• androgen receptor
  • It exerts its action through binding to and activation of the androgen receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who have a non-functional androgen receptor (AR) and are immune to the androgenic effects of DHEA and other androgens, have absent or only sparse/scanty pubic and axillary hair and body hair in general, demonstrating the role of DHEA, testosterone, and other androgens in body hair development at both adrenarche and pubarche. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to its affinity for the androgen receptor, DHEA has also been found to bind to and activate the ERα and ERβ estrogen receptors with Ki values of 1.1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively, and EC50 values of >1 μM and 200 nM, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • It is a receptor for NGF and phosphorylates several downstream proteins regulating a variety of signalling cascades. (absoluteantibody.com)
  • Survival occurs when recruited cytoplasmic adaptor proteins facilitate signal transduction through tumor necrosis factor receptor members such as TRAF6, which results in the release of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • LNGFR functions in a complex with Nogo receptor (NgR, Reticulon 4 receptor) to mediate RhoA-dependent inhibition of growth of regenerating axons exposed to inhibitory proteins of CNS myelin, such as Nogo, MAG or OMgP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many membrane receptors include transmembrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor protein: cells must have cell surface receptor proteins which bind to the signaling molecule and communicate inward into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • They belong to a class of growth factors, secreted proteins that are capable of signaling particular cells to survive, differentiate, or grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are small proteins that secrete into the nervous system to help keep nerve cells alive. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical citation needed] Insulin-like growth factor 1 has been shown to bind and interact with all the IGF-1 binding proteins (IGFBPs), of which there are seven: IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, IGFBP5, IGFBP6, and IGFBP7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • It has also been shown, however, that the LNGFR may signal a cell to die via apoptosis - so therefore cells expressing the LNGFR in the absence of Trk receptors may die rather than live in the presence of a neurotrophin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whilst the Trk receptors have a clearly defined trophic role, p75 receptors activate signalling pathways which can also result in apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal transduction
  • Signal transduction through membrane receptors requires four parts: Extracellular signaling molecule: an extracellular signaling molecule is produced by one cell and is at least capable of traveling to neighboring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Rotation Model: Ligand binding to the extracellular part of the receptor induces the rotation of the receptor's transmembrane region inside the cell membrane, in doing so regulate its activity inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation induces a conformational change in the MH2 domain of the R-SMAD and its subsequent dissociation from the receptor complex and SARA. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • On the other hand, the selective destruction of cholinergic afferents to the visual cortex caused a dramatic, but not complete, reduction of the cortical NGFRs, which suggests that these receptors are located on cholinergic terminals predominantly. (jneurosci.org)
  • tumor
  • With the efforts to collect large numbers of clinically annotated specimens and the advancements in technologies, researchers have revealed numerous genetic alterations that may drive tumor growth. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • High-risk patients often go through rigorous treatment consisting of 3 treatment blocks: Induction (chemotherapy and tumor resection), consolidation (high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue and external-beam radiotherapy) and post-consolidation (anti-ganglioside 2 immunotherapy with cytokines and cis-retinoic acid) [ 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, the profound success of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy, when compared with T-cell depletion therapies, should provoke us to critically re-evaluate the current hypothesis for psoriasis pathogenesis. (wiley.com)
  • LNGFR is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF receptor)superfamily - indeed, LNGFR was the first member of this large family of receptors to be characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4e (eif-4E) [4EBP] by mTOR inhibits the capacity of 4EBP to inhibit eif-4E and slow metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • axonal
  • Axonal growth is guided by the glial composition and cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulb in addition to the presence of OEG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • The study of homologous gene families in simpler systems, devoid of high genetic redundancy, often has led to a better understanding of complex functions in vertebrates ( Chao, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • The activated transcription factor c-Jun regulates nuclear transcription via AP-1 to increase pro-apoptotic gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAPGEF1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • R-SMAD/coSMAD complexes accumulate in the nucleus where they act as transcription factors and participate in the regulation of target gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • nervous
  • Nonetheless, concentrations of DHEA-S in the central nervous system are actually far higher than those in the peripheral circulation, estimated to be nearly 20-fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the peripheral nervous system OEG are dispersed within the olfactory epithelium and the olfactory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth and regeneration of olfactory axons can be attributable to OEG, as they form the fascicles through which axons grow from the peripheral nervous system into the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common ligands of trk receptors are neurotrophins, a family of growth factors critical to the functioning of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrate
  • Its ancestral link to vertebrate Trk receptors is supported by phylogenetic analysis and domain characterisation. (biologists.org)
  • We show that Trk receptors are not a vertebrate innovation, and originated prior to the cephalochordate/vertebrate split. (biologists.org)
  • Its proorthology to vertebrate Trk receptors is strongly supported by both phylogenetic analysis and full-length protein domain structure. (biologists.org)
  • Agonists
  • However, its intrinsic activity at the receptor is quite weak, and on account of that, due to competition for binding with full agonists like testosterone, it can actually behave more like an antagonist depending on circulating testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels, and hence, like an antiandrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • transient
  • In addition, pregnenolone sulfate has been shown to activate the transient receptor potential M3 (TRPM3) ion channel in hepatocytes and pancreatic islets causing calcium entry and subsequent insulin release. (wikipedia.org)