• cytokines
  • Recent work supports a role of inflammation in schizophrenia ( 4 ) and a relevant cellular basis appears to be microglia, which upon activation release proinflammatory cytokines ( 4 , 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The cytokines in the IL-6 family signal through type I cytokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-31 is unique in this family of cytokines because its receptor complex does not contain gp130. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also include the action of proinflammatory cytokines, the production of reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation (typical of necroptosis in type 1 diabetic patients), excessive production of islet amyloid polypeptide with the consequent endoplasmic reticulum stress, disruption in autophagy mechanisms, and protein complex formation, such as the inflammasome, capable of increasing oxidative stress produced by mitochondrial damage. (hindawi.com)
  • Among them, the activation of self-reactive lymphocytes and their infiltration in the pancreas, followed by the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α ), which united with its membrane receptor on the PBC, activate intracellular signaling pathways that end in the induction of proapoptotic mechanisms and, in some cases, cell death through necroptosis [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 are cytokines critical to the development of T cell-mediated humoral immune responses, which are associated with allergy and asthma, and exert their actions through three different combinations of shared receptors. (nih.gov)
  • The type I complex reveals a structural basis for gamma(c)'s ability to recognize six different gamma(c)-cytokines. (nih.gov)
  • However, the distinct affinities of the receptor components for IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17F/IL-17A heterodimer can be exploited to differentially affect the activity of these cytokines. (jimmunol.org)
  • IL-17A and IL-17F are homodimeric cytokines produced by the Th17 T cell lineage and share similar biological activities, including induction of cytokines and chemokines involved in inflammatory responses ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Interleukins are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some interleukins are classified as lymphokines, lymphocyte-produced cytokines that mediate immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta (IL1 alpha and IL1 beta) are cytokines that participate in the regulation of immune responses, inflammatory reactions, and hematopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of particular interest are receptors for cytokines, molecxiles that promote the proliferation and/or differentiation of cells. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Alcoholic liver disease, which includes a spectrum of liver injury that covers from the relatively benign alcoholic fatty liver to the potentially fatal alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis, has a known etiology but a complex pathogenesis resulting from a combination of genetic, environmental, nutritional, metabolic, and more recently, immunologic factors as well as cytokines [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Once inside, α-9 gliadin 31-55 shows the ability to activate undifferentiated immune cells that then proliferate and also produce inflammatory cytokines, notably interleukin 15 (IL-15). (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • PEG-interferon alpha-2b acts as a multifunctional immunoregulatory cytokine by transcribing several genes, including interleukin 4 (IL4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin is a polypeptide hormone formed by 51 amino acids [ 5 ] which once bound with its receptor, mainly expressed in the liver, muscular, and adipose tissue [ 6 ], and regulates a wide number of physiological processes that comprise gene mechanisms such as cellular growth and differentiation, expression of genes that code for enzymes that trigger glycogen, and lipid and protein synthesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and VDR-regulated genes. (hindawi.com)
  • The turning point was the sharp division of bronchial asthma into two large groups based on the expression of the type 2 helper T lymphocyte (T H 2) genes underlying the disease, namely, T H 2-high and T H 2-low asthma ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • The name "interleukin" was chosen in 1979, to replace the various different names used by different research groups to designate interleukin 1 (lymphocyte activating factor, mitogenic protein, T-cell replacing factor III, B-cell activating factor, B-cell differentiation factor, and "Heidikine") and interleukin 2 (TSF, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Interleukin-13 is a central regulator in IgE synthesis, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus hypersecretion, airway hyperresponsiveness, fibrosis and chitinase up-regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These constitute 70-80% of the total mass of the islet [ 2 ] and are responsible for the synthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin, a key hormone in the regulation of human metabolism [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • nuclear receptors
  • The peripheral clocks can also be entrained independently by different factors such as external nutritional, hormonal and chemical cues that in many cases come from ligand modulation of nuclear receptors and kinase activators. (omicsonline.org)
  • This review details the function of the molecular clock in health and disease and how nuclear receptors and posttranslational modifications interact with the clock to regulate its function. (omicsonline.org)
  • A growing number of new studies demonstrate that nuclear receptors are involved in the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). (hindawi.com)
  • These altered mechanisms, along with oxidative stress, are however insufficient to account for all the effects of ethanol consumption and recent works highlight the importance of nuclear receptors and transcription factors in the pathogenesis of liver disease. (hindawi.com)
  • membrane
  • These vesicles may contain CCR2, CXCR4, and/or IL1R2 as well as their ligands and upon internalization by endocytic pathways into neurons can form heteroreceptor complexes with NMDAR in the plasma membrane with pathological allosteric receptor-receptor interactions involving increased internalization and reduced NMDAR signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Like many other cytokine receptors, alternative splicing of the α-chain gene results in expression of either a membrane bound or soluble form of the bα-chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated membrane protein and a non-specific receptor for several chemokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene represents the beta subunit and is a type I membrane protein. (thermofisher.com)
  • The receptors both exist in transmembrane (TM) and soluble forms: the soluble IL-1 receptor is thought to be post-translationally derived from cleavage of the extracellular portion of the membrane receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors may be integral membrane proteins that are linked to signaling pathways within the cell, such as second messenger systems. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The other peptide that may have innate behavior is the "CXCR3" receptor binding peptides, the receptor exists on enterocytes, the brush border membrane cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Interleukin-13 and its associated receptors with α subunit of the IL-4 receptor (IL-4Rα) allows for the downstream activation of STAT6. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4-8- alpha beta+ cells lack non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytolytic function but can be induced to lyse their target cells after activation of their T-cell receptors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the absence of ligand, RAR-RXR heterodimers are bound to DNA and recruit corepressors that serve as adaptor molecules to recruit factors such as histone deacetylases (HDACs), which make promoter regions unavailable for transcriptional activation. (els.net)
  • Subconfluent cells were serum-starved before exposure to activation dosages of IFN-gamma (10 ng/ml) and IFN-alpha (1000 IU/ml and 5000 IU/ml). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • protein
  • Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL13 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-31 (IL-31) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL31 gene that resides on chromosome 12. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-23 subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL23A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is also the receptor for the human malarial parasites Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium knowlesi and simian malarial parasite Plasmodium cynomolgi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interleukin-7 receptor is a protein found on the surface of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is also found to control the accessibility of a region of the genome that contains the T-cell receptor gamma gene, by STAT5 and histone acetylation[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active heterodimer (referred to as 'p70'), and a homodimer of p40 are formed following protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-2 stimulates the expression of two IL-12 receptors, IL-12R-β1 and IL-12R-β2, maintaining the expression of a critical protein involved in IL-12 signaling in NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • From there it can be exported to the general circulation, where it is combined with a transport protein, RBP (retinol binding protein), that facilitates its uptake by cells through the receptor STRA6 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 6). (els.net)
  • RA can also be delivered to PPARβ/γ receptors by FABP5 (fatty‐acid binding protein 5). (els.net)
  • Moreover, LPS produced a rapid and profound decrease in nuclear binding activity to the mouse Oatp4 putative response elements for hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1, CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), HNF3, and heterodimers of retinoid X receptor (RXR) and retinoic acid receptor (RAR). (aspetjournals.org)
  • PPAR
  • Another PPARδ agonist, GW501516, led to 20% reduction in liver fat, which correlated with change in triglyceride levels ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • macrophages
  • Interleukin 31 is an inflammatory cytokine produced by activated CD4+ T lymphocytes, in particular activated TH2 helper cells, mast cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of interleukins are synthesized by helper CD4 T lymphocytes, as well as through monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Knockout mice deficient in either p40 or p19, or in either subunit of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R and IL12R-β1) develop less severe symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and inflammatory bowel disease highlighting the importance of IL-23 in the inflammatory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology from a study where mice that were bred to be allergic to peanuts, interleukin-12 has been shown to not be present, suggesting that the molecule normally stops allergies to food developing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin receptors on astrocytes in the hippocampus are also known to be involved in the development of spatial memories in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research indicates that mice with a genetic deletion of the type I IL-1 receptor display markedly impaired hippocampal-dependent memory functioning and Long-term potentiation, although memories that do not depend on the integrity of the hippocampus seem to be spared. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when mice with this genetic deletion have wild-type neural precursor cells injected into their hippocampus and these cells are allowed to mature into astrocytes containing the interleukin-1 receptors, the mice exhibit normal hippocampal-dependent memory function, and partial restoration of long-term potentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Oatp4 mRNA levels were markedly decreased (95%) in HNF1α-null mice as compared with wild-type mice, suggesting that HNF1α levels are critical for the constitutive expression of the Oatp4 gene. (aspetjournals.org)
  • however, STAT5 alpha deficient female mice failed to lactate due to impairment of mammary development. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • antibody
  • Description: The TM-b1 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD122, the 90-110 kDa interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (IL-2R beta). (thermofisher.com)
  • In addition, it acts on some B cells, via receptor-specific binding, as a growth factor and antibody production stimulant. (wikipedia.org)
  • In gluten sensitive enteropathy, there are 4 types of recognition, innate immunity (a form of cellular immunity priming), HLA-DQ, and antibody recognition of gliadin and transglutaminase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innate immunity to gluten refers to an immune response that works independently of T-cell receptor or antibody recognition of the 'innate' peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • DQ2 antibodies can be used to effectively type DQ2 bearing individuals, however antibody may detect DQB1*0303. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL1R2
  • Both IL-1 receptors (CD121a/IL1R1, CD121b/IL1R2) appear to be well conserved in evolution, and map to the same chromosomal location. (wikipedia.org)
  • helper
  • IL-13 is a cytokine secreted by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, CD4 cells, Natural killer T cell, Mast cell, Basophil cells, Eosinophil cells and Nuocyte cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytokine is responsible for inducing T helper cells to become type 2 helper T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-31 is produced by a variety of cells, namely type 2 helper (TH2) T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, type II interferons are released by T helper cells, type 1 specifically. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they block the proliferation of T helper cells type two. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT6
  • STAT6 has been shown to be activated by interleukin-4 (IL4), IL13, and IL3. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • STAT6 is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated following stimulation of appropriate cell lines with IL-3, IL-4, epidermal. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Fig. 2-4: Western blotting analysis for STAT2 and STAT5b on Jurkat cells and for STAT6 on K562 cells using polyclonal antibodies cat# SP7181P (STAT2), SP7183P (STAT5b) and SP7184P (STAT6). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • proteins
  • The anti-parallel bundles that these proteins form have an "up-up-down-down" topology, which is a relevant structure regarding the cytokine binding to their respective receptor complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotype
  • The results indicate that normal human peripheral blood contains two subsets of CD4-8- T cells, expressing either gamma delta or alpha beta receptors, that differ in function, phenotype, and growth control. (ox.ac.uk)
  • With DR3 this DQ2 has the second strongest linkage to Type 1 diabetes, and when paired with HLA-DQ8 is the most abundant phenotype found in late onset, "Type1-Type2" diabetes mellitus type 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Th17 cells produce IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine that enhances T cell priming and stimulates the production of other proinflammatory molecules such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, NOS-2, and chemokines resulting in inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once released, type I interferons will activate molecules which prevent the virus from producing and replicating its RNA and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • IL-13 has effects on immune cells that are similar to those of the closely related cytokine IL-4. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-13Rα2 (which is labelled as a decoy receptor) is derived from Th2 cells and is a pleotropic immune regulatory cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most normal cells, such as immune cells or endothelial cells, express very low or undetectable levels of IL-13 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Definition of a population of CD4-8- T cells that express the alpha beta T-cell receptor and respond to interleukins 2, 3, and 4. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD4-8- cells usually express the gamma delta T-cell receptor, but here we describe a population of CD4-8- T cells from the peripheral blood that express the alpha beta heterodimer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A peculiar characteristic of these cells is their responsiveness to interleukin 3. (ox.ac.uk)
  • On the other hand, pancreatic endocrine tissue is represented by the islets of Langerhans constituted by alpha, gamma, and epsilon cells as well as beta cells (PBC). (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, we have shown that activated human CD4 + T cells not only express IL-17A and IL-17F homodimers, but also an IL-17F/IL-17A heterodimer, and that the conserved cysteines used in the knot formation of IL-17A and IL-17F homodimers are the cysteines involved in the disulfide linkage of the IL-17F/IL-17A heterodimer ( 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The murine IL-17F/IL-17A heterodimer has also been shown to be expressed by differentiated Th17 cells ( 21 , 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • however, weak binding of IL-17F to cells expressing IL-17RA was detected, suggesting that both IL-17A and IL-17F utilize IL-17RA as part of their receptor complex ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Interleukin-7 receptor is expressed on various cell types, including naive and memory T cells and many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-7 receptor has been shown to play a critical role in the development of immune cells called lymphocytes - specifically in a process known as V(D)J recombination[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • It stimulates the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, and reduces IL-4 mediated suppression of IFN-γ. (wikipedia.org)
  • GM‐CSF (Granulocyte‐macrophage colony‐stimulating factor), a key factor in this process, is produced notably by stromal cells and type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3). (els.net)
  • The name is something of a relic, though (the term was coined by Dr Vern Paetkau, University of Victoria) it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of body cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT4 is activated when cells are treated with interleukin-12, a key cytokine regulator of cell-mediated immunity. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This gene encodes a subunit of the cytokine Interleukin 12 (IL-12) that acts on T and natural killer cells, and has a broad array of biological activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other properties attributed to the cytokine include: the growth promotion and cell differentiation of different types of target cells, influence on bone metabolism, cachexia, neural development, embryogenesis and inflammation. (wikipedia.org)