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  • receptor
  • Most NTFs exert their trophic effects on neurons by signaling through tyrosine kinases, usually a receptor tyrosine kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas neurotrophic factors within the neurotrophin family commonly have a protein tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk), Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) has the unique receptor, TrkC. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is also expressed in the central nervous system, and functional coupling between HGF and the c-Met-HGF receptor is known to enhance the survival of hippocampal neurons in primary culture. (arvojournals.org)
  • Bamji SX, Majdan M, Pozniak CD, Belliveau DJ, Aloyz R, Kohn J, Causing CG, Miller FD (1998) The p75 neurotrophin receptor mediates neuronal apoptosis and is essential for naturally occurring sympathetic neuron death. (springer.com)
  • Many cell surface receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases activate the phospholipase C (PLC) enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • DAG recruits protein kinase C (PKC), attaching it to the plasma membrane IP3 diffuses to the endoplasmic reticulum, and binds to an IP3 receptor, The IP3 receptor serves as a Ca2+ channel, and releases Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ro5-4864 was found to be a potent ligand for the "peripheral benzodiazepine receptor", later renamed to mitochondrial translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, neurotrophic signaling may trigger apoptosis rather than survival pathways in cells expressing the p75 receptor in the absence of Trk receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through a protein signaling cascade requiring Erk, CaM KII/IV, PI3K, and PLC, NMDA receptor activation is capable of triggering BDNF exon IV transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arc mRNA is localized to activated synaptic sites in an NMDA receptor-dependent manner, where the newly translated protein is believed to play a critical role in learning and memory-related molecular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • in Drosophila prior to crossing the midline these neurons express commissureless (comm), a protein involved in Robo receptor trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons, neural pathways, and other cells where these molecules, enzymes, and one or both cannabinoid receptor types are all colocalized collectively comprise the endocannabinoid system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, CB1 is colocalized on orexin projection neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and many output structures of the orexin system, where the CB1 and orexin receptor 1 (OX1) receptors physically and functionally join together to form the CB1-OX1 receptor heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding has been demonstrated by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) on the TRPV1 receptor suggesting that this receptor may be a candidate for the established response. (wikipedia.org)
  • CB1 has also been noted to form a functional human receptor heterodimer in orexin neurons with OX1, the CB1-OX1 receptor, which mediates feeding behavior and certain physical processes such as cannabinoid-induced pressor responses which are known to occur through signaling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • dorsal
  • Specifically, BDNF promotes survival of dorsal root ganglion neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery by Hamburger and Levi- Montalcini in 1949 that the number of neurons in dorsal root ganglia was related to the size of the target field suggested that there exists a mechanism of neuronal support by which factors produced by target organs are able to support neurons projecting to them. (springer.com)
  • The isolation of nerve growth factor (NGF) proved that such a factor could indeed promote the growth of a specific type of neuron (Levi- Montalcini and Hamburger 1953), and the importance of NGF in neuronal development was indicated in experiments showing that specific antibodies against NGF could interfere with the normal development of dorsal root ganglion neurons (Johnson et al. (springer.com)
  • axons
  • Increased levels of Nrf2 are detected in the central nervous system of DMF treated mice suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. In EAE, DMF ameliorates the disease course and improves preservation of myelin, axons and neurons. (mdpi.com)
  • The axons of these proprioceptive sensory neurons are much thicker than those of nociceptive sensory neurons, which express trkA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Netrin-1 has also been shown to act as a chemorepellent in vivo for trochlear motor axons that migrate dorsally away from the floor plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • protects
  • Alessandrini A, Namura S, Moskowitz MA, Bonventre JV (1999) MEK1 protein kinase inhibition protects against damage resulting from focal cerebral ischemia. (springer.com)
  • exert
  • Glutamate and neurotrophic factors exert their effects on neuronal plasticity and survival by modulating cellular calcium homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • striatal
  • We describe methods to express genetically encoded calcium indicators in striatal astrocytes using adeno-associated viruses of serotype 2/5 (AAV2/5), as well as procedures to reliably image Ca 2+ signals within striatal astrocytes in situ . (jove.com)
  • Pathways
  • Inflammation and oxidative stress are also thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent data point at an important role of anti-oxidative pathways for tissue protection in chronic-progressive MS, particularly involving the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). (mdpi.com)
  • ESCRT-0 dysfunction compromises autophagic degradation of protein aggregates and facilitates ER stress-mediated neurodegeneration via apoptotic and necroptotic pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Mattson established signaling pathways by which neurons respond adaptively to bioenergetic and environmental challenges in ways that bolster neuroplasticity and resistance to neurodegenerative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • some of these long-term effects include: increased neuron growth, increased neurological activity (e.g., c-Fos and BDNF signaling), improved stress coping, enhanced cognitive control of behavior, improved declarative, spatial, and working memory, and structural and functional improvements in brain structures and pathways associated with cognitive control and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the pathways important to motor memory are separate from the medial temporal lobe pathways associated with declarative memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampus
  • On the other hand, in the hippocampus the number of dead neurons was approximately the same number as that of the N-DNs, and most N-DNs showed an increased pERK immunoreactivity. (springer.com)
  • Several external factors, including physical exercise, increase the number of new neurons in the adult hippocampus, but underlying mechanisms are not yet known. (jneurosci.org)
  • The resulting inhibition of brain uptake of IGF-I was paralleled by complete inhibition of exercise-induced increases in the number of new neurons in the hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • BTG2 is thus a pan-neural gene required for the development of the new neuron generated during adulthood, in the two neurogenic regions of adult brain, i.e., the hippocampus and the subventricular zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, it has been shown that when the differentiation of new neurons of the hippocampus - a brain region important for learning and memory - is either accelerated or delayed by means of overexpression or deletion of BTG2, respectively, spatial and contextual memory is heavily altered. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • Nevertheless, a neuron-specific Miro1 KO mouse model displays physical hallmarks of neurological disease in the brainstem and spinal cord and develops rapidly progressing upper motor neuron disease symptoms culminating in death after approximately 4 wk. (pnas.org)
  • The first case was identified in 1981 and published in a Dutch clinical chemistry journal that highlighted a person with a number of neurological conditions such as delayed intellectual, motor, speech, and language as the most common manifestations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysfunctions in the production of Arc protein has been implicated as an important factor in understanding of various neurological conditions including amnesia, Alzheimer's disease, Autism spectrum disorders, and Fragile X syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • glial
  • Research shows that glutamate receptors are present in CNS glial cells as well as neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental enrichment also enhances capillary vasculation, providing the neurons and glial cells with extra energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasticity
  • Beta-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 Inhibition Impairs Synaptic Plasticity via Seizure Protein 6. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Additionally, metabotropic glutamate receptors may modulate synaptic plasticity by regulating postsynaptic protein synthesis through second messenger systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research by Mattson in the area of molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate neuronal plasticity and survival, in the contexts of brain development and aging, has established a new conceptual framework for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, conflicting evidence suggests that a single plasticity mechanism is not sufficient and a multiple plasticity mechanism is needed to account for the storage of motor memories over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of the mechanism, studies of cerebellar-dependent motor tasks show that cerebral cortical plasticity is crucial for motor learning, even if not necessarily for storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein is a plasticity protein that in humans is ecoded by the ARC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Nissl stain, acid fuchsin stain and immunohistochemistry with phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK) antibody were used in order to assess posttraumatic neurons. (springer.com)
  • ESCRT-0 protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is targeted to endosomes independently of signal-transducing adaptor molecule (STAM) and the complex formation with STAM promotes its endosomal dissociation. (nih.gov)
  • Retrospective natural history of thymidine kinase 2 deficiency. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The Arc transcript is dependent upon activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase or MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade, a pathway important for regulation of cell growth and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • In vitro , application of dimethylfumarate (DMF) leads to stabilization of Nrf2, activation of Nrf2-dependent transcriptional activity and abundant synthesis of detoxifying proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Shh works through a slow protein synthesis dependence, which stimulates other cascades that work synergistically with the PI3K/AKT pathway to induce proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arc is a member of the immediate-early gene (IEG) family, a rapidly activated class of genes functionally defined by their ability to be transcribed in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • GABA acts via binding to its receptors which include the ligand gated ion channels, GABAA and GABAC and the G-protein couple receptors GABAB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) indirectly activate ion channels on the plasma membrane through a signaling cascade that involves G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the activation of these receptors also has significant effects on functional properties of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of Trk receptors by neurotrophin binding may lead to activation of signal cascades resulting in promoting survival and other functional regulation of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synaptically localized Arc protein interacts with dynamin and endophilin, proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and facilitates the removal of AMPA receptors from the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • One other main endocannabinoid is 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) which is active at both cannabinoid receptors, along with its own mimetic phytocannabinoid, CBD. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, two G protein-coupled receptors that are located in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, cannabinoid receptors exist in much lower concentration in these regions, which helps explain why cannabinoids possess a greater efficacy in altering rodent motor movements than they do in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptic
  • Importantly, these new adult-generated neurons develop dendritic and axonal processes and receive synaptic contacts on their cell bodies ( Stanfield and Trice, 1988 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • and a synaptic activity response element (SARE) sequence at ~7 kb upstream that contains binding sites for cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), and SRF. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mRNA (and aggregate protein) is carried along microtubules radiating out from the nucleus by kinesin (specifically KIF5) and likely translocated into dendritic spines by the actin-based motor protein myosin-Va. Arc has been shown to be associated with polyribosomes at synaptic sites,and is translated in isolated synaptoneurosomal fractions in vitro indicating that the protein is likely locally translated in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • axonal
  • Although Miro1 -deficient neurons exhibit defects in retrograde axonal mitochondrial transport, mitochondrial respiratory function continues. (pnas.org)
  • phenotype
  • We utilized a neonatal iron-feeding model to exacerbate the motor phenotype of the transgenic mouse model. (springer.com)
  • Thus
  • A dysbalance in the physiological redox state of a cell may thus lead to toxic effects via production of peroxides or free radicals that damage sub-cellular structures including proteins, lipids, and DNA. (mdpi.com)
  • thus there is some evidence for motor memory being genetically pre-wired. (wikipedia.org)
  • BDNF
  • Studies have shown that corticosterone treatment and adrenalectomy reduces or upregulated hippocampal BDNF expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • BDNF is a growth factor that has important roles in the survival and function of neurons in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Arc is widely considered to be an important protein in neurobiology because of its activity regulation, localization, and utility as a marker for plastic changes in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-AG and CBD are involved in the regulation of appetite, immune system functions and pain management. (wikipedia.org)
  • PrP messenger RNA contains a pseudoknot structure (prion pseudoknot), which is thought to be involved in regulation of PrP protein translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytosolic
  • Control of P2X(2) Channel Permeability by the Cytosolic Domain The Journal of General Physiology. (jove.com)
  • Here we show that EVs purified from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus package cytosolic, surface, and secreted proteins, including cytolysins. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In neurons, concomitant increases in cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium are important for the synchronization of neuronal electrical activity with mitochondrial energy metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Anderson KJ, Dam D, Lee S, Cotman CW (1988) Basic fibroblast growth factor prevents death of lesioned cholinergic neurons in vivo. (springer.com)
  • disease
  • Luesse HG, Schiefer J, Spruenken A, Puls C, Block F, Kosinski CM. Evaluation of R6/2 HD transgenic mice for therapeutic studies in Huntington's disease: behavioral testing and impact of diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • 1989 ). This is of interest, since PD is characterized by particular vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in this specific brain region that is responsible for many motor symptoms of the disease. (springer.com)
  • In particular, he has been a leader in advancing an understanding of the molecular events that destabilize cellular calcium homeostasis and ultimately cause the death of neurons in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, ALS and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • nervous system
  • HGS expression in the nervous system is developmentally regulated.HGS is required for motor neuron function. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of the protein is most predominant in the nervous system but occurs in many other tissues throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • We studied the fate of Nissl-stained dark neurons (N-DNs) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). (springer.com)
  • In addition, IGF-I participates in the effects of exercise on hippocampal c-fos expression and mimics several other effects of exercise on brain function. (jneurosci.org)
  • The absence of SSADH leads to a 30-fold increase of GHB and a 2-4 fold increase of GABA in the brains of patients with SSADH deficiency as compared to normal brain concentrations of the compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Findings related to the retention of learned motor skills have been continuously replicated in studies, suggesting that through subsequent practice, motor learning is stored in the brain as memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The memory encoding stage is often referred to as motor learning, and requires an increase in brain activity in motor areas as well as an increase in attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact mechanism of motor memory consolidation within the brain is controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • enhances
  • This protein controls cell cycle progression and proneural genes expression by acting as a transcription coregulator that enhances or inhibits the activity of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • In general, oxidative stress is generated by the inability to detoxify or to repair the resulting damage caused by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide (O 2 − ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) or hydroxyl radicals (·OH). (mdpi.com)
  • nerve
  • Aletta JM, Lewis SA, Cowan NJ, Green LA (1988) Nerve growth factor regulates both the phosphorylation and steady-state levels of microtubule-associated protein 1.2 (MAP 1.2). (springer.com)
  • Bocchini V, Angeletti PU (1969) The nerve growth factor: purification as a 30 000-molecular weight protein. (springer.com)
  • spinal cord
  • Netrin-2 is expressed broadly in the ventral two thirds of the spinal cord, but not in the floor plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • To examine the neuroprotective effects of HGF, recombinant human (rh)HGF (1, 6, and 12 μg in 2 μL PBS) or vehicle was administered intravitreally 1 minute after reperfusion, and the eyes were enucleated at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours and 28 days after reperfusion. (arvojournals.org)
  • Despite its convulsant effects, at lower doses Ro5-4864 has proved to be neuroprotective and has become widely used for research into the role of the TSPO protein in neurotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transient effects of exercise on cognition include improvements in most executive functions (e.g., attention, working memory, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, problem solving, and decision making) and information processing speed for a period of up to 2 hours after exercising. (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampus
  • Bindu PN and Desiraju T (1990) Increase of dendritic branching of CA3 neurons of hippocampus and self-stimulation areas in subjects experiencing self-stimulation of lateral hypothalamus and substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area. (weebly.com)
  • Shankaranarayana Rao BS, Desiraju T and Raju TR (1993) Neuronal plasticity induced by self-stimulation rewarding experience in rats--a study on alteration in dendritic branching in pyramidal neurons of hippocampus and motor cortex. (weebly.com)
  • Independent and asynchronous preictal spikes originated in the entorhinal cortex (EC)/ hippocampus and progressed into ictal fast discharges (around 25 Hz) restricted to the entorhinal/hippocampal region. (academicconcepts.net)
  • Our data contribute to the understanding of intellectual dysfunction observed in Danon disease patients and highlight the role of LAMP-2 within the central nervous system, particularly the hippocampus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a part of the limbic system, new neurons of the hippocampus maintain the function of controlling mood, learning and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, although there is evidence that both new neurons and glia are generated in the hippocampus in vivo, no exact relationship of neurogenesis to type 1 cells is shown. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the hippocampus, newly formed neurons contribute only a small portion to the entire neuron population. (wikipedia.org)
  • BTG2 is thus a pan-neural gene required for the development of the new neuron generated during adulthood, in the two neurogenic regions of adult brain, i.e., the hippocampus and the subventricular zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, it has been shown that when the differentiation of new neurons of the hippocampus - a brain region important for learning and memory - is either accelerated or delayed by means of overexpression or deletion of BTG2, respectively, spatial and contextual memory is heavily altered. (wikipedia.org)
  • glial cells
  • While the brain has a limited capacity for regeneration, endogenous neural stem cells, as well as numerous pro-regenerative molecules, can participate in replacing and repairing damaged or diseased neurons and glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, circulating peripheral immune cells may surpass a compromised BBB and encounter neurons and glial cells expressing major histocompatibility complex molecules, perpetuating the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • The Hyperpolarization-activated HCN1 Channel is Important for Motor Learning and Neuronal Integration by Cerebellar Purkinje Cells Cell. (jove.com)
  • To elucidate the neuronal function of LAMP-2 we analyzed knockout mice for neuropathological changes, MA and steady-state levels of CMA substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, the BTG2 protein has been shown to negatively control a cell cycle checkpoint at the G1 to S phase transition in fibroblasts and neuronal cells by direct inhibition of the activity of cyclin D1 promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests that the time the young neurons spend in different states of neuronal differentiation is critical for their ultimate function in learning and memory, and that BTG2 may play a role in the timing of recruitment of the new neuron into memory circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research by Mattson in the area of molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate neuronal plasticity and survival, in the contexts of brain development and aging, has established a new conceptual framework for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamate and neurotrophic factors exert their effects on neuronal plasticity and survival by modulating cellular calcium homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • This early activity is eventually replaced by more sparse and decorrelated firing of cortical neurons, which modeling studies predict is a network state that is better suited for efficient neural coding. (jneurosci.org)
  • By exposing cultures of EpoR positive embryonic cortical neurons to stimulation by Epo administration, the cells decreased apoptosis, as opposed to the decrease in neuron generation in EpoR negative cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • astrocytes
  • In brain development, multipotent stem cells (those that can generate different types of cells) are present in these regions, and all of these cells differentiate into neural cell forms, such as neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Dr. Mattson established signaling pathways by which neurons respond adaptively to bioenergetic and environmental challenges in ways that bolster neuroplasticity and resistance to neurodegenerative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parkinson's
  • In particular, he has been a leader in advancing an understanding of the molecular events that destabilize cellular calcium homeostasis and ultimately cause the death of neurons in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, ALS and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain
  • Brain Research 627(2):216-224. (weebly.com)
  • The absence of LAMP-2 in murine brain led to inflammation and abnormal behavior, including motor deficits and impaired learning. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The absence of LAMP-2 did not apparently affect MA or steady-state levels of selected CMA substrates in brain or neuroblastoma cells under physiological and prolonged starvation conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They are involved in maintenance and support of neurons and compose a significant component of the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anoxic depolarization is a progressive and uncontrollable depolarization of neurons during stroke or brain ischemia in which there is an inadequate supply of blood to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arc is widely considered to be an important protein in neurobiology because of its activity regulation, localization, and utility as a marker for plastic changes in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absence of SSADH leads to a 30-fold increase of GHB and a 2-4 fold increase of GABA in the brains of patients with SSADH deficiency as compared to normal brain concentrations of the compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galanin appears to have neuroprotective activity as its biosynthesis is increased 2-10 fold upon axotomy in the peripheral nervous system as well as when seizure activity occurs in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the pathological features of the brain in the later stages of Alzheimer's disease is the presence of overgrown GAL-containing fibres innervating the surviving cholinergic neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic
  • The mRNA (and aggregate protein) is carried along microtubules radiating out from the nucleus by kinesin (specifically KIF5) and likely translocated into dendritic spines by the actin-based motor protein myosin-Va. Arc has been shown to be associated with polyribosomes at synaptic sites,and is translated in isolated synaptoneurosomal fractions in vitro indicating that the protein is likely locally translated in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • spinal
  • Celik and associates investigated motor neuron apoptosis in rabbits with a transient global spinal ischemia model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Netrin-2 is expressed broadly in the ventral two thirds of the spinal cord, but not in the floor plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • In order to carry out their functions, netrins interact with specific receptors: DCC or UNC-5 depending on whether they are trying to attract or repel neurons respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABA acts via binding to its receptors which include the ligand gated ion channels, GABAA and GABAC and the G-protein couple receptors GABAB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galanin signaling occurs through three G protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The level of expression of the different receptors varies at each location, and this distribution changes after injury to neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • BTG1 is also necessary to limit the proliferative expansion of cerebellar precursor cells, as without BTG1 the adult cerebellum is larger and unable to coordinate motor activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein type-2 (LAMP-2) is an abundant lysosomal membrane protein with an important role in immunity, macroautophagy (MA) and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein type-2 (LAMP-2) is a heavily glycosylated protein that, along with LAMP-1, constitutes the majority of all membrane proteins in the lysosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A neuron has a resting membrane potential of -70mV due to the leaky potassium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a neuron depolarizes due to Na+ ion influx through the sodium channels, the membrane reaches a threshold potential and then fires an all or none action potential, which either propagates down the axon or passes on to the other neurons via several gap junctions that link them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Netrins 1, 3, and 4 are secreted proteins, whereas G1 and G2 are membrane bound proteins tethered by Glycophosphatidylinositol tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • We used in vivo two-photon calcium imaging in combination with whole-cell recordings in both unanesthetized and anesthetized mice to monitor how spontaneous activity patterns in ensembles of layer 2/3 neurons of barrel cortex mature during postnatal development. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging and in vivo whole-cell recordings in unanesthetized and anesthetized mice, we recorded spontaneous activity patterns in ensembles of layer (L) 2/3 neurons of barrel cortex during postnatal development. (jneurosci.org)
  • Netrin-1 has also been shown to act as a chemorepellent in vivo for trochlear motor axons that migrate dorsally away from the floor plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • Recent developments suggest that a multi-modal exercise intervention that includes motor as well as physical training and requires sustained attention and concentration, may better elicit the actual potency of exercise to enhance cognitive performance. (beds.ac.uk)
  • If this randomised controlled trial demonstrates that multimodal exercise (that includes motor fitness training) can improve cognitive performance in later life, the benefits will be two-fold. (beds.ac.uk)
  • It has been suggested that the hyper-innervation acts to promote the death of these neurons and that the inhibitory effect of galanin on cholinergic neurons worsened the degeneration of cognitive function in patients by decreasing the amount of acetylcholine available to these neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal
  • Pubmed ID: 12408847 Signal transduction in neurons is a dynamic process, generally thought to be driven by transient changes in the concentration of second messengers. (jove.com)
  • contrast
  • A protein as a stand-alone infectious agent stands in contrast to all other known infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, all of which contain nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, or both). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Depending on the level of gene expression the entire procedure can be completed within 2-3 days. (jove.com)
  • Protein BTG2 also known as BTG family member 2 or NGF-inducible anti-proliferative protein PC3 or NGF-inducible protein TIS21, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BTG2 gene (B-cell translocation gene 2) and in other mammals by the homologous Btg2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by the gene BTG2 (which is the official name assigned to the gene PC3/Tis21/BTG2) is a member of the BTG/Tob family (that comprises six proteins BTG1, BTG2/PC3/Tis21, BTG3/ANA, BTG4/PC3B, Tob1/Tob and Tob2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Arc is a member of the immediate-early gene (IEG) family, a rapidly activated class of genes functionally defined by their ability to be transcribed in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • While the exact mechanism that maintains functional NSCs in these regions is still unknown, NSCs have shown an ability to restore neurons and glia in response to certain pathological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • These new neurons have different electrophysiology compared to the rest of the existing neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subpopulations of these neurons from the septum and pallial-subpallial border express the homeodomain transcription factor Dbx1 and migrate to the medial, dorsolateral and piriform cortex and though genetically different from the other subpopulations (Dbx1 negative), all have the same morphological and electrophysiological properties, despite the different origins of CR cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • type 2 diabet
  • Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system[citation needed] and helps prevent certain "diseases of affluence" such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lack of physical activity causes approximately 6% of the burden of disease from coronary heart disease, 7% of type 2 diabetes, 10% of breast cancer and 10% of colon cancer worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • During neocortical development, neurons exhibit highly synchronized patterns of spontaneous activity, with correlated bursts of action potential firing dominating network activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • During the early postnatal development of the cerebellum, Btg2 is mainly required to control the migration and differentiation of the precursor cells of cerebellar granule neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, fetal memory is critical to the survival and healthy development of the infant before and after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroprotective
  • To examine the neuroprotective effects of HGF, recombinant human (rh)HGF (1, 6, and 12 μg in 2 μL PBS) or vehicle was administered intravitreally 1 minute after reperfusion, and the eyes were enucleated at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours and 28 days after reperfusion. (arvojournals.org)
  • Despite its convulsant effects, at lower doses Ro5-4864 has proved to be neuroprotective and has become widely used for research into the role of the TSPO protein in neurotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A short peptide sequence from the erythropoietin molecule called JM4, has been found to be non-erythropoietic yet theoretically neuroprotective and is being readied for Stage 1 and 2 clinical studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The pathological hallmark of this disease is an accumulation of glycogen and autophagic vacuoles in cardiac and skeletal muscle that, along with the myopathy, is also present in LAMP-2-deficient mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Physiology
  • הכנת פרוסות Parasagittal לחקירת ארגון הגבי-הגחוני של הקורטקס המדיאלי מכרסמים entorhinal Hugh Pastoll 1 , Melanie White 2 , Matthew Nolan 2 1 Neuroinformatics DTC, University of Edinburgh, 2 Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh אנו מתארים הליכי הכנה הקלטה אלקטרו מן פרוסות המוח השומרים על הציר הגבי-הגחוני של הקורטקס המדיאלי entorhinal (MEC). (jove.com)
  • Cell
  • This protein controls cell cycle progression and proneural genes expression by acting as a transcription coregulator that enhances or inhibits the activity of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein BTG2 is the human homolog of the PC3 (pheochromocytoma cell 3) protein in rat and of the Tis21 (tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-inducible sequence 21) protein in mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • He then showed that neurotrophic factors can modify the effects of neurotransmitters on neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • This uneven distribution of ions is maintained by the Na+/K+ ATPase pump which actively pumps Na+ out and K+ into the cell in a ratio of 3:2 per ATP used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Arc transcript is dependent upon activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase or MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade, a pathway important for regulation of cell growth and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • Deposition of matricellular proteins modulates growth factor signaling and contributes to the spatial and temporal regulation of the reparative response. (jci.org)
  • Two 2-alternative forced choice memory tasks followed the response to determine if participants remembered the words immediately before or after the target, as well as a random word from another part of the sequence. (jove.com)
  • and a synaptic activity response element (SARE) sequence at ~7 kb upstream that contains binding sites for cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), and SRF. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • 1 2 3 This growth factor acts as a mitogen and a morphogen for a variety of epithelial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the dentate gyrus, putative stem cells, called type 1 cells, proliferate into type 2 and type 3 cells, which are transiently amplifying, lineage-determined progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fold
  • All known prions induce the formation of an amyloid fold, in which the protein polymerises into an aggregate consisting of tightly packed beta sheets. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABA
  • Pubmed ID: 11961124 Acid(B) funzionale gamma-amminobutirrico (recettori GABA(B)) montare da due subunità, GABA(B(1)) e GABA(B(2). (jove.com)
  • Nel presente studio, abbiamo preso uno sguardo più da vicino le implicazioni dei termini C intracellulare dei GABA(B(1)) e GABA(B(2)) per accoppiamento G-proteina. (jove.com)
  • Abbiamo generato una serie di mutanti C-terminale di GABA(B(1)) e GABA(B(2)) e li ha provati per interazione fisica, superficie traffico, giunto a adenil ciclasi e G-proteina-gated interiormente che rettifica canali del potassio in cellule di rene embrionale umano (HEK) 293, nonché sui canali calcio endogeno nel simpatici neuroni del ganglio cervicale superiore (SCG). (jove.com)
  • form
  • When a prion enters a healthy organism, it induces existing, properly folded proteins to convert into the misfolded prion form. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, the prion acts as a template to guide the misfolding of more proteins into prion form. (wikipedia.org)
  • These refolded prions can then go on to convert more proteins themselves, leading to a chain reaction resulting in large amounts of the prion form. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals that do not express the normal form of the prion protein can neither develop nor transmit the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Activity-dependent Regulation of HCN Pacemaker Channels by Cyclic AMP: Signaling Through Dynamic Allosteric Coupling Neuron. (jove.com)
  • We find that, as early as postnatal day 4, activity is highly synchronous within local clusters of neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurons in the developing cerebral cortex exhibit highly synchronized patterns of spontaneous electrical activity ( Khazipov and Luhmann, 2006 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Ictal discharges are characterized by a peculiar pattern of fast activity that originates from the entorhinal/hippocampal region and only secondarily propagates to the PRC. (academicconcepts.net)
  • This may be evidence that generating new neurons in the SGZ is part of learning and memorizing activity of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • Robo3 has two isoforms, 3.1 and 3.2, and these isoforms interact with Robo1 and Robo2 (Robo1/2) through cis interactions at the leading edge of the growth cone. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • citation needed] In 1982, Stanley B. Prusiner of the University of California, San Francisco announced that his team had purified the hypothetical infectious prion, and that the infectious agent consisted mainly of a specific protein - though they did not manage to isolate the protein until two years after Prusiner's announcement. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • The voltage-dependence of current through the channel is mainly due to binding of Mg2+ or Zn2+ ions to the protein as described above. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UNC-5 protein is mainly involved in signaling repulsion. (wikipedia.org)