• dorsal
  • Specifically, BDNF promotes survival of dorsal root ganglion neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery by Hamburger and Levi- Montalcini in 1949 that the number of neurons in dorsal root ganglia was related to the size of the target field suggested that there exists a mechanism of neuronal support by which factors produced by target organs are able to support neurons projecting to them. (springer.com)
  • The isolation of nerve growth factor (NGF) proved that such a factor could indeed promote the growth of a specific type of neuron (Levi- Montalcini and Hamburger 1953), and the importance of NGF in neuronal development was indicated in experiments showing that specific antibodies against NGF could interfere with the normal development of dorsal root ganglion neurons (Johnson et al. (springer.com)
  • axons
  • Increased levels of Nrf2 are detected in the central nervous system of DMF treated mice suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. In EAE, DMF ameliorates the disease course and improves preservation of myelin, axons and neurons. (mdpi.com)
  • KIF1Bα, SAP97, and S-SCAM are widely distributed to both dendrites and axons of cultured neurons and are enriched in the small membrane fraction of the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Netrin-1 has also been shown to act as a chemorepellent in vivo for trochlear motor axons that migrate dorsally away from the floor plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • TrkB
  • The brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB system promotes thymocyte survival, as studied in the thymus of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway is important in the development of short term memory and the growth of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways
  • Inflammation and oxidative stress are also thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent data point at an important role of anti-oxidative pathways for tissue protection in chronic-progressive MS, particularly involving the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). (mdpi.com)
  • Dr. Mattson established signaling pathways by which neurons respond adaptively to bioenergetic and environmental challenges in ways that bolster neuroplasticity and resistance to neurodegenerative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the pathways important to motor memory are separate from the medial temporal lobe pathways associated with declarative memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • some of these long-term effects include: increased neuron growth, increased neurological activity (e.g., c-Fos and BDNF signaling), improved stress coping, enhanced cognitive control of behavior, improved declarative, spatial, and working memory, and structural and functional improvements in brain structures and pathways associated with cognitive control and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampus
  • On the other hand, in the hippocampus the number of dead neurons was approximately the same number as that of the N-DNs, and most N-DNs showed an increased pERK immunoreactivity. (springer.com)
  • Several external factors, including physical exercise, increase the number of new neurons in the adult hippocampus, but underlying mechanisms are not yet known. (jneurosci.org)
  • The resulting inhibition of brain uptake of IGF-I was paralleled by complete inhibition of exercise-induced increases in the number of new neurons in the hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • BTG2 is thus a pan-neural gene required for the development of the new neuron generated during adulthood, in the two neurogenic regions of adult brain, i.e., the hippocampus and the subventricular zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, it has been shown that when the differentiation of new neurons of the hippocampus - a brain region important for learning and memory - is either accelerated or delayed by means of overexpression or deletion of BTG2, respectively, spatial and contextual memory is heavily altered. (wikipedia.org)
  • exert
  • Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Anderson KJ, Dam D, Lee S, Cotman CW (1988) Basic fibroblast growth factor prevents death of lesioned cholinergic neurons in vivo. (springer.com)
  • OLE is able to induce autophagy, achieving a decrease of aggregated proteins and a reduction of cognitive impairment in vivo. (hindawi.com)
  • The mRNA (and aggregate protein) is carried along microtubules radiating out from the nucleus by kinesin (specifically KIF5) and likely translocated into dendritic spines by the actin-based motor protein myosin-Va. Arc has been shown to be associated with polyribosomes at synaptic sites,and is translated in isolated synaptoneurosomal fractions in vitro indicating that the protein is likely locally translated in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • In vitro , application of dimethylfumarate (DMF) leads to stabilization of Nrf2, activation of Nrf2-dependent transcriptional activity and abundant synthesis of detoxifying proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Shh works through a slow protein synthesis dependence, which stimulates other cascades that work synergistically with the PI3K/AKT pathway to induce proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arc is a member of the immediate-early gene (IEG) family, a rapidly activated class of genes functionally defined by their ability to be transcribed in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • We utilized a neonatal iron-feeding model to exacerbate the motor phenotype of the transgenic mouse model. (springer.com)
  • Thus
  • A dysbalance in the physiological redox state of a cell may thus lead to toxic effects via production of peroxides or free radicals that damage sub-cellular structures including proteins, lipids, and DNA. (mdpi.com)
  • thus there is some evidence for motor memory being genetically pre-wired. (wikipedia.org)
  • BDNF
  • Studies have shown that corticosterone treatment and adrenalectomy reduces or upregulated hippocampal BDNF expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • BDNF is a growth factor that has important roles in the survival and function of neurons in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • striatal
  • We describe methods to express genetically encoded calcium indicators in striatal astrocytes using adeno-associated viruses of serotype 2/5 (AAV2/5), as well as procedures to reliably image Ca 2+ signals within striatal astrocytes in situ . (jove.com)
  • cytosolic
  • Control of P2X(2) Channel Permeability by the Cytosolic Domain The Journal of General Physiology. (jove.com)
  • Here we show that EVs purified from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus package cytosolic, surface, and secreted proteins, including cytolysins. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In neurons, concomitant increases in cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium are important for the synchronization of neuronal electrical activity with mitochondrial energy metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • protects
  • Alessandrini A, Namura S, Moskowitz MA, Bonventre JV (1999) MEK1 protein kinase inhibition protects against damage resulting from focal cerebral ischemia. (springer.com)
  • kinase
  • Nissl stain, acid fuchsin stain and immunohistochemistry with phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK) antibody were used in order to assess posttraumatic neurons. (springer.com)
  • Dash PK, Mach SA, Moore AN (2002) The role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in cognitive and motor deficits following experimental traumatic brain injury. (springer.com)
  • Retrospective natural history of thymidine kinase 2 deficiency. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The Arc transcript is dependent upon activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase or MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade, a pathway important for regulation of cell growth and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • The first case was identified in 1981 and published in a Dutch clinical chemistry journal that highlighted a person with a number of neurological conditions such as delayed intellectual, motor, speech, and language as the most common manifestations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysfunctions in the production of Arc protein has been implicated as an important factor in understanding of various neurological conditions including amnesia, Alzheimer's disease, Autism spectrum disorders, and Fragile X syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • We studied the fate of Nissl-stained dark neurons (N-DNs) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). (springer.com)
  • In addition, IGF-I participates in the effects of exercise on hippocampal c-fos expression and mimics several other effects of exercise on brain function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our yeast two-hybrid screen of a rat brain library using the KIF1Bα C terminus as bait pulled out various PDZ proteins, including members of the PSD-95 family and S-SCAM. (jneurosci.org)
  • 1989 ). This is of interest, since PD is characterized by particular vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in this specific brain region that is responsible for many motor symptoms of the disease. (springer.com)
  • The absence of SSADH leads to a 30-fold increase of GHB and a 2-4 fold increase of GABA in the brains of patients with SSADH deficiency as compared to normal brain concentrations of the compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main histologic sign confirming the AD diagnosis is the presence of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein and extracellular deposits of beta-amyloid (A β ) peptide (senile plaques) in certain areas of the brain. (hindawi.com)
  • Findings related to the retention of learned motor skills have been continuously replicated in studies, suggesting that through subsequent practice, motor learning is stored in the brain as memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The memory encoding stage is often referred to as motor learning, and requires an increase in brain activity in motor areas as well as an increase in attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact mechanism of motor memory consolidation within the brain is controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arc is widely considered to be an important protein in neurobiology because of its activity regulation, localization, and utility as a marker for plastic changes in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • In the neuron, the ER may serve in a network integrating numerous extracellular and intracellular signals in a binary membrane system with the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Luesse HG, Schiefer J, Spruenken A, Puls C, Block F, Kosinski CM. Evaluation of R6/2 HD transgenic mice for therapeutic studies in Huntington's disease: behavioral testing and impact of diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • Characterization of progressive motor deficits in mice transgenic for the human Huntington's disease mutation. (springer.com)
  • Mutation in KIF1B, a kinesin superfamily motor protein, causes a peripheral neuropathy known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A). (jneurosci.org)
  • The aging population presents the highest risk of the disease, especially in developed countries, therefore the number of affected people is expected to increase dramatically up to 115 million in 2050 [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In particular, he has been a leader in advancing an understanding of the molecular events that destabilize cellular calcium homeostasis and ultimately cause the death of neurons in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, ALS and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • enhances
  • This protein controls cell cycle progression and proneural genes expression by acting as a transcription coregulator that enhances or inhibits the activity of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • In general, oxidative stress is generated by the inability to detoxify or to repair the resulting damage caused by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide (O 2 − ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) or hydroxyl radicals (·OH). (mdpi.com)
  • nervous
  • Expression of the protein is most predominant in the nervous system but occurs in many other tissues throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • 2-AG and CBD are involved in the regulation of appetite, immune system functions and pain management. (wikipedia.org)
  • PrP messenger RNA contains a pseudoknot structure (prion pseudoknot), which is thought to be involved in regulation of PrP protein translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • With practice, execution of motor task becomes smoother, there is a decrease in limb stiffness, and muscle activity necessary to the task is performed without conscious effort. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, these areas of activation decrease once the motor skill is learned. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • The transient effects of exercise on cognition include improvements in most executive functions (e.g., attention, working memory, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, problem solving, and decision making) and information processing speed for a period of up to 2 hours after exercising. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies have revealed that cannabinoids act as neuromodulators for a variety of processes, including motor learning, appetite, and pain sensation, among other cognitive and physical processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolation
  • Appropriate analysis and quantification methods can further accelerate protein processing, allowing isolation/characterization to be completed in one workday, instead of 20+ work hours. (jove.com)
  • involves
  • Furthermore, application of FAE involves direct modification of the inhibitor of Nrf2, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1. (mdpi.com)
  • Muscle memory has been used synonymously with motor learning, which is a form of procedural memory that involves consolidating a specific motor task into memory through repetition. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • Aletta JM, Lewis SA, Cowan NJ, Green LA (1988) Nerve growth factor regulates both the phosphorylation and steady-state levels of microtubule-associated protein 1.2 (MAP 1.2). (springer.com)
  • Bocchini V, Angeletti PU (1969) The nerve growth factor: purification as a 30 000-molecular weight protein. (springer.com)
  • gene
  • The protein encoded by the gene BTG2 (which is the official name assigned to the gene PC3/Tis21/BTG2) is a member of the BTG/Tob family (that comprises six proteins BTG1, BTG2/PC3/Tis21, BTG3/ANA, BTG4/PC3B, Tob1/Tob and Tob2). (wikipedia.org)
  • PRNP (PRioN Protein) is the human gene encoding for the major prion protein PrP (for prion protein), also known as CD230 (cluster of differentiation 230). (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Despite its convulsant effects, at lower doses Ro5-4864 has proved to be neuroprotective and has become widely used for research into the role of the TSPO protein in neurotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • The type of growth factor signaling can effect whether or not NSCs differentiate into motor neurons or not. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986) Nucleotide sequence of a bovine clone encoding the angiogenic protein, basic fibroblast growth factor. (springer.com)
  • Robo3 has two isoforms, 3.1 and 3.2, and these isoforms interact with Robo1 and Robo2 (Robo1/2) through cis interactions at the leading edge of the growth cone. (wikipedia.org)