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  • currents
  • In large A-fiber related DRGs ATX-II (5 nM) enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents, but failed to do so in small C-fiber linked DRGs when investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ATX-II enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents in large diameter DRGs, whereas small DRGs depend on the addition of β4-peptide to the pipette recording solution for ATX-II to affect resurgent currents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • neurons
  • In humans nine different subtypes of sodium channels are expressed (Nav1.1 to Nav1.9), and six of them can be found in sensory neurons (the tetrodotoxin sensitive (TTXs) channels Nav1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.6 and 1.7, and the TTX resistant (TTXr) channels Nav1.8 and 1.9). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that the acute and selective Fgf14 -targeted short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated in vivo "knock-down" of iFGF14 in adult Purkinje neurons attenuates spontaneous and evoked action potential firing without measurably affecting the expression or localization of voltage-gated Na + (Nav) channels at Purkinje neuron axon initial segments. (jneurosci.org)
  • In fact, in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons there are multiple endogenous protein kinases and phosphatases that functionally couple to the BK channel modulating their activity. (epfl.ch)
  • Various pharmaceutical companies developed synthetic molecules activating these channels in order to prevent excessive neurotoxic calcium entry in neurons . (epfl.ch)
  • proteins
  • Rather than existing as independent units, Nav channels are part of a signaling complex that involves auxiliary proteins and membrane lipids. (jhmi.edu)
  • There is evidence of changes in BK channel activity by phosphorylation and/or interaction by G proteins, by mechanical stretch, and by various endothelium-derived vasoactive substances . (epfl.ch)
  • Molecular
  • Our goal is to address fundamental questions on the identities of the Nav channel signaling complex components and to resolve their mechanisms of action at the molecular level. (jhmi.edu)
  • The evidence we have from molecular biology, together with the toxic nature of prolonged high Ca2+ levels inside cells, argues strongly that primeval cells must have had Ca2+ pumps to keep their free intracellular Ca2+ low, setting the scene for the ' calcium pressure' across then plasma membrane to be exploited to act as the source for cell activation. (heavenforum.org)
  • physiological
  • Despite their physiological importance, our understanding of these channels is hampered by a lack of insight into their complex structures and working mechanisms. (jhmi.edu)
  • The activation of protein kinase C completely suppresses the opening BK channels in intact rat anterior pituitary cells in physiological saline. (epfl.ch)
  • found
  • All biological cells have a low cytosolic (liquid found inside Cells ) calcium concentration, can and must keep this even when the free calcium outside is up to 20,000 times higher concentrated! (heavenforum.org)
  • calcium
  • BMS-204352 (BMS) was developed as a neuroprotective drug for disease conditions such as ischemic stroke and it has been shown to have a protective effect, due to activation of big-conductance calcium-activating potassium (BKCa) channels (Gribkoff et al. (epfl.ch)
  • involves
  • The metabolic apparatus that serves this function involves Ca2+ protein-based and non-proteinaceous channels, Ca2+ antiporters (Ca2+/2H+, Ca2+/Na+), and ATP-dependent Ca2+ pumps. (heavenforum.org)
  • function
  • Successful completion of these goals will reveal key elements in the Nav channel signaling complex, help define Nav channel function in normal and pathological states, and may offer novel strategies for developing therapeutic drugs. (jhmi.edu)
  • Palmitoylation influences the function and pharmacology of sodium channels. (jhmi.edu)
  • The protein has multiple predicted phosphorylation sites that can modulate channel function by phosphorylation . (epfl.ch)
  • molecular
  • The evidence we have from molecular biology, together with the toxic nature of prolonged high Ca2+ levels inside cells, argues strongly that primeval cells must have had Ca2+ pumps to keep their free intracellular Ca2+ low, setting the scene for the ' calcium pressure' across then plasma membrane to be exploited to act as the source for cell activation. (heavenforum.org)
  • Our goal is to address fundamental questions on the identities of the Nav channel signaling complex components and to resolve their mechanisms of action at the molecular level. (jhmi.edu)