• embryonic
  • Adrenal glucocorticoids Adrenal glucocorticoids regulate adaptation mechanisms to environmental challenges ( ) and can modify the electrical excitability of BK channels in human embryonic kidney cells. (epfl.ch)
  • synaptic
  • N- and P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels are the primary subtypes found to support synaptic transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined the neuromodulatory effects of noradrenergic and GABA B receptor activation on synaptic inputs to the premotor robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) in zebra finches using whole cell voltage-clamp recording in vitro. (physiology.org)
  • It was concluded that L-type channels provide a means for differential control of spontaneous and impulse-evoked GABA release and that this differential control is prominent during short-term synaptic plasticity. (physiology.org)
  • inhibition
  • Pharmacological inhibition of CaN or activation of p38 MAPK partially reversed the in vitro seizure-induced hyperpolarized shift in HCN channel gating, and the shift was fully reversed by the combination of CaN inhibition and p38 MAPK activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • spike
  • However, increased density of voltage-gated sodium channels may reduce the amplitude of a signal needed to initiate a spike. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium channel availability decreased abruptly during the spike, as expected, but never reached zero. (physiology.org)
  • These features of sodium channel gating, especially the availability remaining after the spike, reduce the refractory period and facilitate rapid repetitive firing. (physiology.org)
  • With strong stimulation and repetitive fast firing, spike shape can change substantially and changes in spike shape could well affect sodium channel behavior. (physiology.org)
  • A standard explanation is that the current coming from the axon becomes sharp as the spike is actively backpropagated to the soma. (plos.org)
  • current
  • Several clinically used compounds, such as lidocaine, also bind and block current through Na channels. (jneurosci.org)
  • When Na channels are placed in the axon, the soma acts as a current sink for the Na current. (plos.org)
  • Second, current-voltage relationships measured at the soma in vitro show an effective slope factor of about 1 mV, instead of the expected 6 mV . (plos.org)
  • inputs
  • Given the location of Nav1.6, the channel contributes to the firing threshold of a given neuron, as the electrical impulses from various inputs are summed at the axon hillock in order to reach firing threshold before propagating down the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stuart and Spruston, 2015 ) and the axon that eventually converts these processed inputs into variable patterns of action potential (AP), with fast and robust transmission to distant postsynaptic targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • binds
  • We show that in addition to facing the basal lamina, dystroglycan is found near the nodal matrix around axons, binds matrix components, and participates in initial events of nodogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • vitro
  • We then found that an in vitro model of seizures (1 h in 0 Mg 2+ and 50 μ m bicuculline at 35-37°C) reproduced the HCN channel gating change seen in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • We then found that an in vitro model of seizures replicated the downregulation of HCN channel gating observed in vivo after pilocarpine-induced SE. (jneurosci.org)
  • abruptly
  • I show that there is a critical distance to the soma above which an instability occurs, so that Na channels open abruptly rather than gradually as a function of somatic voltage. (plos.org)
  • signals
  • The voltage and metal sensors all control the opening of the same ionic pore in response to various physiological signals . (epfl.ch)
  • mammalian
  • Mammalian BK channels are characterized by their high sensitivity to blockade by iberiotoxin (IbTx) and charybdotoxin. (epfl.ch)
  • Thus
  • Thus, we hypothesized that seizure-dependent downregulation of HCN channel gating might be due to CaN activation or loss of p38 MAPK activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • activation
  • It was indeed shown that the cut-off frequency of signal transmission in the latter type of models is inversely related to the activation slope factor of Na channels. (plos.org)
  • The activation of protein kinase C completely suppresses the opening BK channels in intact rat anterior pituitary cells in physiological saline. (epfl.ch)
  • crucial
  • In contrast, L-type (Ca V 1) channels, which in similarity with P/Q- and N-types belong to the high-voltage-gated group, do not seem crucial for triggering transmitter release in fast conventional synapses. (physiology.org)
  • type
  • The same type of voltage-gated channels may differ in distribution between the soma and dendrite within the same neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Block of L-type channels did not affect the sIPSC and mIPSC properties (frequency, amplitude, decay time course) in the absence of external stimulation but unexpectedly potentiated the eIPSCs evoked at low stimulus frequency (0.1-2.0 Hz). (physiology.org)
  • Block of L-type channels still potentiated the eIPSC during PTP, but in contrast, reduced the sIPSC frequency during PTP. (physiology.org)
  • Functional coupling of the presynaptic L-type channels to K Ca channels explains the observed effects on eIPSCs. (physiology.org)
  • A role of presynaptic L-type Ca 2+ channels has also been suggested for a few other central synapses. (physiology.org)
  • This apparently different role of L-type channels in hippocampal and midbrain synapses compared with MPN synapses raises the question how the contribution of L-type channels depends on the stimulus conditions, i.e., the presynaptic impulse frequency. (physiology.org)