• dorsal
  • Specifically, BDNF promotes survival of dorsal root ganglion neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery by Hamburger and Levi- Montalcini in 1949 that the number of neurons in dorsal root ganglia was related to the size of the target field suggested that there exists a mechanism of neuronal support by which factors produced by target organs are able to support neurons projecting to them. (springer.com)
  • The isolation of nerve growth factor (NGF) proved that such a factor could indeed promote the growth of a specific type of neuron (Levi- Montalcini and Hamburger 1953), and the importance of NGF in neuronal development was indicated in experiments showing that specific antibodies against NGF could interfere with the normal development of dorsal root ganglion neurons (Johnson et al. (springer.com)
  • axons
  • Increased levels of Nrf2 are detected in the central nervous system of DMF treated mice suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. In EAE, DMF ameliorates the disease course and improves preservation of myelin, axons and neurons. (mdpi.com)
  • KIF1Bα, SAP97, and S-SCAM are widely distributed to both dendrites and axons of cultured neurons and are enriched in the small membrane fraction of the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Such observations provide motivation to investigate possible transport defects or inefficiency of SMN associated RNPs in motor neuron axons in SMA. (jneurosci.org)
  • Netrin-1 has also been shown to act as a chemorepellent in vivo for trochlear motor axons that migrate dorsally away from the floor plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • ciliary
  • Alder R, Landa KB, Manthorpe M, Varon S (1979) Cholinergic neurotrophic factors: intraocular distribution of trophic activity for ciliary neurons. (springer.com)
  • Arakawa Y, Sendtner M, Thoenen H (1990) Survival effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on chick embryonic motoneurons in culture: comparison with other neurotrophic factors and cytokines. (springer.com)
  • Pathways
  • Inflammation and oxidative stress are also thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent data point at an important role of anti-oxidative pathways for tissue protection in chronic-progressive MS, particularly involving the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). (mdpi.com)
  • Dr. Mattson established signaling pathways by which neurons respond adaptively to bioenergetic and environmental challenges in ways that bolster neuroplasticity and resistance to neurodegenerative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, neurotrophic signaling may trigger apoptosis rather than survival pathways in cells expressing the p75 receptor in the absence of Trk receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the pathways important to motor memory are separate from the medial temporal lobe pathways associated with declarative memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • some of these long-term effects include: increased neuron growth, increased neurological activity (e.g., c-Fos and BDNF signaling), improved stress coping, enhanced cognitive control of behavior, improved declarative, spatial, and working memory, and structural and functional improvements in brain structures and pathways associated with cognitive control and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons, neural pathways, and other cells where these molecules, enzymes, and one or both cannabinoid receptor types are all colocalized collectively comprise the endocannabinoid system. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, several recent studies suggest that NGF is also involved in pathways besides those regulating the life cycle of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • It has been shown that the withdrawal of NGF induces apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells, signifying that NGF may play a critical role in the maintenance and survival of pancreatic beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • In vitro , application of dimethylfumarate (DMF) leads to stabilization of Nrf2, activation of Nrf2-dependent transcriptional activity and abundant synthesis of detoxifying proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Shh works through a slow protein synthesis dependence, which stimulates other cascades that work synergistically with the PI3K/AKT pathway to induce proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that CPEB1 regulates β-catenin synthesis in neurons and may contribute to neuronal morphogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Arc is a member of the immediate-early gene (IEG) family, a rapidly activated class of genes functionally defined by their ability to be transcribed in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • TrkB
  • The brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB system promotes thymocyte survival, as studied in the thymus of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway is important in the development of short term memory and the growth of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • Glial cell numbers per neuron increase 12-14% The direct apposition area of glial cells with synapses expands by 19% The volume of glial cell nuclei for each synapse is higher by 37.5% The mean volume of mitochondria per neuron is 20% greater The volume of glial cell nuclei for each neuron is 63% higher Capillary density is increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • glial
  • Most neurotrophic factors belong to one of three families: (1) neurotrophins, (2) glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor family ligands (GFLs), and (3) neuropoietic cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental enrichment also enhances capillary vasculation, providing the neurons and glial cells with extra energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasticity
  • Research by Mattson in the area of molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate neuronal plasticity and survival, in the contexts of brain development and aging, has established a new conceptual framework for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamate and neurotrophic factors exert their effects on neuronal plasticity and survival by modulating cellular calcium homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some models of cerebellar-dependent motor learning, in particular the Marr-Albus model, propose a single plasticity mechanism involving the cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) of the parallel fiber synapses onto Purkinje cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, conflicting evidence suggests that a single plasticity mechanism is not sufficient and a multiple plasticity mechanism is needed to account for the storage of motor memories over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of the mechanism, studies of cerebellar-dependent motor tasks show that cerebral cortical plasticity is crucial for motor learning, even if not necessarily for storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein is a plasticity protein that in humans is ecoded by the ARC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • spinal cord
  • Netrin-2 is expressed broadly in the ventral two thirds of the spinal cord, but not in the floor plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • We utilized a neonatal iron-feeding model to exacerbate the motor phenotype of the transgenic mouse model. (springer.com)
  • Thus
  • A dysbalance in the physiological redox state of a cell may thus lead to toxic effects via production of peroxides or free radicals that damage sub-cellular structures including proteins, lipids, and DNA. (mdpi.com)
  • thus there is some evidence for motor memory being genetically pre-wired. (wikipedia.org)
  • BTG2 is thus a pan-neural gene required for the development of the new neuron generated during adulthood, in the two neurogenic regions of adult brain, i.e., the hippocampus and the subventricular zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • BDNF
  • Studies have shown that corticosterone treatment and adrenalectomy reduces or upregulated hippocampal BDNF expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • BDNF is a growth factor that has important roles in the survival and function of neurons in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • Localization
  • Localization of proteins to specific cellular compartments is critical to cell function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Arc is widely considered to be an important protein in neurobiology because of its activity regulation, localization, and utility as a marker for plastic changes in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotrophic
  • Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules - nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins - that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurotrophic factors also promote the initial growth and development of neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, and they are capable of regrowing damaged neurons in test tubes and animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • p75NTR
  • High affinity binding between proNGF, sortilin, and p75NTR can result in either survival or programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • striatal
  • We describe methods to express genetically encoded calcium indicators in striatal astrocytes using adeno-associated viruses of serotype 2/5 (AAV2/5), as well as procedures to reliably image Ca 2+ signals within striatal astrocytes in situ . (jove.com)
  • cytosolic
  • Control of P2X(2) Channel Permeability by the Cytosolic Domain The Journal of General Physiology. (jove.com)
  • Here we show that EVs purified from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus package cytosolic, surface, and secreted proteins, including cytolysins. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In neurons, concomitant increases in cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium are important for the synchronization of neuronal electrical activity with mitochondrial energy metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutant huntingtin
  • Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by mutant huntingtin protein resulting from an expanded polyglutamine cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat sequence in the autosomal dominant gene huntingtin ( HTT , 4p16.3) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • nerve
  • Aletta JM, Lewis SA, Cowan NJ, Green LA (1988) Nerve growth factor regulates both the phosphorylation and steady-state levels of microtubule-associated protein 1.2 (MAP 1.2). (springer.com)
  • Bocchini V, Angeletti PU (1969) The nerve growth factor: purification as a 30 000-molecular weight protein. (springer.com)
  • The term nerve growth factor usually refers to the 2.5S, 26-kDa beta subunit of the protein, the only component of the 7S NGF complex that is biologically active (i.e. acting as signaling molecules). (wikipedia.org)
  • As its name suggests, NGF is involved primarily in the growth, as well as the maintenance, proliferation, and survival of nerve cells (neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • The Arc transcript is dependent upon activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase or MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade, a pathway important for regulation of cell growth and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-AG and CBD are involved in the regulation of appetite, immune system functions and pain management. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since it was first isolated by Nobel Laureates Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen in 1956, numerous biological processes involving NGF have been identified, two of them being the survival of pancreatic beta cells and the regulation of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • The resulting inhibition of brain uptake of IGF-I was paralleled by complete inhibition of exercise-induced increases in the number of new neurons in the hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • neurological
  • The first case was identified in 1981 and published in a Dutch clinical chemistry journal that highlighted a person with a number of neurological conditions such as delayed intellectual, motor, speech, and language as the most common manifestations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysfunctions in the production of Arc protein has been implicated as an important factor in understanding of various neurological conditions including amnesia, Alzheimer's disease, Autism spectrum disorders, and Fragile X syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • In particular, he has been a leader in advancing an understanding of the molecular events that destabilize cellular calcium homeostasis and ultimately cause the death of neurons in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, ALS and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some disadvantages of MC include its limited propensity for protein adsorption and neuronal cellular adhesion making it a non-bioactive hydrogel. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • The gamma subunit of this complex acts as a serine protease, and cleaves the N-terminal of the beta subunit, thereby activating the protein into functional NGF. (wikipedia.org)
  • enhances
  • This protein controls cell cycle progression and proneural genes expression by acting as a transcription coregulator that enhances or inhibits the activity of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Luesse HG, Schiefer J, Spruenken A, Puls C, Block F, Kosinski CM. Evaluation of R6/2 HD transgenic mice for therapeutic studies in Huntington's disease: behavioral testing and impact of diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • Characterization of progressive motor deficits in mice transgenic for the human Huntington's disease mutation. (springer.com)
  • Mutation in KIF1B, a kinesin superfamily motor protein, causes a peripheral neuropathy known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A). (jneurosci.org)
  • 1989 ). This is of interest, since PD is characterized by particular vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in this specific brain region that is responsible for many motor symptoms of the disease. (springer.com)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by deletion and/or mutation of the survival motor neuron protein Gene ( SMN1 ) that results in the expression of a truncated protein lacking the C terminal exon-7. (jneurosci.org)
  • growth
  • The type of growth factor signaling can effect whether or not NSCs differentiate into motor neurons or not. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986) Nucleotide sequence of a bovine clone encoding the angiogenic protein, basic fibroblast growth factor. (springer.com)
  • One likely target of morphogenic signaling is protein metabolism within the growth cone itself. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Neurons transfected with SMN lacking exon-7 had significantly shorter neurites, a defect that could be rescued by redirecting the exon-7 deletion mutant into neurites by a targeting sequence from growth-associated protein-43. (jneurosci.org)
  • A major question is whether SMN has distinct functions in neurons, which when disrupted, could impair neuronal growth and differentiation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we show that SMN was localized in granules that were localized in neurites and growth cones of cultured neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Robo3 has two isoforms, 3.1 and 3.2, and these isoforms interact with Robo1 and Robo2 (Robo1/2) through cis interactions at the leading edge of the growth cone. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • In general, oxidative stress is generated by the inability to detoxify or to repair the resulting damage caused by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide (O 2 − ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) or hydroxyl radicals (·OH). (mdpi.com)
  • gene
  • In humans, the SMN gene is duplicated with a telomeric copy, SMN1 , that expresses a full-length protein and a centromeric copy, SMN2 , that encodes a truncated isoform with deletion of the C terminal exon-7. (jneurosci.org)
  • The protein encoded by the gene BTG2 (which is the official name assigned to the gene PC3/Tis21/BTG2) is a member of the BTG/Tob family (that comprises six proteins BTG1, BTG2/PC3/Tis21, BTG3/ANA, BTG4/PC3B, Tob1/Tob and Tob2). (wikipedia.org)
  • NF-κB regulates nuclear gene transcription to promote cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • BTG2 has been shown to inhibit medulloblastoma, the very aggressive tumor of cerebellum, by inhibiting the proliferation and triggering the diffentiation of the precursors of cerebellar granule neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • In addition, IGF-I participates in the effects of exercise on hippocampal c-fos expression and mimics several other effects of exercise on brain function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our yeast two-hybrid screen of a rat brain library using the KIF1Bα C terminus as bait pulled out various PDZ proteins, including members of the PSD-95 family and S-SCAM. (jneurosci.org)
  • The absence of SSADH leads to a 30-fold increase of GHB and a 2-4 fold increase of GABA in the brains of patients with SSADH deficiency as compared to normal brain concentrations of the compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Findings related to the retention of learned motor skills have been continuously replicated in studies, suggesting that through subsequent practice, motor learning is stored in the brain as memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The memory encoding stage is often referred to as motor learning, and requires an increase in brain activity in motor areas as well as an increase in attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact mechanism of motor memory consolidation within the brain is controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, it has been shown that when the differentiation of new neurons of the hippocampus - a brain region important for learning and memory - is either accelerated or delayed by means of overexpression or deletion of BTG2, respectively, spatial and contextual memory is heavily altered. (wikipedia.org)
  • CREB
  • and a synaptic activity response element (SARE) sequence at ~7 kb upstream that contains binding sites for cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), and SRF. (wikipedia.org)