATP molecule breakdown ( 53 ). (physiology.org)
  • ATPase
  • The hydrogen ions leave the cell through H+/K+ ATPase antiporter pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two other apical mechanisms are also needed to secrete HCl into the gastric lumen: secretion of Cl − , the other atomic component of HCl and K + recycling, which is necessary for maintaining constant luminal potassium concentrations for proper H + -K + -ATPase functioning ( 29 ). (physiology.org)