• mucinous adenocarcinomas
  • Although mucinous adenocarcinomas often demonstrates high-grade cytology, the tumor is often heterogeneous with foci of low-grade epithelium. (surgpath4u.com)
  • Microscopic characteristics of rhabdoid cells include: Oval to polygonal cell shape Eosinophilic, hyaline-like perinuclear agglomerations of intermediate filaments Compressed, eccentric nuclei Prominent central macronucleoli (one or two) Abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm Reticular chromatin pattern The differential diagnosis of LCLC-RP includes secondary metastatic lesions, melignant melanoma of the lung with rhabdoid phenotype, mucinous adenocarcinomas (particularly those featuring signet-ring cells), rhabdomyosarcoma, epitheloid angiosarcoma, pleural mesothelioma, and plasmacytoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • We also observed heterogeneous expression of p21 in lung adenocarcinomas, i.e. in about two-thirds of the tumors, the tumor cells in the peripheral regions were p21 positive more frequently than were those in the central regions. (oup.com)
  • Herein, we examined the prognostic value of RBM3 in periampullary adenocarcinoma, as well as the effects following RBM3 suppression in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. (lu.se)
  • The rates of immunoreactive cells for HIF-1α, VEGF, and P-gp in tumor tissues treated with nitroglycerin were lower than those without nitroglycerin, but those for p53 were not different between those treated with and without nitroglycerin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data support the working hypothesis that one or more of these HSP have a direct role in the mechanism(s) for inducing thermal resistance in rat tumor cells, but other factors such as total protein synthesis could modify the complex biochemical and phenotypic pathways involved in induced HSP and thermal resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSC) are thought to play a major role in the development and metastatic progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the deadliest solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specifically, we have come to understand that apart from providing structural support for tumor development, the tumor-associated microenvironment of many solid tumors provides cues to a subpopulation of tumor-initiating cells, also known as cancer stem cells (CSC), which regulates their self-renewal and tumorigenic and metastatic potential ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Within the stroma-rich PDAC tumor microenvironment, pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) have been extensively studied and recent reports from our laboratory and other have shown that tumor-associated PSCs can create a protumor paracrine niche for PDAC CSCs via Nodal/Activin A secretion ( 2 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Five of six BCA showed a marked intratumoural heterogeneous staining pattern ranging from areas in which the tumour cells were negative or faintly positive to tumour areas with a strong staining of the entire membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • Digital image analysis and laser scanning microscopy were helpful in quantifying the variations in protein expression and DNA copy number in individual tumour cells. (hindawi.com)
  • During EMT, the epithelial tumor cells undergo transformation from a cohesive, polar phenotype to a motile-mesenchymal state lacking the characteristic adherence through epithelial cell-cell junctions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, EMT might not be a defined tumor state, but rather a continuum representing cellular plasticity where some cells have more epithelial and some more mesenchymal characteristics, whose extremes look like EMT phenotypes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The biologic determinants of the different pathways used by tumor cells to evade immunity are not completely understood but are likely related with the balance between tumor antigenic load and the presence of adaptive immunosuppressive mechanisms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Other presenting symptoms described have included: flu-like syndrome with cough and fever, FA is an epithelial tumor whose cells and architecture resemble that of fetal lung tissues in the pseudoglandular stage of development (which occurs at about 10-16 weeks gestation in the human), with complex glandular structures and morules with cell nuclei that appear clear due to the accumulation of biotin. (wikipedia.org)
  • While FA can be diagnosed via biopsy, bronchial brushings, and immunocytochemistry, examination of the whole tumor is required to rule out biphasic pulmonary blastoma, a mixed tumor of higher aggressiveness, wherein FA occurs admixed with primitive blastoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In such cases, these biphasic tumors are classified as a form of pulmonary blastoma because the presence of the blastomatous cells dramatically worsens the prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of tumor heterogeneity encompasses multiple classifications, including genetic heterogeneity among samples from patients with the same tumor type and the presence of genetically distinct subpopulations of tumor cells within an individual patient's tumor. (aaccjnls.org)
  • However the tumors evade the immune system by increased expression of a negative regulator of T-cells mainly programmed death ligand-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, it is recommended that all multiphasic malignant lung tumors (i.e. those with more than one histological pattern) that are found to contain any proportion of SCLC cells should be classified as c-SCLC, and not as combined forms of any of the other histological variants present in the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these instances, a minimum of 10% of the viable malignant cells present must be identified as LCLC before the tumor is considered to be a c-SCLC. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for a LCLC to be subclassified as the rhabdoid phenotype variant, at least 10% of the malignant tumor cells must contain distinctive structures composed of tangled intermediate filaments that displace the cell nucleus outward toward the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of immunomarkers in the rhabdoid cells, however, have often been noted to be weaker and more diffuse than those in the more differentiated tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genital warts, which are a form of benign tumor of epithelial cells, are also caused by various strains of HPV. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be designated a c-LCNEC, the tumor must contain at least 10% LCNEC cells, in combination with at least 10% of other forms of NSCLC. (wikipedia.org)
  • EGFR
  • However, this paradigm has recently been challenged by the results of a study that showed a survival benefit with the addition of bevacizumab to carboplatin and paclitaxel in bevacizumab-eligible patients and by the superior efficacy of gefitinib and erlotinib compared to chemotherapy in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation-positive tumors (mainly adenocarcinomas). (cancernetwork.com)
  • Herein, we report a 49-year-old man diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, who was negative for EGFR and ALK genes as detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and was treated with crizotinib. (dovepress.com)
  • Little is known about the effects of EGFR inhibitors in SC, although some evidence suggests that these tumors are not likely to be highly responsive. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastasis
  • There was no significant correlation between p21 expression and p53 expression, the loss of heterozygosity status of the p53 gene, histological grade determined by the predominant histology, lymph node metastasis, pathological stage, tumor size, smoking history or gender. (oup.com)
  • progression
  • In contrast, overexpression of inducible NO synthase promotes tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression ( 25 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 , 8 ), may also play critical roles in the development and progression of numerous tumors, such as PDAC, and the immunomodulatory factors they secrete may also be paracrine-mediated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immune evasion is required for tumor progression and is characterized by an ineffective antitumor immune response and upregulation of immune-suppressive signals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results indicate a previously unrecognized connection between EMT-mediated tumor progression and activation of an immune escape program in lung tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immune evasion is a key aspect of malignant tumor progression and is characterized by either the absence of detectable antitumor immune reaction (e.g., so-called "immune ignorance") or by the progression of the tumor in the presence of an ineffective antitumor immune response ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, this association suggests that tumor progression through EMT is accompanied by increasing antitumor immune pressure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sequencing of cancer genomes has become a pivotal method for uncovering and understanding the deregulated cellular processes driving tumor initiation and progression. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Among the many causes of tumor progression and disease recurrence in the setting of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, one of the major ones is tumor heterogeneity. (aaccjnls.org)
  • suppressor gene
  • The Carney-Stratakis syndrome is a dyad of hereditary GIST and paraganglioma, that is caused by germline mutations in the mitochondrial tumor suppressor gene pathway involving the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits SDHD, SDHC and SDHB. (wikipedia.org)
  • The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene generally has a germline mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germline mutations of VHL tumor suppressor gene will be found on 3p25-26 (short arm of chromosome 3), usually between base pair 10,158,318 to 10,168,761. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis
  • Although a regimen for small-cell lung cancer may be one treatment option, a heterogeneous tumor may exist at the time of diagnosis and manifest during the course of disease. (dovepress.com)
  • The roles of these tumor markers in the diagnosis and pathogenesis of this tumor and associations between clinical characteristics, tumor pathologic features, and prognosis are discussed. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Often, there is a history of vague abdominal pain or discomfort, and the tumor has become rather large by time the diagnosis is made. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average age at diagnosis of these tumors has been estimated at 60 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterogeneity
  • The balance between tumor inflammation and immune evasion is considered to be a dynamic process and solid tumors can display immune heterogeneity with the same lesion containing areas with dissimilar immune infiltration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The analysis and interpretation of sequencing data, however, must be considered in the context of heterogeneity within and among tumor samples. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Aside from the great heterogeneity seen in lung cancers (especially those occurring among tobacco smokers), the considerable variability in diagnostic and sampling techniques used in medical practice, the high relative proportion of individuals with suspected GCCL who do not undergo complete surgical resection, and the near-universal lack of complete sectioning and pathological examination of resected tumor specimens prevent high levels of quantitative accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunohistochemical
  • In order to elucidate the significance of p21 expression in lung adenocarcinomas, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of p21, p53 and Ki-67 expression in surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas. (oup.com)
  • Seventeen patients with operable lung adenocarcinoma and stable angina pectoris were selected to investigate the effects of nitroglycerin on immunoreactivity for hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the production of which is regulated by HIF-1, and p53 proteins in their resected tumor by semiquantitative immunohistochemical analyses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, some previous diagnoses of stomach and small bowel leiomyosarcomas (malignant tumor of smooth muscle) would be reclassified as GISTs on the basis of immunohistochemical staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • The effects and mechanisms of nitroglycerin on the enhancement of chemosensitivity to docetaxel and carboplatin regimen (DCb) in patients with lung adenocarcinoma have not been reported. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, to study the relationship between changes in plasma VEGF levels by nitroglycerin treatment and response to DCb, 29 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma were treated with nitroglycerin for 3 days before chemotherapy using DCb. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The magnitude of decrease in plasma VEGF levels after treatment with nitroglycerin was significantly associated with response to DCb in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nitroglycerin treatment may improve response to DCb in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, partly through decreasing VEGF and P-gp production via reduction of HIF-1α. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 Whereas organ confined prostate adenocarcinoma can be cured in most patients, the treatment of more extensive tumours has met with limited success. (bmj.com)
  • ISG15 was preferentially and highly expressed by TAM present in primary PDAC tumors resected from patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Universal testing for all patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma age 70 or younger. (humpath.com)
  • The vast majority of patients with an endolymphatic sac tumor have von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors range from several millimeters up to 10 cm, with larger tumors more frequently seen in older patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who succumb to the disease, usually do so because of other tumors within the von Hippel-Lindau complex rather than from this tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival is significantly better in patients whose tumors are well differentiated (i.e. the glands and/or tubules are more completely developed) than when poorly differentiated (i.e. with rudimentary glands). (wikipedia.org)
  • surgically resected
  • Despite the major strides in furthering our understanding of the cancer genome, definitive treatments and cures remain elusive when the tumor mass cannot be surgically resected. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Poorly
  • Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma will not resemble the normal glands (high grade) and will be detected by seeing that they stain positive for mucin (which the glands produce). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most FA's are well or moderately differentiated tumors, although high-grade, poorly differentiated variants have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salivary
  • The focal resemblance to other salivary gland-type tumors may cause diagnostic difficulties, particularly in small endobronchial biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • In this issue of Clinical Cancer Research , Lou and colleagues ( 1 ) report an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related mRNA signature associated with increased expression of diverse immune inhibitory ligands and receptors in lung adenocarcinomas (e.g. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The paradigm of personalized medicine holds promise if patient tumors are thoroughly studied as unique and heterogeneous entities and clinical decisions are made accordingly. (aaccjnls.org)