• murine
  • Immunisation of mice that are both transgenic for the human HLA-A02.01 molecule and knockout for murine MHC class I molecules, with DNA encoding HBsAg shows that epitopes presented after in vivo processing in HLA-A2 transgenic mice are very similar to those generated in humans during HBV infection. (bmj.com)
  • It has been previously reported that there is an association between Wnt5a mRNA and protein expression and histopathological severity of human atherosclerotic lesions as well as co-expression of Wnt5a and TLR4 in foam cells/macrophages of murine and human atherosclerotic lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced reactive oxidative species protects human hepatic stellate cells from apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial membrane potential. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Fe-NTA-induced ROS play a protective role in human HSCs by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial membrane potential. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Systemic immunisation of mice by intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA expressing HBV envelope proteins and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) induces rapid, strong and sustained humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. (bmj.com)
  • Antibodies, which are initially of the IgM then IgG isotype (predominantly IgG2a), recognise several of the B cell epitopes present on the S, preS2, or preS1 domains of the envelope proteins. (bmj.com)
  • EVs, which include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies ( 8 ), contain cargoes such as effector proteins and miRNAs that enable cells to transmit signals. (jci.org)
  • Although calculated number of genes encoded in the genome is though to be about 40,000, 5,000 - 6,000 proteins are estimated to be generated in each type of cell and hence only a part of the genes in the genome are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stellate cells express smoothened (Smo) and patched-1 (Ptch1) proteins, which are significant features of the hedgehog receptor system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because mTORC1 inhibits autophagy and stimulates cell growth, it can cause damaged proteins and cell structures to accumulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human GAPDH. (genetex.com)
  • Immunoprecipitation of GAPDH protein from 293T whole cell extracts using 5 μg of GAPDH antibody (GTX100118). (genetex.com)
  • The proteome ( prote in + gen ome ), or proteomics, refers to the total protein profile of a given cell or tissue type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, NFAT1 regulates the expression of TWEAKR and its ligand TWEAK (this protein) with lipocalin 2 to increase breast cancer cell invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferritin is a protein present within cells that binds to Fe (II) and stores it as Fe (III), releasing it into the blood whenever required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, FOXO1 trans-activate Bim protein, which a member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes apoptosis and plays a role in the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • RPTOR also has a positive role in maintaining cell size and mTOR protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In turn, active PDK1, along with mTORC1, phosphorylates S6K in the part of the mTOR pathway which promotes protein synthesis and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Oxidative stress increases the formation of the complex formed with RPTOR, G3BP1, and SPAG5 RPTOR has also been shown to interact with: FKBP1A, P70-S6 Kinase 1 RHEB, RICTOR, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), The clinical significance of RPTOR is primarily due to its involvement in the mTOR pathway, which plays roles in mRNA translation, autophagy, and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • TRAIL receptors facilitate induction of apoptosis for selective elimination of malignant cells. (medicalrecords.com)
  • The immunogenicity of selected HBV envelope or capsid based vaccine formulations for the induction or the broadening of T and B cell responses, deficient in HBV chronic carriers, are currently under study in animal models and in clinical trials. (bmj.com)
  • Vitro
  • This study aimed to examine the effects of crocin on HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo and investigate the underlying mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, a series of experiments were performed to examine the effects of crocin on HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo and investigate the underlying mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • In vitro models have shown that AGGF1 localizes to cell periphery and directly outside of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The publication of two seminal research papers in 1998 outlining the isolation of these cells provided an in vitro method by which researchers may characterise PaSCs in both health and pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of such cells are CFUs (Colony-forming units - referred to as such because of their ability to form colonies in vitro in artificial media) such as CFU-T. In mice, transplantation of a single pHSC cell can reconstitute a sub-lethally irradiated host (i.e. a mouse that has been irradiated so that all leukocytes are killed) with all these lineages of cells, including all types of lymphocytes via CLPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Crocin is a carotenoid of the saffron extract that exhibits antitumor activity against many human tumors. (hindawi.com)
  • Because astrin is frequently upregulated in tumors, it is a potential target to sensitize tumors to apoptosis through the mTORC1 pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • Studies in which rabbits were transfected with genes that allow them to overexpress human ALDH3A1 in their corneal stromal fibroblasts document ALDH3A1's most critical function is to protect the cornea from oxidative stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • However, the effects of crocin on HL-60 cells in vivo have not been evaluated. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the effects of crocin on HL-60 cells in vivo have not been evaluated, and the mechanism responsible for the antileukemia effects of saffron remains elusive. (hindawi.com)
  • differentiate
  • Following any type of liver injury, hepatic stellate cells differentiate into myofibroblasts and acquire the typical "myofibroblast- like" phenotype characterized by a multifunctional profibrogenic, proinflammatory, and proangiogenic profile. (blogspot.com)
  • Homing and recruitment of a circulating mesenchymal precursor which can directly differentiate as above or indirectly differentiate through the other cell types as intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • Integrin family members are membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and recognition in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic diffusion of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiated tumor cells in a state of quiescence are typically not affected by drugs can may account for tumor recurrence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quiescent
  • Quiescent stellate cells represent a principal retinol-storing phenotype and metabolize a small amount of basement membrane-forming substrata such as laminine and type IV collagen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following inflammation or injury to the pancreas, quiescent PaSCs are activated to myofibroblast like cells, which expresses α- smooth muscle actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • attenuates
  • Silencing of SRA1 Regulates ER Expression and Attenuates the Growth of Stromal Cells in Ovarian Endometriosis. (abcam.com)
  • pathway
  • TRAIL can activate the extrinsic pathway of cell death by binding to the death receptors, DR4 and DR5. (medicalrecords.com)
  • In hepatic cells this transcription factor seems to increase the expression of PEPCK and glycogen-6-phosphatase (the same enzymes that are blocked via the metformin/AMPK/SHP pathway). (wikipedia.org)
  • RPTOR encodes part of a signaling pathway regulating cell growth which responds to nutrient and insulin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • This inhibits autophagy, the major degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and initiate tissue repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation, such as mononuclear cells, and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphopoiesis is now usually used interchangeably with the term "lymphocytopoiesis" - the making of lymphocytes - but other sources may distinguish between the two, stating that "lymphopoiesis" additionally refers to creating lymphatic tissue, while "lymphocytopoiesis" refers only to the creation of cells in that tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Further studies indicated that the N-terminal gelsolin 1-70 fragment also induces LX2 cell death in the absence of TRAIL and decreases Bcl2 expression. (medicalrecords.com)
  • Amplification of R-spondin1 signaling induces granulosa cell fate defects and cancers in mouse adult ovary. (abcam.com)
  • phenotype
  • The aim of this review is to address the recent information regarding NK cell phenotype, functions and modifications in hepatitis B. This review addresses the recent data regarding the roles of NK cells as novel targets for immunotherapies that target hepatitis B infection. (deepdyve.com)
  • A myofibroblast is a cell that is in between a fibroblast and a smooth muscle cell in phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of contractile phenotype (or acquisition of "synthetic phenotype") of a smooth muscle cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Inflammation (from Latin inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Notably, crocin significantly inhibits the growth of cancer cells but has no effects on normal cells [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • MicroRNA-495 Inhibits Gastric Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion Possibly via Targeting High Mobility Group AT-Hook 2 (HMGA2). (abcam.com)
  • Tumor-targeted SN38 inhibits growth of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a KRas/p53 transgenic mouse model. (abcam.com)
  • The integrin beta-1B isoform appears to act as a dominant negative in that it inhibits cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • marker
  • CD26/DPPIV plays an important role in tumor biology, and is useful as a marker for various cancers, with its levels either on the cell surface or in the serum increased in some neoplasms and decreased in others. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Not for any clinical, therapeutic, or diagnostic use in humans or animals. (genetex.com)
  • The fact that mir-16 microRNA loss is observed in a large proportion of cells indicates the change occurred early in cancer development and a target for therapeutic intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • Loss of gelsolin, a tumor suppressor, is one of the most frequently occurring molecular defects in breast cancers of diverse etiologies in human, mouse, and rat 10 . (medicalrecords.com)
  • Deletions of this well characterised 1 megabase region of the genome was also observed in approximately 50% of mantle cell lymphoma,[citation needed] up to 40% of multiple myeloma,[citation needed] and 60% of prostate cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assays
  • Hepatotoxicity and drug-induced liver injury also account for a substantial number of compound failures, highlighting the need for drug screening assays, such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells, that are capable of detecting toxicity early in the drug development process. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Senescent cells expose and secrete an oxidized form of membrane-bound vimentin as revealed by a natural polyreactive antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Whole cell extract (30 μg) was separated by 10% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with GAPDH antibody (GTX100118) diluted at 1:5000. (genetex.com)
  • Specifically, it regulates vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) by inhibiting the phosphorylation of the cadherin and increasing its presence in the plasma membrane of endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of lipid peroxidation, ROS react with polyunsaturated fatty acids situated in the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane to produce lipid radicals. (wikipedia.org)