• tumor
  • External radiotherapy (RT) has been selectively used for patients with the localized hepatic tumor(s) refractory to the above treatment options. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Originally, there was concern that PVE could promote tumor growth and increase recurrence rates, however a systematic review has found that there was no significant difference observed in postoperative hepatic recurrence or 3 and 5 year overall survival rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • While PVE is "bland", utilizing simple microspheres, RL is a form of radioembolization, which confers additional benefits: it contemporarily induces necrosis treating the tumor (minimizing the risk of progression) and can potentially convert patients with portal vein thrombosis to resectable status. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other indications for treatment are those who have unresectable HCC, HCC with partial or branch portal vein thrombosis, unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, metastatic neuroendocrine tumors, HCC patients who are currently ineligible for liver transplant, Y-90 can be used to decreases tumor size allowing patients to be candidates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrast computed tomography and/or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the liver is required to assess tumor and normal liver volumes, portal vein status, and extrahepatic tumor burden. (wikipedia.org)
  • develop thrombosis
  • A significant proportion of the population has a detectable abnormality, but most of these only develop thrombosis in the presence of an additional risk factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenital thrombophilia refers to inborn conditions (and usually hereditary, in which case "hereditary thrombophilia" may be used) that increase the tendency to develop thrombosis, while, on the other hand, acquired thrombophilia refers to conditions that arise later in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forty percent of people with PNH develop thrombosis (a blood clot) at some point in their illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • carry deoxygenated blood
  • The upper two thirds of the esophagus are drained via the esophageal veins, which carry deoxygenated blood from the esophagus to the azygos vein, which in turn drains directly into the superior vena cava. (wikipedia.org)
  • varices
  • Esophageal varices (sometimes spelled oesophageal varices) are extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the lower third of the esophagus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These veins have no part in the development of esophageal varices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dilated submucosal veins are the most prominent histologic feature of esophageal varices. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • This disorder occurs when a clot completely or partially blocks the large veins that carry blood from the liver (hepatic veins) into the inferior vena cava. (mountsinai.org)
  • The portal vein carries blood from the digestive organs (mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, pancreas, and gallbladder) and spleen to the liver. (mountsinai.org)
  • Our multidisciplinary team of experts in the fields of liver, liver surgery, hematology, endoscopy, pathology, and interventional radiology use innovative endoscopic, surgical and radiologic procedures to treat abnormally enlarged and lengthened vein and blood clots. (mountsinai.org)
  • A small, tubular synthetic device, commonly called a stent, is placed in the veins in the liver to permit blood flow to bypass the liver. (mountsinai.org)
  • The Liver Thrombosis Program at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City is an international referral center for adults and children with difficult to diagnose and unique blood clotting disorders affecting the liver and intestines. (mountsinai.org)
  • It is the only program of its kind in the United States, with physician-scientists who are leading national experts in the field of blood coagulation and thrombosis. (mountsinai.org)
  • This disorder occurs when a clot completely or partially blocks the large veins that carry blood from the liver (hepatic veins) via the inferior vena cava and back to the heart. (mountsinai.org)
  • However if it's low it can mean that the blood is clotting more and can lead to thrombosis in patients. (healthtap.com)
  • Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In cirrhosis the underlying mechanism involves high blood pressure in the portal system and dysfunction of blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three factors are important in the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein-these are the rate of blood flow, the thickness of the blood and qualities of the vessel wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thrombophilia (sometimes hypercoagulability or a prothrombotic state) is an abnormality of blood coagulation that increases the risk of thrombosis (blood clots in blood vessels). (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood group determines thrombosis risk to a significant extent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The procedure involves injecting the right or left portal vein with embolic material to occlude portal blood flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The splenic vein (formerly the lienal vein) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the spleen, the stomach fundus and part of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The superior mesenteric vein (SMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the small intestine (jejunum and ileum). (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas the normal liver derives most of its blood supply from the portal vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veins are present throughout the body as tubes that carry blood back to the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most veins are equipped with valves to prevent blood flowing in the reverse direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veins are translucent, so the color a vein appears from an organism's exterior is determined in large part by the color of venous blood, which is usually dark red as a result of its low oxygen content. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colour of a vein can be affected by the characteristics of a person's skin, how much oxygen is being carried in the blood, and how big and deep the vessels are. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a vein is drained of blood and removed from an organism, it appears grey-white. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peripheral veins carry blood from the limbs and hands and feet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veins serve to return blood from organs to the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veins are also called "capacitance vessels" because most of the blood volume (60%) is contained within veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • After taking up cellular waste and carbon dioxide in capillaries, blood is channeled through vessels that converge with one another to form venules, which continue to converge and form the larger veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of a blood clot within the hepatic veins can lead to Budd-Chiari syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to increased portal vein and hepatic sinusoid pressures as the blood flow stagnates. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to increased hydrostatic pressure within the blood vessels of the hepatic portal system, which in turn forces water into the peritoneal cavity but leaves proteins such as albumin within the vasculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • At gradients greater than 10 mmHg, blood flow through the hepatic portal system is redirected from the liver into areas with lower venous pressures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resuscitation of all lost blood leads to increase in portal pressure leading to more bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ascites
  • Increased portal venous pressure, Hypoproteinaemia, Chronic peritoneal inflammation and infection, Leakage of lymphatic fluid , can be the major causes of ascites. (hpathy.com)
  • Volume resuscitation can also worsen ascites and increase portal pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • recurrence
  • Treatment involves control of variceal bleeding (usually with endoscopic banding, IV octreotide , or both), prevention of recurrence using beta-blockers, and sometimes surgical shunts and thrombolysis for acute thrombosis. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Studies have shown that when anticoagulant therapy is withheld recurrence of thrombosis usually follows. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Serum analyses are done for evaluating hepatic function, viral load, hematological toxicity, and translational research for angiogenic and inflammatory studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • embolization
  • Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a preoperative procedure performed in interventional radiology to initiate hypertrophy of the anticipated future liver remnant a couple weeks prior to a major liver resection procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done with the intent of inducing growth in the contralateral hepatic lobe, not dissimilarly from portal vein embolization (PVE). (wikipedia.org)
  • recurrent
  • Here, we report two cases of JAK2V617F positive MPN who also had other thrombophilic conditions and presented with recurrent thrombosis. (hindawi.com)
  • patients
  • Until recently the diagnosis of occult MPN in patients presenting with hepatic or portal vein thrombosis was difficult to establish and was often overlooked. (hindawi.com)
  • Often, patients are started on proton pump inhibitors (with the addition of ursodeoxycholic acid - based on each center's protocol) for gastro-hepatic protection with or without a low-dose corticosteroid for prevention of post radioembolization syndrome and a fluoroquinolone antibiotic when the gallbladder is present (both per center protocol). (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients suffering from paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) appear to be especially at risk for Budd-Chiari syndrome, more than other forms of thrombophilia: up to 39% develop venous thromboses and 12% may acquire Budd-Chiari. (wikipedia.org)