• vitro
  • In vitro USSCs showed homogeneous differentiation into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, and hematopoietic and neural cells including astrocytes and neurons that express neurofilament, sodium channel protein, and various neurotransmitter phenotypes. (rupress.org)
  • We identified a rare, CD45 and HLA class II-negative stem cell candidate displaying robust in vitro proliferative capacity without spontaneous differentiation but with intrinsic and directable potential to develop into mesodermal, endodermal, and ectodermal cell fates. (rupress.org)
  • The cells in the spheres also retain the ability to differentiate in vitro to form cells representative of the three germline layers after five passages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytoprotective effects of transgene overexpression in vitro were assessed by exposure of cells to 8 hours of anoxia. (ahajournals.org)
  • These cells are phenotypically similar to endothelial cells and have been shown to create vessel-like structures in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemangioblasts (or their in vitro counterpart, blast - colony forming cells) are cells believed to give rise to both the endothelial and hematopoietic systems during early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attempts to create organs in vitro started with one of the first dissociation-reaggregation experiment where Henry Van Peters Wilson demonstrated that mechanically dissociated sponge cells can reaggregate and self-organize to generate a whole organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the advent of the field of stem cell biology, the potential of stem cells to form organs in vitro was realized early on with the observation that when stem cells form teratomas or embryoid body, the differentiated cells can organize into different structures resembling those found in multiple tissue types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009 the Laboratory of Hans Clevers at Hubrecht Institute and University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands showed that single LGR5 stem cells build crypt-villus structures in vitro without a mesenchymal niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010, Mathieu Unbekandt & Jamie A. Davies demonstrated the production of renal organoids from murine fetus-derived renogenic stem cells: subsequent reports showed significant physiological function of these organoids in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this test is not specific as epithelial cells cultured in vitro on adherent substratum may also express vimentin after some time. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitors
  • Using MO and MΦ conditional depletion models, we found that reductions in BM mononuclear phagocytes led to reduced BM CXCL12 levels, the selective down-regulation of HSC retention genes in Nestin(+) niche cells , and egress of HSCs/progenitors to the bloodstream. (nih.gov)
  • These results highlight two antagonistic, tightly balanced pathways that regulate maintenance of HSCs/progenitors in the niche during homeostasis, in which MΦ cross talk with the Nestin(+) niche cell promotes retention , and in contrast, SNS signals enhance egress. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, strategies that target BM MΦ hold the potential to augment stem cell yields in patients that mobilize HSCs/progenitors poorly. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular genetic analysis of early outgrowth putative EPC populations suggests they do indeed have monocyte-like expression patterns, and support the existence of a separate population of progenitors, the late outgrowth, or endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, there are no unique markers for endothelial progenitors that are not shared with other endothelial or hematopoietic cells, which has contributed to the historical controversy surrounding the field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain developmental cells may be similar to or the same as other endothelial progenitors, though not typically referred to as EPCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • regenerative
  • Regenerative medicine using stem cells (SC) is an efficient, low-morbidity and high-quality therapy for skin coverage in burns, mainly due to the regeneration of skin appendages [ 3 ] and the minimal risk of hypertrophic scarring [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Besides this biological superiority, CB is abundantly available, is routinely harvested without risk to the donor, and infectious agents such as CMV are rare exceptions ( 20 )-a definite advantage for the development of cell therapeutics in regenerative medicine. (rupress.org)
  • In 2006 Eaves retired as required by provincial law at that time, becoming Professor Emeritus of Hematology and spending more time on several companies he founded to further the fields of cellular therapy and regenerative medicine - STEMCELL Technologies, STEMSOFT Software Inc. and Malachite Management Inc. These companies continue to grow under his leadership and by 2016, STEMCELL had over 900 employees making Canada's largest biotechnology company. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Culturing of USSCs depends on growth in medium containing a high concentration of specific batches of fetal calf serum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fetal calf serum contains undefined factors, which may vary from batch to batch, and that may activate or inhibit stem cell differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The growth of cells in defined medium not only reduces variability, but also eliminates the need for costly and time consuming fetal calf serum batch testing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The differentiated endothelial population expresses both Fetal Liver Kinase 1 (Flk-1) and VE-Cadherin on the cell surface which can be further purified using a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) system and subsequently expanded on 0.1 % gelatin-coated plates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • engraftment
  • We argue that the better engraftment of donor cells may be less meaningful if regional blood flow in the ischemic myocardium is not restored. (ahajournals.org)
  • For an ideal therapeutic intervention, survival and engraftment of the donor cells and reperfusion of ischemic myocardium by angiogenesis are the optimal requirements. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hence, they together form an optimal combination of transgenes, the simultaneous expression of which will expectedly lead to successful engraftment of donor cells and increased angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • Commonly, fibroblasts express smooth muscle actin, a form of actin first found in smooth muscle cells and not found in resting fibrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of the more general topic of stem cell biology, a number of studies have suggested that the blood contains marrow derived cells that can differentiate into fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hela cells and human fibroblast-derived iPS cells showed high telomerase activity while Muse was at nearly the same level as that in somatic cells such as fibroblasts (these data are shown without running control for the telomerase activity, the comparison is not scientific thought). (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • While some other authors have contested these, and maintained that they are true EPCs, many investigators have begun to term these cells colony forming unit-Hill cells (CFU-Hill) or circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) instead (depending on the method of isolation), highlighting their role as hematopoietic myeloid cells involved in promoting new vessel growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the ratio ρ = L / M {\displaystyle \rho =L/M} of lymphoid (L) to myeloid (M) cells in blood as a quantitative marker, the stem cell compartment can be split into three categories of HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign demonstrated that cardiovascular organoids can be formed from ES cells through modulation of the substrate stiffness, to which they adhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such spontaneous formation is often accomplished in bulk suspension cultures whereby the dish is coated with non-adhesive materials, such as agar or hydrophilic polymers, to promote the preferential adhesion between single cells, rather than to the culture substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cloned the gene encoding a protein hyperphosphorylated following ligation of β1-integrins in T cells and hypothesized to play a role in the process of T cell costimulation, designating this gene Cas-L (Crk-associated substrate-related protein, Lymphocyte type). (wikipedia.org)
  • angiogenic
  • Akt is a major cell survival and angiogenic mediator downstream of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1)/Tie-2 signaling pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although bone marrow-derived cells do appear to localize to injured vessels and promote an angiogenic switch, other studies have suggested these cells do not contribute directly to the functional endothelium, instead acting via paracrine methods to provide support for the resident endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cord blood
  • Here a new, intrinsically pluripotent, CD45-negative population from human cord blood, termed unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) is described. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast to adult BM, the stem cell compartment in cord blood (CB) is less mature. (rupress.org)
  • However MSCs are found in much higher concentration in the Wharton's jelly compared to cord blood, which is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human umbilical cord blood-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs), which are capable of multilineage differentiation, are currently under investigation for a number of therapeutic applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On October 27, 2014, it was reported that Case Western Reserve University will conduct a preclinical study of PLX-R18 cells in umbilical cord blood transplants for the treatment of blood cancers and genetic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Current instrumentation allows simultaneous quantitative analysis of up to 12 parameters, each of which is assayed at the individual cell level, facilitating high content analysis of mixed cell populations and rare cell types. (mdanderson.org)
  • By method of isolation and cell function, three main populations of putative adult EPCs have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Embryoid bodies can be directed to give rise to hemangioblasts, which subsequently undergo further differentiation into either hematopoietic or endothelial cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Muse cells do not undergo teratoma formation when transplanted into a host environment in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the majority of isolated primary cells, they undergo the process of senescence and stop dividing after a certain number of population doublings while generally retaining their viability (described as the Hayflick limit). (wikipedia.org)
  • As hESC undergo apoptosis when cultured as single cells, EB formation often necessitates the use of inhibitors of the rho associated kinase (ROCK) pathway, including the small molecules Y-27632 and 2,4 disubstituted thiazole (Thiazovivin/Tzv). (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to the ECM deposition, EBs often form a cystic cavity, whereby the cells in contact with the basement membrane remain viable and those at the interior undergo apoptosis, resulting in a fluid-filled cavity surrounded by cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • HIV-1 infection increased apoptosis and cell cycle regulatory genes in HD cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although undifferentiated ASCs failed to show productive infection, HIV-1 exposure increased the expression of several hematopoietic lineage associated genes such as c-Kit , MMD2 , and IL-10 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, HIV-1 exposure increased the expression of some hematopoietic lineage related genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The rationale behind our present study was to ensure maximum cell survival and enhanced angiogenesis by the delivery of Ang-1 and Akt genes for cardiac repair. (ahajournals.org)
  • The differentiated cells can be analyzed by real-time PCR and flow cytometry to confirm enrichment of EC-specific genes and proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The expression 'pattern' of genes related to pluripotency in Muse cells was almost the same as that in ES and iPS cells, while the expression 'level' was much higher in ES and iPS cells and that in Muse cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, genes related to cell cycle progression and tumorigenicity in Muse cells were at the same level as those in somatic cells, while the same genes were very high in ES and iPS cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpressed a human cDNA library in S. cerevisiae, and screened for genes that simultaneously affected cell cycle and cell polarity controls, inducing a filamentous yeast budding phenotype, and thus identified the HEF1 protein (Human Enhancer of Filamentation 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • marrow
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in specialized bone marrow (BM) niches regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). (nih.gov)
  • Scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till first revealed the clonal nature of marrow cells in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent experimentation revealed the plasticity of marrow cells and how their fate is determined by environmental cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess multilineage transdifferentiation potential. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 Further studies in mice revealed that bone marrow-derived cells naturally participate in the formation of new blood vessels in ischemic limb. (haematologica.org)
  • Stem cell self-renewal is thought to occur in the stem cell niche in the bone marrow, and it is reasonable to assume that key signals present in this niche will be important in self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US FDA has also cleared Pluristem to commence patient enrollment in a Phase I trial of its PLX-R18 cells to treat insufficient hematopoietic recovery following bone marrow transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • In May 2012, Pluristem reported that its experimental PLacental eXpanded cells were injected into the muscles of a 7-year-old Romanian girl undergoing treatment for bone marrow aplasia disease at the Hadassah Medical Center in Jerusalem. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 2012 Pluristem reported saving the life of a third bone marrow disease patient using its PLacental eXpanded cell treatment, again at Jerusalem's Hadassah Medical Center and again under the terms of compassionate use. (wikipedia.org)
  • human umbilical
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the human umbilical cord feeder cells consist of 100% human umbilical cord fibroblast feeder cells. (google.es)
  • 7. The method of claim 6 , wherein the human umbilical cord feeder cells consists essentially of the human umbilical cord fibroblast feeder cells. (google.es)
  • MSCs
  • Autologous MSCs can be easily harvested and applied in treatment, but allogenic cells can also be employed. (hindawi.com)
  • The early uses of MSCs focused on the implantations of cell rich matrixes during open surgeries, resulting in the formation of hyaline-like durable cartilage. (hindawi.com)
  • The first clinical trials of MSCs were completed in 1995 when a group of 15 patients were injected with cultured MSCs to test the safety of the treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Australian company Cynata claims the ability to mass-produce MSCs from induced pluripotent stem cells obtained from blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MSCs significantly decreased T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 responses, suppressed the function of antigen-presenting cells, and upregulated T regulatory cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • For in vivo studies, after permanent coronary artery occlusion, animals were grouped (n=20/group) to receive intramyocardial injections of 70 μL of basal medium without cells (group 1) or containing 3×10 6 nontransduced MSCs (group 2) or MAAs (group 3). (ahajournals.org)
  • monocytes
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the etiologic agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), predominantly infects hematopoietic cells such as T-helper lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These original, early outgrowth, CFU-Hill or CACs are also shown to express CD14, a lipopolysaccharide receptor expressed by monocytes but not endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ESCs
  • The most convenient and efficient of these is suspension culture of ESCs in non-adherent plates ( 3 , 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When cultured as single cells in the absence of anti-differentiation factors, ESCs spontaneously aggregate to form EBs. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an alternative, the hydrodynamic forces imparted in mixed culture platforms increase the homogeneity of EB sizes when ESCs are inoculated within bulk suspensions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, technologies have also been developed to physically separate cells by forced aggregation of ESCs within individual wells or confined on adhesive substrates, which enables increased throughput, controlled formation of EBs. (wikipedia.org)