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  • vitro
  • Dengue virus activates membrane TRAIL relocalization and IFN-alpha production by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo," PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases , vol. 7, no. 6, article e2257, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • This study aimed to examine the effects of crocin on HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo and investigate the underlying mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, a series of experiments were performed to examine the effects of crocin on HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo and investigate the underlying mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Notably, the effects of a pharmacological inducer of HO-1 were similar to those of resveratrol, and protected against rotenone-induced cell death in an autophagy-dependent manner, validating the hypothesis of HO-1 dependent autophagy in preventing neuronal death in the in vitro PD model. (jove.com)
  • Activation of Bak by GT is direct, as GT triggers in vitro a dose-dependent release of cytochrome c from purified mitochondria isolated from wild-type and Bax- but not Bak-deficient cells. (rupress.org)
  • In vitro models have shown that AGGF1 localizes to cell periphery and directly outside of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The publication of two seminal research papers in 1998 outlining the isolation of these cells provided an in vitro method by which researchers may characterise PaSCs in both health and pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of such cells are CFUs (Colony-forming units - referred to as such because of their ability to form colonies in vitro in artificial media) such as CFU-T. In mice, transplantation of a single pHSC cell can reconstitute a sub-lethally irradiated host (i.e. a mouse that has been irradiated so that all leukocytes are killed) with all these lineages of cells, including all types of lymphocytes via CLPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • Immunisation of mice that are both transgenic for the human HLA-A02.01 molecule and knockout for murine MHC class I molecules, with DNA encoding HBsAg shows that epitopes presented after in vivo processing in HLA-A2 transgenic mice are very similar to those generated in humans during HBV infection. (bmj.com)
  • It has been previously reported that there is an association between Wnt5a mRNA and protein expression and histopathological severity of human atherosclerotic lesions as well as co-expression of Wnt5a and TLR4 in foam cells/macrophages of murine and human atherosclerotic lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Oxidative stress increases the formation of the complex formed with RPTOR, G3BP1, and SPAG5 RPTOR has also been shown to interact with: FKBP1A, P70-S6 Kinase 1 RHEB, RICTOR, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), The clinical significance of RPTOR is primarily due to its involvement in the mTOR pathway, which plays roles in mRNA translation, autophagy, and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • However, the effects of crocin on HL-60 cells in vivo have not been evaluated. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the effects of crocin on HL-60 cells in vivo have not been evaluated, and the mechanism responsible for the antileukemia effects of saffron remains elusive. (hindawi.com)
  • Inhibition
  • An accumulation of cardiac muscle fibres sees a consequent block in the transition between the pre-mitotic/G2 phase and mitotic phase of the cell cycle, with postnatal inhibition of the miR-15 family inducing cardiac muscle fibres to enter mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • TRAIL receptors facilitate induction of apoptosis for selective elimination of malignant cells. (medicalrecords.com)
  • The immunogenicity of selected HBV envelope or capsid based vaccine formulations for the induction or the broadening of T and B cell responses, deficient in HBV chronic carriers, are currently under study in animal models and in clinical trials. (bmj.com)
  • proteins
  • Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced reactive oxidative species protects human hepatic stellate cells from apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial membrane potential. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Fe-NTA-induced ROS play a protective role in human HSCs by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial membrane potential. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Systemic immunisation of mice by intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA expressing HBV envelope proteins and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) induces rapid, strong and sustained humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. (bmj.com)
  • Antibodies, which are initially of the IgM then IgG isotype (predominantly IgG2a), recognise several of the B cell epitopes present on the S, preS2, or preS1 domains of the envelope proteins. (bmj.com)
  • Because mTORC1 inhibits autophagy and stimulates cell growth, it can cause damaged proteins and cell structures to accumulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Ferritin is a protein present within cells that binds to Fe (II) and stores it as Fe (III), releasing it into the blood whenever required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, FOXO1 trans-activate Bim protein, which a member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes apoptosis and plays a role in the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • RPTOR also has a positive role in maintaining cell size and mTOR protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In turn, active PDK1, along with mTORC1, phosphorylates S6K in the part of the mTOR pathway which promotes protein synthesis and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • The aim of this review is to address the recent information regarding NK cell phenotype, functions and modifications in hepatitis B. This review addresses the recent data regarding the roles of NK cells as novel targets for immunotherapies that target hepatitis B infection. (deepdyve.com)
  • Inflammation
  • Effects of baicalein on IL-1ß-induced inflammation and apoptosis in rat articular chondrocytes. (abcam.com)
  • Following inflammation or injury to the pancreas, quiescent PaSCs are activated to myofibroblast like cells, which expresses α- smooth muscle actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation (from Latin inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and initiate tissue repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation, such as mononuclear cells, and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracellular
  • After healing is complete, these cells are lost through apoptosis and it has been suggested that in several fibrotic diseases (for example liver cirrhosis, kidney fibrosis, retroperitoneal fibrosis) that this mechanism fails to work, leading to persistence of the myofibroblasts, and consequently expansion of the extracellular matrix (fibrosis) with contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • We further investigated changes of mitochondrial dynamic in osteosarcoma 143B cells. (jove.com)
  • P. urinaria indeed fragmented the mitochondrial network of osteosarcoma 143B cells. (jove.com)
  • tumor cells
  • Integrin family members are membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and recognition in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic diffusion of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiated tumor cells in a state of quiescence are typically not affected by drugs can may account for tumor recurrence. (wikipedia.org)
  • attenuates
  • Silencing of SRA1 Regulates ER Expression and Attenuates the Growth of Stromal Cells in Ovarian Endometriosis. (abcam.com)
  • pathway
  • TRAIL can activate the extrinsic pathway of cell death by binding to the death receptors, DR4 and DR5. (medicalrecords.com)
  • In hepatic cells this transcription factor seems to increase the expression of PEPCK and glycogen-6-phosphatase (the same enzymes that are blocked via the metformin/AMPK/SHP pathway). (wikipedia.org)
  • RPTOR encodes part of a signaling pathway regulating cell growth which responds to nutrient and insulin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • This inhibits autophagy, the major degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • Original antigenic sin and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever," Nature Medicine , vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 921-927, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • marker
  • CD26/DPPIV plays an important role in tumor biology, and is useful as a marker for various cancers, with its levels either on the cell surface or in the serum increased in some neoplasms and decreased in others. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • S. B. Halstead and N. J. Marchette, "Biologic properties of dengue viruses following serial passage in primary dog kidney cells: studies at the University of Hawaii," The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene , vol. 69, Supplement, no. 6, pp. 5-11, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Immunohistochemical characterization of cancer-associated fibroblasts at the primary sites and in the metastatic lymph nodes of human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. (osaka-cu.ac.jp)
  • Human primary HSCs and the immortalized cell line (LX2 cells) were used for functional studies. (springer.com)
  • membrane
  • Senescent cells expose and secrete an oxidized form of membrane-bound vimentin as revealed by a natural polyreactive antibody. (abcam.com)
  • In the case of lipid peroxidation, ROS react with polyunsaturated fatty acids situated in the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane to produce lipid radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • Loss of gelsolin, a tumor suppressor, is one of the most frequently occurring molecular defects in breast cancers of diverse etiologies in human, mouse, and rat 10 . (medicalrecords.com)
  • Amplification of R-spondin1 signaling induces granulosa cell fate defects and cancers in mouse adult ovary. (abcam.com)
  • Deletions of this well characterised 1 megabase region of the genome was also observed in approximately 50% of mantle cell lymphoma,[citation needed] up to 40% of multiple myeloma,[citation needed] and 60% of prostate cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assays
  • Hepatotoxicity and drug-induced liver injury also account for a substantial number of compound failures, highlighting the need for drug screening assays, such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells, that are capable of detecting toxicity early in the drug development process. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK
  • Peptide mass fingerprinting of a purified soluble mediator from CM indicated that gelsolin fragments may play a role in LX2 apoptosis 8 , and similarly modulated MAPK/Akt/Mdm2/Bcl2, and enhanced Bax, in the absence of TRAIL (unpublished observations). (medicalrecords.com)
  • resistance
  • However, HCC cells exhibit a major resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. (medicalrecords.com)
  • The effect of LX2 on sorafenib resistance was determined by coculture system with Huh7 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Coaxial extrusion bioprinted shell-core hydrogel microfibers mimic glioma microenvironment and enhance the drug resistance of cancer cells. (abcam.com)
  • expression
  • Further studies indicated that the N-terminal gelsolin 1-70 fragment also induces LX2 cell death in the absence of TRAIL and decreases Bcl2 expression. (medicalrecords.com)
  • CM increased the expression of TRAIL receptors on LX2 surface, and induced apoptosis by a caspase dependent mechanism 11 . (medicalrecords.com)
  • Furthermore, HL-60 cells were xenografted into nude mice and treated by crocin, the tumor weight and size were calculated, and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in xenografts was detected by immunohistochemical staining. (hindawi.com)
  • Praeruptorin A Inhibits Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth and Invasion by Suppressing MMP-2 Expression and ERK1/2 Signaling. (abcam.com)
  • Transfer experiments involving fractionated HBsAg primed spleen cells obtained from DNA immunised mice into Tg mice showed that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were able to control transgene expression even in the absence of antibody production. (bmj.com)
  • Specifically, miR-15a/16-1 downregulates BCL2 expression and is itself deleted or downregulated in tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chronic liver disease for example TWEAK expression is enhanced and causes hepatic stellate cells, which are key regulators of liver fibrosis, to proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human miR-16 precursor was discovered through detailed expression profile and Karyotype analyses of patients by Calin and colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, miR-16 has been shown to target the 3' UTR of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and repress the expression of VEGF, which is an important angiogenic factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • TRAIL
  • However, some cancer cells have developed resistances to TRAIL which limits anticancer potential. (medicalrecords.com)
  • Treatment of cells with an Akt activator SC79 or p53 siRNA reduced the effects of the N-terminal gelsolin fragment and TRAIL. (medicalrecords.com)
  • Together, our study suggests that the N-terminal gelsolin fragment enhances TRAIL-induced loss of cell viability by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt and promoting p53 function, effecting cell survival. (medicalrecords.com)
  • The apoptosis signal of TRAIL may be amplified by mitochondria, which is regulated by members of the Bcl-2 family. (medicalrecords.com)
  • Chromosome
  • In humans miR-15a and miR-16 are clustered within 0.5 kilobases at chromosome position 13q14. (wikipedia.org)
  • Karyotyping of chromosome structures from individuals with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemias (B-CLL) found that more than half have alterations in the 13q14 region. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-16 and miR-15a are clustered within a 0.5 kbp region in Chromosome 13 (13q14) in humans, a chromosomal region shown to be deleted or down-regulated in approximately more than half of B-CLL, the most prevalent form of leukemia in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the human chromosome, there are pseudogenes related to AGGF1 are located on chromosomes 3, 4, 10 and 16 that have likely arisen due to translocation events. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer cells
  • 2,3,5,4-tetrahydroxy diphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside inhibits the adhesion and invasion of A549 human lung cancer cells. (abcam.com)
  • Inhibitory effects of BMP9 on breast cancer cells by regulating their interaction with pre-adipocytes/adipocytes. (abcam.com)
  • when miR-214 was upregulated in HeLa cancer cells, it was found to significantly reduce cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancer cells, astrin is required to suppress apoptosis during stress. (wikipedia.org)