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  • genes
  • Among its components are the genes for the desulfurase IscS that provides sulfur for cluster formation, and a specialized ferredoxin (Fdx) whose role is still unknown. (nih.gov)
  • MiRNAs like miR-375, miR-143, miR-14 and miR-29b participate in controlling cancer cell metabolism by regulating the expression of genes whose protein products either directly regulate metabolic machinery or indirectly modulate the expression of metabolic enzymes, serving as master regulators, which will hopefully lead to a new therapeutic strategy for malignant cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another regulatory element, the cell cycle element/cell cycle genes homology region (CDE/CHR), located downstream of the start site is important for POLD1 transcription in G2/M phase by E2F1 and p21 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • But then genes coding for proteins homologous to those of the carboxysome shell were identified in the pdu (propanediol utilization) and eut (ethanolamine utilization) operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the carboxysome, propanediol utilizing (PDU), and ethanolamine utilizing (EUT) BMCs encapsulate different enzymes and therefore have different functions, the genes encoding for the shell proteins are very similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the genes (coding for the shell proteins and the encapsulated enzymes) from experimentally characterized BMCs are located near one another in distinct genetic loci or operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pastore
  • Complete understanding of the disease is also complicated by the fact that the exact role and primary function of FXN remains unclear, although the protein is known to have iron-binding properties and to play an important role in the regulation of Fe-S cluster biogenesis ( Pastore and Puccio, 2013 ). (biologists.org)
  • functionally
  • Because these profiles can assemble sets of taxonomically very diverse homologs, they enable identification of the structurally and/or functionally most critical sites in the proteins on the basis of the degree of sequence conservation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • nitrogen
  • The transition element molybdenum (Mo) is of primordial importance for biological systems as it is required by enzymes catalyzing key reactions in global carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism. (asmscience.org)
  • interacts
  • It was previously reported that phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) physically interacts with the IFNAR complex, via adaptor proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, HscB interacts with both the apo- and holo-forms of IscU [ 19 ], and because of the instability of cluster-bound forms of IscU, studies of the HscB-IscU interaction have employed the apo-protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • scaffold
  • SufE acts as a scaffold protein that accepts S from SufS and donates it to SufA [ PMID: 17350000 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Extensive biochemical and genetic studies [ 3 - 9 ] have shown that this process occurs through the assembly of a cluster on the scaffold protein IscU (Isu in yeast) followed by its transfer to a recipient apo-protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • enzyme
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, that use iron-sulfur proteins as electron donors and NAD+ or NADP+ as electron acceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of the enzyme to the thylakoid membrane involves a polyproline type II helix created between two FNR monomers and several proline rich integral membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of the FNR to the integral membrane proteins on the thylakoid membrane is enhanced under acidic conditions, so recruitment and binding of FNR to the thylakoid membrane may be a method of storing and stabilizing the enzyme in the dark when photosynthesis is not occurring. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • The POLD1/p125 subunit encodes both DNA polymerizing and exonuclease domains, which provide the protein an important second function in proofreading to ensure replication accuracy during DNA synthesis, and in a number of types of replication-linked DNA repair following DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • IscU
  • Cys-328 of IscS and Cys-63 of IscU are the sites of disulfide bridge formation in a covalently bound IscS/IscU complex: implications for the mechanism of iron-sulfur cluster assembly. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transfer of sulfur from IscS to IscU during Fe/S cluster assembly. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have shown that ASO treatment diminished aberrant splicing and increased ISCU (show ISCU ELISA Kits ) protein levels in both patient fibroblasts and patient myotubes in a concentration dependent fashion. (antibodies-online.com)
  • yeast
  • The protein sequences between species is very well conserved, for example Pixie and yeast Rli1p are 66% identical, and Rli1p and human RLI are 67% identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • operon
  • The SUF system is encoded by the suf operon (sufABCDSE), and the six encoded proteins are arranged into two complexes (SufSE and SufBCD) and one protein (SufA). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • mutations
  • This survey reports such an analysis for 15 missense mutations, one insertion and three deletions involved in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, Leigh syndrome, mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy, Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome, iron-storage disorders related to Friedreich's ataxia, and hereditary spastic paraplegia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of the 19 mutations analyzed, 14 involved changes in very highly conserved parts of the affected proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • viral
  • ABCE1 heterodimerize with ribonuclease L and prevents its interaction with 2-5A, antagonizing the anti-viral properties of ribonuclease L, and allow the virus to synthesize viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • This cannot account for the conservation of the protein in all other organisms, since only mammals have the RNAse L system. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • BMCs are typically about 40-200 nanometers in diameter and are entirely made of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The crystal structures of a number of these proteins have been determined, showing that they assemble into cyclical hexamers, typically with a small pore in the center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structures of proteins from the EutN/CcmL family (Pfam03319) have been solved and they typically form pentamers (BMC-P). The importance of the BMC-P proteins in shell formation seems to vary among the different BMCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal
  • Since the crystal structure for RLI has not yet been determined, all that is known has been inferred from protein sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • Various types of reactions are catalyzed by Mo enzymes in prokaryotes, including oxygen atom transfer, sulfur or proton transfer, hydroxylation, or even nonredox ones. (asmscience.org)
  • complexes
  • The MIM, the most protein dense membrane in the cell, adopts elaborate folds called cristae in which assembled respiratory complexes are housed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • function
  • It has been demonstrated that NDUFA4 plays a role in Complex IV function and biogenesis, however, with some authors suggesting that the NDUFA4 gene be renamed and the structure of both Complex I and Complex IV be re-evaluated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incubation of the protein with a non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue or a mutation of the ABC domain causes a complete loss of protein function. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidic
  • The binding of the FNR to the integral membrane proteins on the thylakoid membrane is enhanced under acidic conditions, so recruitment and binding of FNR to the thylakoid membrane may be a method of storing and stabilizing the enzyme in the dark when photosynthesis is not occurring. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteomic
  • In the post-genomic era, proteomic studies analyzing the protein complement of a genome in a particular organism at any given time, have gained real significance. (usf.edu)
  • For a better understanding of such metabolic regulation and for process optimization, we carried out fermentation experiments under either iron excess or iron limitation conditions, and performed metabolic, stoichiometric and proteomic analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • species
  • When present at elevated concentrations, Fe can participate in Fenton-type reactions that promote the formation of powerful reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl radicals that damage cells at the levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and carbonylation, and DNA mutagenesis and destabilization [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • exonuclease
  • The POLD1/p125 subunit encodes both DNA polymerizing and exonuclease domains, which provide the protein an important second function in proofreading to ensure replication accuracy during DNA synthesis, and in a number of types of replication-linked DNA repair following DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • This result is largely due to dynamic changes in protein expression profiles which can lead wide alterations in physiology and behavior. (usf.edu)
  • This hypothesis was further confirmed when the site-directed mutagenesis of each or both of the conserved aspartic acid residues at positions 68 and 71 of DksA Vc , which are essential for transcription initiation during the stringent response, had no effect in the regulation of CT expression. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In 1993, the first miRNA, lin-4, was discovered as a 22-nucleotide non-coding RNA that regulated the timing of post-embryonic development by repressing lin-14 protein expression in Caenorhabditis elegans [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Translation initiation is an essential process required for proper protein expression and cell viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • We found agr-regulated proteins are generally upregulated in CA-MRSA strains USA300 and USA400 and surface-associated proteins to be upregulated in HA-MRSA strains USA100 and USA200. (usf.edu)
  • Other protein-based compartments found in bacteria and archaea include encapsulin nanocompartments and gas vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that in response to iron deficiency, an RNA-binding protein denoted Cth2 coordinates a global metabolic rearrangement that aims to optimize iron utilization. (mdpi.com)
  • functions
  • Recent findings indicate that the TZF-containing tristetraprolin protein also functions in modulating human iron homeostasis. (mdpi.com)
  • necessary
  • For proteomics, it is necessary to maximize protein concentration and to devise a method that can be easily employed and provide reproducible results. (usf.edu)
  • analysis
  • Appropriate analysis and quantification methods can further accelerate protein processing, allowing isolation/characterization to be completed in one workday, instead of 20+ work hours. (jove.com)
  • rich
  • 1,3-PDO is most effectively produced under iron limited condition (Fe−), whereas 1,3-PDO and BuOH were both produced under iron rich condition (Fe+). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Cth2 protein contains two Cx 8 Cx 5 Cx 3 H tandem zinc fingers (TZFs) that specifically bind to adenosine/uridine-rich elements within the 3′ untranslated region of many mRNAs to promote their degradation. (mdpi.com)
  • different
  • Not only the NADH pool but also the regulation of the ferredoxin pool could explain such product variation under different iron conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • form
  • These proteins form oligomers that are hexagonal in shape and are thought to form the facets of the shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structurally characterized BMC-T proteins form trimers that are pseudohexameric in shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Vascular colocalization of P-glycoprotein, multidrug-resistance associated protein 1, mamma cancer resistance protein and noteworthy vault protein in one epileptogenic pathologies. (atn.ua)
  • Understanding the mechanisms that maintain genome stability in normal cells or cause elevated CIN in cancer necessitates the development of reliable and highly quantitative methods for measuring CIN. (g3journal.org)