• polymerase
  • Negative-sense viral RNA is complementary to mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase before translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of these includes RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNA replicase), which copies the viral RNA to form a double-stranded replicative form. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Cancer immunoprevention by the HBV vaccine can be thought of as a beneficial side effect of vaccine developed and used to prevent hepatitis B. This is not the case with HPV vaccines, which were primarily developed for cancer prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Duck Hepatitis B virus has provided a basis for the use of vaccines and prophylactic treatments for individuals at high risk of human Hepatitis B virus (HBV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the fact that this killed whole virus strategy is widely exercised to prevent diseases like polio, influenza, cholera, mumps, rabies, typhoid fever and hepatitis A in the past, it failed to receive any serious attention in the effort to develop vaccines against HIV for various scientific, economical and technical reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • Other epidemics of viral diseases that depend on large concentrations of people, such as mumps, rubella and polio, also first occurred at this time. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was one of the most prodigious scientists in many areas of infectious diseases in man and animals, the ecology of pathogens, epidemiology and public health[1- (wikipedia.org)
  • The Transvaal Department of Agriculture in the (then) Union of South Africa had just established a large, special Institute devoted to research in public health and farm animal diseases, the latter being important for the economy of the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral envelope protein E to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel viral RNA is then transferred to the cytoplasm for translation and subsequent protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsid is enveloped by a lipid bilayer that contains three forms of envelope proteins: small (S) proteins, intermediated (M) proteins, and large (L) proteins, and these proteins have different surface antigenes domains which contribute the viral infectivity: L protein (Pre S1, Pre S2, S), M protein (Pre S2, S), S protein (S). In figure 1, showing the simplified structure of HBV particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • influenza
  • We conducted a serologic survey of four high-priority pig-associated viral zoonoses, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), Nipah virus (NiV), and swine influenza virus (SIV), in Laos. (ajtmh.org)
  • Taribavirin is as active against influenza as ribavirin in animal models, with slightly less toxicity, so it may also eventually replace ribavirin as an anti-influenza agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • double-stranded
  • Reverse transcriptase, a viral enzyme that comes from the virus itself after it is uncoated, converts the viral RNA into a complementary strand of DNA, which is copied to produce a double-stranded molecule of viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune responses
  • Over the past few years, hydrodynamic gene delivery (HGD) with naked DNA has drawn increasing interest in both research and potential clinic applications due to its high efficiency and low risk in triggering immune responses and carcinogenesis in comparison to viral vectors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers reported that the therapeutic vaccine induced robust cellular immune responses in animal tests recently conducted. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The positive-sense RNA molecule then acts as viral mRNA, which is translated into proteins by the host ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Valeant is testing the drug as a treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Note on formulas: The carboxamidine group of this molecule is somewhat basic, and therefore this drug is also known and administered as the hydrochloride salt (with a corresponding .HCl chemical formula and different ChemID / PubChem number). (wikipedia.org)
  • virion
  • The term virion (plural virions), which dates from 1959, is also used to refer to a single, stable infective viral particle that is released from the cell and is fully capable of infecting other cells of the same type. (wikipedia.org)
  • About the viral entry, several proteins have been identified as possible virus receptors, and studies show that the binding of virion with receptors can be neutralized by anti-PreS1 antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • pigs
  • Antibodies to SIV were detected in 1.8% (95% CI = 0.8-2.8%) of pigs by screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and only subtype H3N2 was detected by hemagglutination inhibition in two animals with an inconclusive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay result. (ajtmh.org)
  • Sequence
  • Sequence analysis of viral nucleic acids revealed the presence of a virus related to HCV, which was named canine hepacivirus (CHV). (virology.ws)
  • cytoplasm
  • Viral RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in canine liver, but whether CHV is hepatotropic (replicates in liver cells) in dogs is not known. (virology.ws)
  • proteins
  • The minus-strand is linked to the viral reverse transcriptase and can encode all the known viral proteins, but the plus-strain cannot encode viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Initially found in Japanese patients with hepatitis of unknown cause, TTV was detected in various populations without proven pathology, including blood donors. (wikipedia.org)