• murine
  • Immunisation of mice that are both transgenic for the human HLA-A02.01 molecule and knockout for murine MHC class I molecules, with DNA encoding HBsAg shows that epitopes presented after in vivo processing in HLA-A2 transgenic mice are very similar to those generated in humans during HBV infection. (bmj.com)
  • It has been previously reported that there is an association between Wnt5a mRNA and protein expression and histopathological severity of human atherosclerotic lesions as well as co-expression of Wnt5a and TLR4 in foam cells/macrophages of murine and human atherosclerotic lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced reactive oxidative species protects human hepatic stellate cells from apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial membrane potential. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Fe-NTA-induced ROS play a protective role in human HSCs by regulating Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondrial membrane potential. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Antibodies, which are initially of the IgM then IgG isotype (predominantly IgG2a), recognise several of the B cell epitopes present on the S, preS2, or preS1 domains of the envelope proteins. (bmj.com)
  • EVs, which include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies ( 8 ), contain cargoes such as effector proteins and miRNAs that enable cells to transmit signals. (jci.org)
  • Although calculated number of genes encoded in the genome is though to be about 40,000, 5,000 - 6,000 proteins are estimated to be generated in each type of cell and hence only a part of the genes in the genome are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These observations suggest that lycopene may alter cell cycle regulatory proteins depending on the type of cancer and the dose of lycopene administration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stellate cells express smoothened (Smo) and patched-1 (Ptch1) proteins, which are significant features of the hedgehog receptor system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because mTORC1 inhibits autophagy and stimulates cell growth, it can cause damaged proteins and cell structures to accumulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc is essential for the structure and function of thousands of proteins critical for the function of every cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Oxidative stress increases the formation of the complex formed with RPTOR, G3BP1, and SPAG5 RPTOR has also been shown to interact with: FKBP1A, P70-S6 Kinase 1 RHEB, RICTOR, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), The clinical significance of RPTOR is primarily due to its involvement in the mTOR pathway, which plays roles in mRNA translation, autophagy, and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The proteome ( prote in + gen ome ), or proteomics, refers to the total protein profile of a given cell or tissue type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, NFAT1 regulates the expression of TWEAKR and its ligand TWEAK (this protein) with lipocalin 2 to increase breast cancer cell invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferritin is a protein present within cells that binds to Fe (II) and stores it as Fe (III), releasing it into the blood whenever required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, FOXO1 trans-activate Bim protein, which a member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes apoptosis and plays a role in the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • RPTOR also has a positive role in maintaining cell size and mTOR protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In turn, active PDK1, along with mTORC1, phosphorylates S6K in the part of the mTOR pathway which promotes protein synthesis and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Experiments performed in Xenopus laevis embryos have identified that human frizzled-5 (hFz5) is the receptor for the Wnt5a ligand and the Wnt5a/hFz5 signaling mediates axis induction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitro
  • In vitro models have shown that AGGF1 localizes to cell periphery and directly outside of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The publication of two seminal research papers in 1998 outlining the isolation of these cells provided an in vitro method by which researchers may characterise PaSCs in both health and pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of such cells are CFUs (Colony-forming units - referred to as such because of their ability to form colonies in vitro in artificial media) such as CFU-T. In mice, transplantation of a single pHSC cell can reconstitute a sub-lethally irradiated host (i.e. a mouse that has been irradiated so that all leukocytes are killed) with all these lineages of cells, including all types of lymphocytes via CLPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • Studies in which rabbits were transfected with genes that allow them to overexpress human ALDH3A1 in their corneal stromal fibroblasts document ALDH3A1's most critical function is to protect the cornea from oxidative stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Protection of FK506 against neuronal apoptosis and axonal injury following experimental diffuse axonal injury. (abcam.com)
  • Quiescent
  • Following inflammation or injury to the pancreas, quiescent PaSCs are activated to myofibroblast like cells, which expresses α- smooth muscle actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • An accumulation of cardiac muscle fibres sees a consequent block in the transition between the pre-mitotic/G2 phase and mitotic phase of the cell cycle, with postnatal inhibition of the miR-15 family inducing cardiac muscle fibres to enter mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian cells
  • Gliotoxin (GT), a secondary metabolite, is cytotoxic for mammalian cells, but the molecular basis and biological relevance of this toxicity remain speculative. (rupress.org)
  • Tractable Mammalian Cell Infections with Protozoan-primed Bacteria Samuel L. Drennan 1 , Amrita Lama 1 , Ben Doron 1 , Eric D. Cambronne 1 1 Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, Oregon Health & Science University This technique provides a method to harvest, normalize and quantify intracellular growth of bacterial pathogens that are pre-cultivated in natural protozoan host cells prior to infections of mammalian cells. (jove.com)
  • attenuates
  • Silencing of SRA1 Regulates ER Expression and Attenuates the Growth of Stromal Cells in Ovarian Endometriosis. (abcam.com)
  • tissue
  • Integrin family members are membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and recognition in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic diffusion of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and initiate tissue repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation, such as mononuclear cells, and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphopoiesis is now usually used interchangeably with the term "lymphocytopoiesis" - the making of lymphocytes - but other sources may distinguish between the two, stating that "lymphopoiesis" additionally refers to creating lymphatic tissue, while "lymphocytopoiesis" refers only to the creation of cells in that tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • The immunogenicity of selected HBV envelope or capsid based vaccine formulations for the induction or the broadening of T and B cell responses, deficient in HBV chronic carriers, are currently under study in animal models and in clinical trials. (bmj.com)
  • progenitor
  • Fausto N. Liver regeneration and repair: hepatocytes, progenitor cells, and stem cells. (springer.com)
  • It was only natural to ask where these two great classes of cells arose, and after much work two cell types with some strong stem cell properties were isolated and defined - CMP, the common myeloid progenitor and CLP, the common lymphoid progenitor for mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many progenitor cells are also referred to as transit cells, sometimes also called transit amplifying cells, the meaning of this term being that the transit cell may found a new sub-lineage but the number of resultant cells is strictly limited (although possibly very large, even trillions yet finite) and the lineage is terminated by cells that die off (by apoptosis) or remain as cells that can no longer divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphopoiesis continues throughout life and so progenitor cells and their parent stem cells must always be present. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Crocin is a carotenoid of the saffron extract that exhibits antitumor activity against many human tumors. (hindawi.com)
  • Because astrin is frequently upregulated in tumors, it is a potential target to sensitize tumors to apoptosis through the mTORC1 pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Furthermore, HL-60 cells were xenografted into nude mice and treated by crocin, the tumor weight and size were calculated, and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in xenografts was detected by immunohistochemical staining. (hindawi.com)
  • Tumor-targeted SN38 inhibits growth of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a KRas/p53 transgenic mouse model. (abcam.com)
  • CD26/DPPIV plays an important role in tumor biology, and is useful as a marker for various cancers, with its levels either on the cell surface or in the serum increased in some neoplasms and decreased in others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiated tumor cells in a state of quiescence are typically not affected by drugs can may account for tumor recurrence. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Notably, crocin significantly inhibits the growth of cancer cells but has no effects on normal cells [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • MicroRNA-495 Inhibits Gastric Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion Possibly via Targeting High Mobility Group AT-Hook 2 (HMGA2). (abcam.com)
  • The integrin beta-1B isoform appears to act as a dominant negative in that it inhibits cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This inhibits autophagy, the major degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • PaSCs are mediated by paracrine and autocrine stimuli and share similarities with the hepatic stellate cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple-site phosphorylation is common in endothelial cells, and different cell types may contain different stimuli, leading to targeted phosphorylation of RELA by different kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation (from Latin inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription factor
  • Inducing goat pluripotent stem cells with four transcription factor mRNAs that activate endogenous promoters. (abcam.com)
  • In hepatic cells this transcription factor seems to increase the expression of PEPCK and glycogen-6-phosphatase (the same enzymes that are blocked via the metformin/AMPK/SHP pathway). (wikipedia.org)
  • prostate
  • Deletions of this well characterised 1 megabase region of the genome was also observed in approximately 50% of mantle cell lymphoma,[citation needed] up to 40% of multiple myeloma,[citation needed] and 60% of prostate cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • When FOXO1 over expressed in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells, it caused apoptosis in these cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, It is detected that FOXO1 regulateTNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which cause FOXO1-induced apoptosis in the human prostate cancer cell line LAPC4 when FOXO1 adenovirus-mediated overexpression was used. (wikipedia.org)
  • intestinal
  • Here they not only act as a regulator of the shape of the crypts and villi but also act as stem-niche cells in the intestinal crypts and as parts of atypical antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preferentially killing rapidly replicating malignant cells via cytotoxic agents cause serious side effects by injuring normal cells, particularly hematopoeitic cells, intestinal cells, hair follicle and germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • RPTOR encodes part of a signaling pathway regulating cell growth which responds to nutrient and insulin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Senescent cells expose and secrete an oxidized form of membrane-bound vimentin as revealed by a natural polyreactive antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Specifically, it regulates vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) by inhibiting the phosphorylation of the cadherin and increasing its presence in the plasma membrane of endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of lipid peroxidation, ROS react with polyunsaturated fatty acids situated in the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane to produce lipid radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • The fact that mir-16 microRNA loss is observed in a large proportion of cells indicates the change occurred early in cancer development and a target for therapeutic intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • Beta-integrins are primarily responsible for targeting integrin dimers to the appropriate subcellular locations, which in adhesive cells is mainly focal adhesions. (wikipedia.org)