• scaffold protein
  • SufE acts as a scaffold protein that accepts S from SufS and donates it to SufA [ PMID: 17350000 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • SufA is homologous to IscA [ PMID: 15278785 ], acting as a scaffold protein in which Fe and S atoms are assembled into [FeS] cluster forms, which can then easily be transferred to apoproteins targets. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Extensive biochemical and genetic studies [ 3 - 9 ] have shown that this process occurs through the assembly of a cluster on the scaffold protein IscU (Isu in yeast) followed by its transfer to a recipient apo-protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gene
  • NDUFA4, mitochondrial complex associated is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NDUFA4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NDUFA4 gene produces a 9.4 kDa protein composed of 81 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been demonstrated that NDUFA4 plays a role in Complex IV function and biogenesis, however, with some authors suggesting that the NDUFA4 gene be renamed and the structure of both Complex I and Complex IV be re-evaluated. (wikipedia.org)
  • the protein encoded by this gene belongs to the complex I 9kDa subunit family and it has NADH dehydrogenase activity and oxidoreductase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changes in gene expression programs are strongly influenced by post-transcriptional mechanisms mediated by mRNA-binding factors: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). (frontiersin.org)
  • RBPs such as HuR (human antigen R), PTB (polypyrimidine tract-binding protein), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), tristetraprolin, nucleolin, iron-response element-binding proteins (IRPs), and cytoplasmic polyadenylation-element-binding proteins (CPEBs), selectively bind to numerous hypoxia-regulated transcripts and play a major role in establishing hypoxic gene expression patterns. (frontiersin.org)
  • MiRNAs including miR-210, miR-373, and miR-21 associate with hypoxia-regulated transcripts and further modulate the levels of the encoded proteins to implement the hypoxic gene expression profile. (frontiersin.org)
  • redox
  • The flow of electrons changes the redox state of the protein, resulting in a conformational change and pK shift of the ionizable side chain, which pumps four hydrogen ions out of the mitochondrial matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • This classification reflects the phylogenetic relationships between ABC proteins, allowing an assignment into structural classes based on sequence comparison of their NBF motifs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bauer F, Schweimer K, Meiselbach H, Hoffmann S, Rosch P, Sticht H. Structural characterization of Lyn-SH3 domain in complex with a herpesviral protein reveals an extended recognition motif that enhances binding affinity. (springer.com)
  • Malia TJ, Wagner G. NMR structural investigation of the mitochondrial outer membrane protein VDAC and its interaction with antiapoptotic Bcl-xL. (springer.com)
  • While the BMC shell is architecturally similar to many viral capsids, the shell proteins have not been found to have any structural or sequence homology to capsid proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The POLD1/p125 subunit encodes both DNA polymerizing and exonuclease domains, which provide the protein an important second function in proofreading to ensure replication accuracy during DNA synthesis, and in a number of types of replication-linked DNA repair following DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • RLI is the only known essential cytoplasmic Fe/S protein that is absolutely dependent on the mitochondrial Fe/S synthesis and export system for proper maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways
  • At least 100 FeS proteins are found in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , which are involved in respiration, photosynthesis, DNA metabolism and a wide range of metabolic pathways [ 1 , 5 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • homologous
  • But then genes coding for proteins homologous to those of the carboxysome shell were identified in the pdu (propanediol utilization) and eut (ethanolamine utilization) operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are organelles consisting of a protein shell that encloses enzymes and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the carboxysome, propanediol utilizing (PDU), and ethanolamine utilizing (EUT) BMCs encapsulate different enzymes and therefore have different functions, the genes encoding for the shell proteins are very similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the genes (coding for the shell proteins and the encapsulated enzymes) from experimentally characterized BMCs are located near one another in distinct genetic loci or operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • CNX7 binds to CNX6 (MOCS2B) to catalyze sulfur transfer to the third pterin ring, which is repeated for a second sulfur to form enedithiolate. (biochemj.org)
  • ferritin
  • Ferritin is a symmetric, 24-subunit iron-storage complex assembled of H and L chains. (genetics.org)
  • Ferritin overexpression impaired the survival of iron-deprived flies. (genetics.org)
  • In vivo expression of GFP-tagged holoferritin confirmed that iron-loaded ferritin molecules traffic through the Golgi organelle and are secreted into hemolymph. (genetics.org)
  • Our study revealed both conserved features and insect-specific adaptations of ferritin nanocages and provides novel imaging possibilities for their in vivo characterization. (genetics.org)
  • These phenotypes were specific to intestinal cell types that regulate ferritin expression, but were notably absent in the iron cells where ferritin is constitutively expressed and apparently translated independently of iron regulatory protein 1A. (springer.com)
  • interaction
  • However, HscB interacts with both the apo- and holo-forms of IscU [ 19 ], and because of the instability of cluster-bound forms of IscU, studies of the HscB-IscU interaction have employed the apo-protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this article, we give an overview of the suite of approaches available to the researcher who wishes to understand their favourite protein-protein interaction in more detail. (springer.com)
  • ABCE1 heterodimerize with ribonuclease L and prevents its interaction with 2-5A, antagonizing the anti-viral properties of ribonuclease L, and allow the virus to synthesize viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prior to the genomic era, the study of fungal ABC proteins was mainly performed with two model species, i.e., the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and, to a lesser extent, fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because iron is a key player, 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy is especially appropriate for the characterization of Fe species and monitoring the iron distribution. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The protein sequences between species is very well conserved, for example Pixie and yeast Rli1p are 66% identical, and Rli1p and human RLI are 67% identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • Moco consists of a pyranopterin ring structure with two sulfur atoms forming an enedithiolate group that co-ordinates molybdate [ 6 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • membrane
  • Binding of the enzyme to the thylakoid membrane involves a polyproline type II helix created between two FNR monomers and several proline rich integral membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of the FNR to the integral membrane proteins on the thylakoid membrane is enhanced under acidic conditions, so recruitment and binding of FNR to the thylakoid membrane may be a method of storing and stabilizing the enzyme in the dark when photosynthesis is not occurring. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABC proteins not involved in membrane transport generally lack the TMDs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • vivo
  • Hsc20 mutant flies represent an independent tool to disrupt ISC biogenesis in vivo without using the RNA interference machinery. (springer.com)
  • transcription
  • Another regulatory element, the cell cycle element/cell cycle genes homology region (CDE/CHR), located downstream of the start site is important for POLD1 transcription in G2/M phase by E2F1 and p21 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in transcription directly affect the abundance of some hypoxia-regulated proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • mammals
  • This cannot account for the conservation of the protein in all other organisms, since only mammals have the RNAse L system. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The pathway is largely conserved across all domains of life, but has been lost from Baker's yeast. (biochemj.org)
  • typically
  • BMCs are typically about 40-200 nanometers in diameter and are entirely made of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The crystal structures of a number of these proteins have been determined, showing that they assemble into cyclical hexamers, typically with a small pore in the center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structures of proteins from the EutN/CcmL family (Pfam03319) have been solved and they typically form pentamers (BMC-P). The importance of the BMC-P proteins in shell formation seems to vary among the different BMCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal
  • Since the crystal structure for RLI has not yet been determined, all that is known has been inferred from protein sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • IscU
  • We have shown that ASO treatment diminished aberrant splicing and increased ISCU (show ISCU ELISA Kits ) protein levels in both patient fibroblasts and patient myotubes in a concentration dependent fashion. (antibodies-online.com)
  • domain
  • Other members of this family include various hypothetical proteins that also contain the NifU-like domain suggesting that they too are able to bind iron and are involved in Fe-S cluster biogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second domain is at the carboxyl terminus of the protein and contains an alpha helix-beta strand fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motifs A and C, which are the most conserved of the polymerase domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incubation of the protein with a non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue or a mutation of the ABC domain causes a complete loss of protein function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major constituents of the BMC shell are proteins containing Pfam00936 domain(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • The BMC-H proteins, which contain a single copy of the Pfam00936 domain, are the most abundant component of the facets of the shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A subset of shell proteins are composed of tandem (fused) copies of the Pfam00936 domain (BMC-T proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • There are 17 DEGs found uniquely in cold-tolerance plantain, which were involved in signal transduction, abiotic stress, copper ion equilibrium, photosynthesis and photorespiration, sugar stimulation, protein modifications etc. (biomedcentral.com)