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  • mucinous adenocarcinomas
  • Although mucinous adenocarcinomas often demonstrates high-grade cytology, the tumor is often heterogeneous with foci of low-grade epithelium. (surgpath4u.com)
  • Microscopic characteristics of rhabdoid cells include: Oval to polygonal cell shape Eosinophilic, hyaline-like perinuclear agglomerations of intermediate filaments Compressed, eccentric nuclei Prominent central macronucleoli (one or two) Abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm Reticular chromatin pattern The differential diagnosis of LCLC-RP includes secondary metastatic lesions, melignant melanoma of the lung with rhabdoid phenotype, mucinous adenocarcinomas (particularly those featuring signet-ring cells), rhabdomyosarcoma, epitheloid angiosarcoma, pleural mesothelioma, and plasmacytoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variants
  • We derived novel TRAMP tumor cell lines, representative of WD and PD variants, and through pharmacologic stabilization or genetic ablation of MCs in recipients mice, we showed that MCs promote WD adenocarcinoma growth but are dispensable for PD tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these data underscore the contribution of MCs in tumor progression and uncover a new, opposite role of MCs in protecting against the occurrence of aggressive NE variants in prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most FA's are well or moderately differentiated tumors, although high-grade, poorly differentiated variants have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • FA can occur in combination with other forms of lung cancer, particularly other variants of adenocarcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, it is recommended that all multiphasic malignant lung tumors (i.e. those with more than one histological pattern) that are found to contain any proportion of SCLC cells should be classified as c-SCLC, and not as combined forms of any of the other histological variants present in the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Also, the transplanted cells are p53 null , whereas in human tumors somatic mutations are acquired in a subset of cells during tumor progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, overexpression of inducible NO synthase promotes tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression ( 25 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSC) are thought to play a major role in the development and metastatic progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the deadliest solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 , 8 ), may also play critical roles in the development and progression of numerous tumors, such as PDAC, and the immunomodulatory factors they secrete may also be paracrine-mediated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immune evasion is required for tumor progression and is characterized by an ineffective antitumor immune response and upregulation of immune-suppressive signals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results indicate a previously unrecognized connection between EMT-mediated tumor progression and activation of an immune escape program in lung tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immune evasion is a key aspect of malignant tumor progression and is characterized by either the absence of detectable antitumor immune reaction (e.g., so-called "immune ignorance") or by the progression of the tumor in the presence of an ineffective antitumor immune response ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, this association suggests that tumor progression through EMT is accompanied by increasing antitumor immune pressure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • cells
  • We also observed heterogeneous expression of p21 in lung adenocarcinomas, i.e. in about two-thirds of the tumors, the tumor cells in the peripheral regions were p21 positive more frequently than were those in the central regions. (oup.com)
  • We report here that somatic mutations of p53 in mouse mammary epithelial cells using the Cre/loxP system leads to ERα-positive and -negative tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • p53 inactivation under a constitutive active WAPCre c in prepubertal/pubertal mice, but not under MMTVCre in adult mice, leads to the development of ERα-positive tumors, suggesting that target cells or developmental stages can determine ERα status in mammary tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An inverse relationship between the number of targeted cells and median tumor latency was also observed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In established mouse mammary tumor models, the tumor cells infrequently colonize other organs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Herein, we examined the prognostic value of RBM3 in periampullary adenocarcinoma, as well as the effects following RBM3 suppression in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. (lu.se)
  • The rates of immunoreactive cells for HIF-1α, VEGF, and P-gp in tumor tissues treated with nitroglycerin were lower than those without nitroglycerin, but those for p53 were not different between those treated with and without nitroglycerin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data support the working hypothesis that one or more of these HSP have a direct role in the mechanism(s) for inducing thermal resistance in rat tumor cells, but other factors such as total protein synthesis could modify the complex biochemical and phenotypic pathways involved in induced HSP and thermal resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Biopsies from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal adenocarcinoma generally produce small, heterogeneous samples with limited tumor content in a large background of normal or wild type cells. (labroots.com)
  • Despite considerable progress, analytical challenges remain to be resolved, such as the need for reliable detection of low abundance somatic mutations, particularly in small specimens with a low percentage of tumor cells. (labroots.com)
  • Likewise, the tumor microenvironment contributes critical support in this setting, including from tumor stromal cells and tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) that contribute structural and paracrine-mediated supports, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specifically, we have come to understand that apart from providing structural support for tumor development, the tumor-associated microenvironment of many solid tumors provides cues to a subpopulation of tumor-initiating cells, also known as cancer stem cells (CSC), which regulates their self-renewal and tumorigenic and metastatic potential ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Within the stroma-rich PDAC tumor microenvironment, pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) have been extensively studied and recent reports from our laboratory and other have shown that tumor-associated PSCs can create a protumor paracrine niche for PDAC CSCs via Nodal/Activin A secretion ( 2 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • MCs may exert pro- or antitumoral roles, depending on tumor type, on microenvironmental signals and on neighboring interacting cells ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Five of six BCA showed a marked intratumoural heterogeneous staining pattern ranging from areas in which the tumour cells were negative or faintly positive to tumour areas with a strong staining of the entire membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • Digital image analysis and laser scanning microscopy were helpful in quantifying the variations in protein expression and DNA copy number in individual tumour cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Other presenting symptoms described have included: flu-like syndrome with cough and fever, FA is an epithelial tumor whose cells and architecture resemble that of fetal lung tissues in the pseudoglandular stage of development (which occurs at about 10-16 weeks gestation in the human), with complex glandular structures and morules with cell nuclei that appear clear due to the accumulation of biotin. (wikipedia.org)
  • During EMT, the epithelial tumor cells undergo transformation from a cohesive, polar phenotype to a motile-mesenchymal state lacking the characteristic adherence through epithelial cell-cell junctions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, EMT might not be a defined tumor state, but rather a continuum representing cellular plasticity where some cells have more epithelial and some more mesenchymal characteristics, whose extremes look like EMT phenotypes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The biologic determinants of the different pathways used by tumor cells to evade immunity are not completely understood but are likely related with the balance between tumor antigenic load and the presence of adaptive immunosuppressive mechanisms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However the tumors evade the immune system by increased expression of a negative regulator of T-cells mainly programmed death ligand-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these instances, a minimum of 10% of the viable malignant cells present must be identified as LCLC before the tumor is considered to be a c-SCLC. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for a LCLC to be subclassified as the rhabdoid phenotype variant, at least 10% of the malignant tumor cells must contain distinctive structures composed of tangled intermediate filaments that displace the cell nucleus outward toward the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of immunomarkers in the rhabdoid cells, however, have often been noted to be weaker and more diffuse than those in the more differentiated tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genital warts, which are a form of benign tumor of epithelial cells, are also caused by various strains of HPV. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be designated a c-LCNEC, the tumor must contain at least 10% LCNEC cells, in combination with at least 10% of other forms of NSCLC. (wikipedia.org)
  • histologic
  • The same heterogeneous histologic features of human prostate cancer can be found in tumors from mouse counterparts, such as the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP), in which SV40 large T antigen oncogene expression, driven by the rat probasin promoter, induces prostate transformation ( 4, 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • solid tumor
  • Dr. Sutton received the 2015 Hope Award from the American Cancer Society for her work in solid tumor molecular diagnostics, and the 2016 Victor Muller Achievement Award from the Indiana State Association of Blood Banks for her commitment to education, science, patient care and community service in the field of blood banking and transfusion medicine. (labroots.com)
  • The importance of the stroma in promoting cancer initiation and solid tumor growth has been increasingly recognized during recent years ( 1-3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • EGFR
  • However, this paradigm has recently been challenged by the results of a study that showed a survival benefit with the addition of bevacizumab to carboplatin and paclitaxel in bevacizumab-eligible patients and by the superior efficacy of gefitinib and erlotinib compared to chemotherapy in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation-positive tumors (mainly adenocarcinomas). (cancernetwork.com)
  • Herein, we report a 49-year-old man diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, who was negative for EGFR and ALK genes as detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and was treated with crizotinib. (dovepress.com)
  • Little is known about the effects of EGFR inhibitors in SC, although some evidence suggests that these tumors are not likely to be highly responsive. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Notably and despite their prominent biologic differences, tumors in both EMT categories showed a comparable amount of nonsynonymous mutations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They are defined as tumors whose behavior is driven by mutations in the KIT gene (85%), PDGFRA gene (10%), or BRAF kinase (rare). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Carney-Stratakis syndrome is a dyad of hereditary GIST and paraganglioma, that is caused by germline mutations in the mitochondrial tumor suppressor gene pathway involving the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits SDHD, SDHC and SDHB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous genes harbouring somatic coding mutations and copy number changes in the microsatellite stable (MSS) OGJA are also known to be altered with similar predicted functional consequence in other tumour types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germline mutations of VHL tumor suppressor gene will be found on 3p25-26 (short arm of chromosome 3), usually between base pair 10,158,318 to 10,168,761. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunohistochemical
  • In order to elucidate the significance of p21 expression in lung adenocarcinomas, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of p21, p53 and Ki-67 expression in surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas. (oup.com)
  • Seventeen patients with operable lung adenocarcinoma and stable angina pectoris were selected to investigate the effects of nitroglycerin on immunoreactivity for hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the production of which is regulated by HIF-1, and p53 proteins in their resected tumor by semiquantitative immunohistochemical analyses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, some previous diagnoses of stomach and small bowel leiomyosarcomas (malignant tumor of smooth muscle) would be reclassified as GISTs on the basis of immunohistochemical staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Genetic alterations commonly observed in human breast cancer including c-myc amplification and Her2/Neu/erbB2 activation were seen in these mouse tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • EMT is a complex, heterogeneous process involving genetic and epigenetic modifications as well as profound alterations of the tumor microenvironment ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • patients
  • The overall survival time of patients with MACC1- or KAI1-positive GAC tumors was significantly shorter or longer than that of those who were negative. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effects and mechanisms of nitroglycerin on the enhancement of chemosensitivity to docetaxel and carboplatin regimen (DCb) in patients with lung adenocarcinoma have not been reported. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, to study the relationship between changes in plasma VEGF levels by nitroglycerin treatment and response to DCb, 29 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma were treated with nitroglycerin for 3 days before chemotherapy using DCb. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The magnitude of decrease in plasma VEGF levels after treatment with nitroglycerin was significantly associated with response to DCb in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nitroglycerin treatment may improve response to DCb in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, partly through decreasing VEGF and P-gp production via reduction of HIF-1α. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 Whereas organ confined prostate adenocarcinoma can be cured in most patients, the treatment of more extensive tumours has met with limited success. (bmj.com)
  • ISG15 was preferentially and highly expressed by TAM present in primary PDAC tumors resected from patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In prostate tumors from both tumor-prone transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice and human patients, MCs are specifically enriched and degranulated in areas of well-differentiated (WD) adenocarcinoma but not around poorly differentiated (PD) foci that coexist in the same tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The vast majority of patients with an endolymphatic sac tumor have von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors range from several millimeters up to 10 cm, with larger tumors more frequently seen in older patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who succumb to the disease, usually do so because of other tumors within the von Hippel-Lindau complex rather than from this tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival is significantly better in patients whose tumors are well differentiated (i.e. the glands and/or tubules are more completely developed) than when poorly differentiated (i.e. with rudimentary glands). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis
  • Although a regimen for small-cell lung cancer may be one treatment option, a heterogeneous tumor may exist at the time of diagnosis and manifest during the course of disease. (dovepress.com)
  • Often, there is a history of vague abdominal pain or discomfort, and the tumor has become rather large by time the diagnosis is made. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average age at diagnosis of these tumors has been estimated at 60 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poorly
  • Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma will not resemble the normal glands (high grade) and will be detected by seeing that they stain positive for mucin (which the glands produce). (wikipedia.org)
  • aggressive
  • Interestingly, in testing whether MC targeting could block or delay tumorigenesis in tumor-prone TRAMP mice, we observed a high incidence of early and aggressive tumors, characterized by a neuroendocrine (NE) signature and c-Kit expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In either instance, it appears that presence of diffuse mucin in the peritoneal cavity (versus a localized collection of mucin) predicts a more aggressive tumor. (surgpath4u.com)
  • proximal
  • however, the occurrence of proximal tumors has increased, especially in industrialized countries [ 8 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The most recent American Joint Commission on Cancer Staging System requires that cancer in which the midpoint is in the lower thoracic esophagus, EGJ, or within the proximal 5 cm of the stomach (cardia) that extend into the EGJ or esophagus to be classified as adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. (omicsonline.org)
  • heterogeneity
  • The balance between tumor inflammation and immune evasion is considered to be a dynamic process and solid tumors can display immune heterogeneity with the same lesion containing areas with dissimilar immune infiltration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • metastatic
  • In this paper we attempt to redress this imbalance by bringing insights from the physical sciences to shed a different light on the problem of cancer, and specifically the transitions from healthy to cancer states, and from localized tumors to the metastatic state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unlike whole genome (WG) sequencing which is typically from blood cells, such as J. Craig Venter's and James D. Watson's WG sequencing projects, saliva, epithelial cells or bone - cancer genome sequencing involves direct sequencing of primary tumor tissue, adjacent or distal normal tissue, the tumor micro environment such as fibroblast/stromal cells, or metastatic tumor sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • From a pathology perspective, an endolymphatic sac tumor needs to be separated from metastatic renal cell carcinoma, metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma, middle ear adenoma, paraganglioma, choroid plexus papilloma, middle ear adenocarcinoma, and ceruminous adenoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary neoplasm refers to any of a class of cancerous tumor that is either a metastatic offshoot of a primary tumor, or an apparently unrelated tumor that increases in frequency following certain cancer treatments such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely there can be a metastatic neoplasm with no known site of the primary cancer and this is classed as a cancer of unknown primary origin Neoplastic tumors are often heterogeneous and contain more than one type of cell, but their initiation and continued growth is usually dependent on a single population of neoplastic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic characteristics of rhabdoid cells include: Oval to polygonal cell shape Eosinophilic, hyaline-like perinuclear agglomerations of intermediate filaments Compressed, eccentric nuclei Prominent central macronucleoli (one or two) Abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm Reticular chromatin pattern The differential diagnosis of LCLC-RP includes secondary metastatic lesions, melignant melanoma of the lung with rhabdoid phenotype, mucinous adenocarcinomas (particularly those featuring signet-ring cells), rhabdomyosarcoma, epitheloid angiosarcoma, pleural mesothelioma, and plasmacytoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth of the tumor
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under this type of model, mechanical stresses and strains can be dealt with and their influence on the growth of the tumor and the surrounding tissue and vasculature elucidated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent findings from experiments that use this model show that active growth of the tumor is restricted to the outer edges of the tumor, and that stiffening of the underlying normal tissue inhibits tumor growth as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • whole tumor
  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using increments of 5% to describe the amount of each subtype present, the predominant subtype is used to classify the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • invasive
  • Here we applied non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of syngeneic mouse tumors in vivo , and high-resolution 1 H MRS of mouse tumor extracts, to characterize the relationship between ascites volumes and the vasculature and metabolism of an experimental model of ovarian cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • vasculature
  • Differences were observed in the tumor vasculature and metabolism in tumors based on ascites volumes that provide new insights into the development of this condition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ablation
  • 2017 SCI-E Tracking Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsion Delivery by 19F MRI for Precise High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Tumor Ablation: Theranostics. (ncc-gcsp.ac.kr)
  • The efficacy of cancer treatments is, in the initial stages of testing, often measured by the ablation fraction of tumor mass (fractional kill). (wikipedia.org)
  • patient's
  • When the patient's tumor is confined to the uterus, the primary risk factors are tumor grade, tumor histology, and depth of invasion. (cancernetwork.com)
  • In the above-mentioned study, vaccine generation was constrained by the time required to obtain peptide antigen from each patient's autologous cultured tumor cell line. (aacrjournals.org)
  • generally
  • Generally speaking, however, the term tumor is used generically, without reference to the physical size of the lesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • The capacity to detect a mutation in a mixture of variant/wildtype DNA is valuable because this mixture of variant DNAs can occur when provided with a heterogeneous sample - as is often the case with cancer biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • classify
  • However, these names are not encouraged as they do not accurately classify the current understanding of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • It is widely believed that targeting the tumour-initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) component of malignancy has great therapeutic potential, particularly in therapy-resistant disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At present TNM stage, tumour type and resection margin status are the most widely used parameters in planning adjuvant treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SCLC
  • On relatively rare occasions, malignant lung tumors are found to contain components of both SCLC and NSCLC. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the literature, the frequency with which the c-SCLC variant is diagnosed largely depends on the size of tumor samples, tending to be higher in series where large surgical resection specimens are examined, and lower when diagnoses are based on small cytology and/or biopsy samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Local secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key factor in both tumor growth and ascites formation ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • On univariate analysis no correlation was seen with either MUC1 or MUC3 and any of the clinicopathological variables including tumour grade and stage, vascular invasion and tumour type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • smokers
  • According to the Nurses' Health Study, the risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung increases substantially after a long duration of previous tobacco smoking, with a previous smoking duration of 30 to 40 years giving a relative risk of approximately 2.4 compared to never-smokers, and a duration of more than 40 years giving a relative risk of approximately 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • Often, there is a history of vague abdominal pain or discomfort, and the tumor has become rather large by time the diagnosis is made. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • Little is known about the effects of EGFR inhibitors in SC, although some evidence suggests that these tumors are not likely to be highly responsive. (wikipedia.org)
  • poorly
  • Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma will not resemble the normal glands (high grade) and will be detected by seeing that they stain positive for mucin (which the glands produce). (wikipedia.org)