• 2002
  • INTRODUCTION In April 2002 the Swedish National Food Administration (NFA) and researchers from Stockholm University announced their findings that acrylamide, a toxic and potentially cancer-causing chemical, is formed in many types of food prepared/cooked at high temperatures. (scribd.com)
  • The discovery of acrylamide in some cooked starchy foods in 2002 prompted concerns about the carcinogenicity of those foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acrylamide was discovered in foods in April 2002 by Eritrean scientist Eden Tareke in Sweden when she found the chemical in starchy foods, such as potato chips (potato crisps), French fries (chips), and bread that had been heated higher than 120 °C (248 °F) (production of acrylamide in the heating process was shown to be temperature-dependent). (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of Acrylamide in Food, Swedish National Food Administration, (2002). (springer.com)
  • The acrylamide scare might be new in Europe, but it has been going on in the USA ever since the chemical was discovered in food in 2002 (despite this, the FDA does not set legal limits on acrylamide in food ). (blogspot.co.uk)
  • food
  • summary)Health implications of acrylamide in food. (scribd.com)
  • and formation, fate and bioavailability of acrylamide in cooked food. (scribd.com)
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The FAO/WHO Consultation on Health Implications of Acrylamide in Food has undertaken a preliminary evaluation of new and existing data and research on acrylamide. (scribd.com)
  • Food industry workers exposed to twice the average level of acrylamide do not exhibit higher cancer rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • A group of Italian scientists used a series of hospital-based case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1991 and 2000 to analyze the relation between intake of fried/baked potatoes and cancer risk (fried and baked potatoes are among the highest food sources of acrylamide ). (healwithfood.org)
  • The researchers calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires completed by participants in the Nurses' Health Study II. (healwithfood.org)
  • The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO), along with other health institutions, continue to encourage scientists to carry out research on the carcinogenicity of acrylamide and to assess the overall health risks associated with acrylamide . (healwithfood.org)
  • There is also evidence that certain food components, such as antioxidants in certain foods, may negate or mitigate the harmful effects of acrylamide. (healwithfood.org)
  • Food chemistry: Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction. (springer.com)
  • European Food Safety Authority, Draft scientific opinion on acrylamide in food (2014). (springer.com)
  • It is not just roast potatoes, but french fries, biscuits, toasts and many other food stuffs that can generate acrylamide. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • vitro
  • Although the in vitro test battery demonstrates a high degree of sensitivity in detecting genotoxic carcinogens , it is poor at correctly identifying noncarcinogens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals, as well as in vitro models, for the carcinogenicity of PhIP. (wikipedia.org)
  • benchmark
  • 2000). Many of these methods have proven beneficial in the study of carcinogenic potential, but none have been sufficiently validated so as to supplant the chronic 2-year bioassay as the benchmark carcinogenicity assay. (focusontoxpath.com)
  • foods
  • Acrylamide (C3H3ONH2) is a chemical that is produced naturally in certain foods when they are cooked at high temperatures. (scribd.com)
  • The Consultation reviewed the health significance of the presence of acrylamide in foods on the basis of known international assessment reports, specific background papers prepared in advance by invited experts and on the available new data and publications. (scribd.com)
  • A great opportunity exists for bakeries to take a leadership role and incorporate this technology in toast bread, croutons, hamburger buns and other crackers and snack foods to ultimately reduce acrylamide in the final product. (bakingbusiness.com)
  • The obtained results have shown a great variation of acrylamide content and reason might be due to foods type, cooking ingredients and, cooking methods, time and temperature. (springer.com)
  • Eat a healthy diet of mostly raw foods, foods high in omega-3 fatty acids, which produce a hydrating effect from the inside out. (mercola.com)
  • It is also a product formed in certain foods prepared at high temperature frying, baking or roasting, such as fried potatoes, bakery products and coffee. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microwave ovens have a limited role in professional cooking, because the boiling-range temperatures produced in especially hydrous foods impede flavors produced by the higher temperatures of frying, browning, or baking. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • Exceptions occur in rare cases where the oven is used to heat frying-oil and other very oily items (such as bacon), which attain far higher temperatures than that of boiling water. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • In chips, acrylamide level was detected from 28 to 954 µg/kg, sample 7 (salted) contained higher amount (954 μg/kg) whereas, sample 8 (labneh and mint) comparatively produced lower amount (28 μg/kg). (springer.com)
  • assessment
  • Opinion on the results of the Risk Assessment of: ACRYLAMIDE (Human Health and the Environment) - CAS No. 79-06-1 - EINECS No. 201-173-7. (europa.eu)
  • Formation
  • Moreover, international initiatives to commence multidisciplinary research were viewed as urgently needed as the formation of acrylamide during the cooking process may be a widespread phenomenon. (scribd.com)
  • Asparagine is the precursor responsible for formation of Acrylamide in bread crust or in bread that has been toasted as a result of the Milliard (browning) reaction. (bakingbusiness.com)
  • Biscuits
  • Biscuits generated high concentration (234 μg/kg) while corn flakes fairly generated lower amount (26 μg/kg). (springer.com)
  • laboratories
  • Acrylamide has many other uses in molecular biology laboratories, including the use of linear polyacrylamide (LPA) as a carrier, which aids in the precipitation of small amounts of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequency
  • The exploitation of high-frequency radio waves for heating substances was made possible by the development of vacuum tube radio transmitters around 1920. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed therefore to heat such materials simultaneously throughout their mass by means of the dielectric loss produced in them when they are subjected to a high voltage, high frequency field. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H5NO. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another use of polyacrylamide is as a chemical intermediate in the production of N-methylol acrylamide and N-butoxyacrylamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, automated computer systems predict carcinogenicity based on mathematical models created by statistical analysis to correlate relationships between chemical structure similarities to a defined biological activity (Cunningham et al. (focusontoxpath.com)
  • Environmental Protection Agency 749-F-94-005a: Chemical Summary for Acrylamide (1994). (springer.com)
  • The villain of the piece was acrylamide, a chemical that is created when carbohydrates are cooked. (blogspot.co.uk)