• Diseases
  • This viral family includes a diverse array of pathogens affecting humans and animals, including hepatitis C, dengue, and many other diseases important to public health. (healthmap.org)
  • Other epidemics of viral diseases that depend on large concentrations of people, such as mumps, rubella and polio, also first occurred at this time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the fact that this killed whole virus strategy is widely exercised to prevent diseases like polio, influenza, cholera, mumps, rabies, typhoid fever and hepatitis A in the past, it failed to receive any serious attention in the effort to develop vaccines against HIV for various scientific, economical and technical reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was one of the most prodigious scientists in many areas of infectious diseases in man and animals, the ecology of pathogens, epidemiology and public health[1- (wikipedia.org)
  • The Transvaal Department of Agriculture in the (then) Union of South Africa had just established a large, special Institute devoted to research in public health and farm animal diseases, the latter being important for the economy of the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral envelope protein E to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel viral RNA is then transferred to the cytoplasm for translation and subsequent protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsid is enveloped by a lipid bilayer that contains three forms of envelope proteins: small (S) proteins, intermediated (M) proteins, and large (L) proteins, and these proteins have different surface antigenes domains which contribute the viral infectivity: L protein (Pre S1, Pre S2, S), M protein (Pre S2, S), S protein (S). In figure 1, showing the simplified structure of HBV particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • double-stranded
  • Reverse transcriptase, a viral enzyme that comes from the virus itself after it is uncoated, converts the viral RNA into a complementary strand of DNA, which is copied to produce a double-stranded molecule of viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans and animals
  • Members of this group include the rotaviruses, renowned globally as the most common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, and picobirnaviruses, renowned worldwide as the most commonly occurring virus in fecal samples of both humans and animals with or without signs of diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune responses
  • Over the past few years, hydrodynamic gene delivery (HGD) with naked DNA has drawn increasing interest in both research and potential clinic applications due to its high efficiency and low risk in triggering immune responses and carcinogenesis in comparison to viral vectors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers reported that the therapeutic vaccine induced robust cellular immune responses in animal tests recently conducted. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • Gladstone Institutes is an independent and nonprofit biomedical research organization whose focus is to better understand, prevent, treat and cure cardiovascular, viral and neurological conditions such as heart failure, HIV/AIDS and Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The positive-sense RNA molecule then acts as viral mRNA, which is translated into proteins by the host ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Valeant is testing the drug as a treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Note on formulas: The carboxamidine group of this molecule is somewhat basic, and therefore this drug is also known and administered as the hydrochloride salt (with a corresponding .HCl chemical formula and different ChemID / PubChem number). (wikipedia.org)
  • virion
  • The term virion (plural virions), which dates from 1959, is also used to refer to a single, stable infective viral particle that is released from the cell and is fully capable of infecting other cells of the same type. (wikipedia.org)
  • About the viral entry, several proteins have been identified as possible virus receptors, and studies show that the binding of virion with receptors can be neutralized by anti-PreS1 antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • loads
  • Viral loads can change on their own without obvious reason and are not significant to whether or not to treat. (medhelp.org)
  • Higher than usual viral loads have been associated with severe idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, cancer and lupus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased viral loads in cases of congenital mannose-binding lectin deficiencies have been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The minus-strand is linked to the viral reverse transcriptase and can encode all the known viral proteins, but the plus-strain cannot encode viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outbreak
  • While Zika's varied manifestations - ranging from a complete lack of clinical disease to (potential) birth defects - are sensationalized in the media, an outbreak with this constellation of clinical signs is not unprecedented in the animal kingdom. (healthmap.org)
  • Research
  • Stem-cell transplantation improves muscles in MD animal model, UT Southwestern research. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 1997. The Essentiality of Tree Shrews Application and E xperimental Animalization in Biomedicine Research [C]//The Proceedings of Yunnan Strain Animals & Plants Industry and Market Developing Seminar, Kunming, Yunnan Science & Technology Press, 78-80. (zoores.ac.cn)
  • 2008. The progress of tree shrew as animal models for hepatitis research [J]. Chin J Comp Med , 18 (2): 59-62. (zoores.ac.cn)
  • There must be clear scientific justification, based on scientific evidence and justified to and approved by an animal care committee, for any exemption to provision of adequate pain relief if pain is expected to occur in a research project. (ccac.ca)
  • We have an obligation to reduce or abolish pain in animals whenever it occurs and particularly if it occurs in research, teaching, or testing. (ccac.ca)
  • Many investigations that use animals for research and testing have the potential to cause pain or suffering that should be alleviated. (ccac.ca)
  • Disease
  • and that viral load isn't necessarily indicative of the progressio of the disease. (medhelp.org)
  • Hepatitis E occasionally develops into an acute, severe liver disease, and is fatal in about 2% of all cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinically, it is comparable to hepatitis A, but in pregnant women, the disease is more often severe and is associated with a clinical syndrome called fulminant liver failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gladstone scientists focus on three main disease areas: cardiovascular disease, neurological disease and viral/immunological disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it does not appear to cause symptoms of hepatitis on its own, it is often found in patients with liver disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • At the moment, there are 16 animal vaccine based on this killed virus method including the feline immunodeficiency virus (which is closely related to HIV) vaccine for cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • models
  • Recently, more practical animal models in which to perform a deeper study of host virus interactions and to evaluate new therapeutic strategies have been developed. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, the main focus of this review is to discuss the current knowledge about HDV host interactions obtained from cell culture and animal models. (mdpi.com)
  • They also are testing their implantation approach in animal models of other types of muscular dystrophy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The fact that we believe animals make suitable models for the study of pain, is evidence enough. (ccac.ca)
  • treatment
  • Thats a first for me, as a matter of fact a lower viral load to start treatment with can have better odds of clearing Hep-C....... What kind of doctor is telling you this? (medhelp.org)
  • AT-2 chemical treatment is used because it does not affect the viral structure and immunogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Initially found in Japanese patients with hepatitis of unknown cause, TTV was detected in various populations without proven pathology, including blood donors. (wikipedia.org)
  • load
  • Dr just called to tell me that she had misinformed me yesterday about my viral load (which she had insisted hadn't been run) but apparently the RNA was run. (medhelp.org)
  • in Oct the viral load was '0' and as of last week it is 43,000. (medhelp.org)
  • Yes your viral load can change by the day, not sure what she is talking about it being to low to treat. (medhelp.org)