• vitro
  • In vitro USSCs showed homogeneous differentiation into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, and hematopoietic and neural cells including astrocytes and neurons that express neurofilament, sodium channel protein, and various neurotransmitter phenotypes. (rupress.org)
  • Recently, a rare cell from BM of rodents, called multipotent adult progenitor cell (MAPC), was identified which differentiated in vitro into cells of all three germ layers and contributed to most somatic tissues when injected into an early murine blastocyst ( 12 ). (rupress.org)
  • We identified a rare, CD45 and HLA class II-negative stem cell candidate displaying robust in vitro proliferative capacity without spontaneous differentiation but with intrinsic and directable potential to develop into mesodermal, endodermal, and ectodermal cell fates. (rupress.org)
  • The cells in the spheres also retain the ability to differentiate in vitro to form cells representative of the three germline layers after five passages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytoprotective effects of transgene overexpression in vitro were assessed by exposure of cells to 8 hours of anoxia. (ahajournals.org)
  • In Vitro Cell. (atcc.org)
  • These cells are phenotypically similar to endothelial cells and have been shown to create vessel-like structures in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemangioblasts (or their in vitro counterpart, blast - colony forming cells) are cells believed to give rise to both the endothelial and hematopoietic systems during early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attempts to create organs in vitro started with one of the first dissociation-reaggregation experiment where Henry Van Peters Wilson demonstrated that mechanically dissociated sponge cells can reaggregate and self-organize to generate a whole organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the advent of the field of stem cell biology, the potential of stem cells to form organs in vitro was realized early on with the observation that when stem cells form teratomas or embryoid body, the differentiated cells can organize into different structures resembling those found in multiple tissue types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009 the Laboratory of Hans Clevers at Hubrecht Institute and University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands showed that single LGR5 stem cells build crypt-villus structures in vitro without a mesenchymal niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010, Mathieu Unbekandt & Jamie A. Davies demonstrated the production of renal organoids from murine fetus-derived renogenic stem cells: subsequent reports showed significant physiological function of these organoids in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this test is not specific as epithelial cells cultured in vitro on adherent substratum may also express vimentin after some time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regenerative
  • Regenerative medicine using stem cells (SC) is an efficient, low-morbidity and high-quality therapy for skin coverage in burns, mainly due to the regeneration of skin appendages [ 3 ] and the minimal risk of hypertrophic scarring [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Besides this biological superiority, CB is abundantly available, is routinely harvested without risk to the donor, and infectious agents such as CMV are rare exceptions ( 20 )-a definite advantage for the development of cell therapeutics in regenerative medicine. (rupress.org)
  • In 2006 Eaves retired as required by provincial law at that time, becoming Professor Emeritus of Hematology and spending more time on several companies he founded to further the fields of cellular therapy and regenerative medicine - STEMCELL Technologies, STEMSOFT Software Inc. and Malachite Management Inc. These companies continue to grow under his leadership and by 2016, STEMCELL had over 900 employees making Canada's largest biotechnology company. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances in regenerative medicine have been concentrated in Stem cells research and its clinical applications. (eternamdregenerativemedicine.com)
  • The development of clinical studies based on stem cells therapy and the increased demand of patients seeking for alternative and regenerative treatments, the aim of this review is to describe the history, evolution and characterization of the stem cells. (eternamdregenerativemedicine.com)
  • neural
  • In 2008, Yoshiki Sasai and his team at RIKEN institute demonstrated that stem cells can be coaxed into balls of neural cells that self-organize into distinctive layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 (NEDD-9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEDD9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Culturing of USSCs depends on growth in medium containing a high concentration of specific batches of fetal calf serum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fetal calf serum contains undefined factors, which may vary from batch to batch, and that may activate or inhibit stem cell differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The growth of cells in defined medium not only reduces variability, but also eliminates the need for costly and time consuming fetal calf serum batch testing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The differentiated endothelial population expresses both Fetal Liver Kinase 1 (Flk-1) and VE-Cadherin on the cell surface which can be further purified using a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) system and subsequently expanded on 0.1 % gelatin-coated plates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • engraftment
  • We argue that the better engraftment of donor cells may be less meaningful if regional blood flow in the ischemic myocardium is not restored. (ahajournals.org)
  • For an ideal therapeutic intervention, survival and engraftment of the donor cells and reperfusion of ischemic myocardium by angiogenesis are the optimal requirements. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hence, they together form an optimal combination of transgenes, the simultaneous expression of which will expectedly lead to successful engraftment of donor cells and increased angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • marrow
  • 4 Further studies in mice revealed that bone marrow-derived cells naturally participate in the formation of new blood vessels in ischemic limb. (haematologica.org)
  • The incremented radioactive nuclides lead to the destruction of the bone marrow cell in exposed individuals causing anemia and leukemia. (eternamdregenerativemedicine.com)
  • In 1963, E. A. McCulloch and J. E. Till demonstrated that a single bone marrow cell could give rise to clonal colonies of myeloid-erythroid cells in the spleen and bone marrow . (eternamdregenerativemedicine.com)
  • Although bone marrow-derived cells do appear to localize to injured vessels and promote an angiogenic switch, other studies have suggested these cells do not contribute directly to the functional endothelium, instead acting via paracrine methods to provide support for the resident endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, the vast majority of hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow and is derived from a limited number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are multipotent and capable of extensive self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In order to harvest stem cells from the circulating peripheral blood, blood donors are injected with a cytokine, such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), that induces cells to leave the bone marrow and circulate in the blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell self-renewal is thought to occur in the stem cell niche in the bone marrow, and it is reasonable to assume that key signals present in this niche will be important in self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till first revealed the clonal nature of marrow cells in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ex vivo assay for examining the clonogenic potential of multipotent marrow cells was later reported in the 1970s by Friedenstein and colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent experimentation revealed the plasticity of marrow cells and how their fate is determined by environmental cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US FDA has also cleared Pluristem to commence patient enrollment in a Phase I trial of its PLX-R18 cells to treat insufficient hematopoietic recovery following bone marrow transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • In May 2012, Pluristem reported that its experimental PLacental eXpanded cells were injected into the muscles of a 7-year-old Romanian girl undergoing treatment for bone marrow aplasia disease at the Hadassah Medical Center in Jerusalem. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 2012 Pluristem reported saving the life of a third bone marrow disease patient using its PLacental eXpanded cell treatment, again at Jerusalem's Hadassah Medical Center and again under the terms of compassionate use. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • While some other authors have contested these, and maintained that they are true EPCs, many investigators have begun to term these cells colony forming unit-Hill cells (CFU-Hill) or circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) instead (depending on the method of isolation), highlighting their role as hematopoietic myeloid cells involved in promoting new vessel growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the ratio ρ = L / M {\displaystyle \rho =L/M} of lymphoid (L) to myeloid (M) cells in blood as a quantitative marker, the stem cell compartment can be split into three categories of HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balanced (Bala) HSCs repopulate peripheral white blood cells in the same ratio of myeloid to lymphoid cells as seen in unmanipulated mice (on average about 15% myeloid and 85% lymphoid cells, or 3 ≤ ρ ≤ 10). (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign demonstrated that cardiovascular organoids can be formed from ES cells through modulation of the substrate stiffness, to which they adhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such spontaneous formation is often accomplished in bulk suspension cultures whereby the dish is coated with non-adhesive materials, such as agar or hydrophilic polymers, to promote the preferential adhesion between single cells, rather than to the culture substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cloned the gene encoding a protein hyperphosphorylated following ligation of β1-integrins in T cells and hypothesized to play a role in the process of T cell costimulation, designating this gene Cas-L (Crk-associated substrate-related protein, Lymphocyte type). (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • Differentiation of macrophages from a less mature precursor, such as CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells, can further inform with regard to the development of macrophage-lineage cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For example, recent reports demonstrated that a population of circulating EPC may carry identical genetic abnormalities as the primary tumor cells in patients with multiple myeloma 15 or myeloproliferative disorders, 16 suggesting that both EPC and the tumor cells may have originated from the same multipotent hemangioblast precursor cell. (haematologica.org)
  • In 1924, Russian-born morphologist Alexander A. Maximow used extensive histological findings to identify a singular type of precursor cell within mesenchyme that develops into different types of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • autologous
  • An alternative is to supplement media with human blood-derived platelet lysates or sera from autologous or allogenic donors [ 17 - 21 ] to create culture conditions that more closely mimic the human environment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • undergo
  • Embryoid bodies can be directed to give rise to hemangioblasts, which subsequently undergo further differentiation into either hematopoietic or endothelial cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Muse cells do not undergo teratoma formation when transplanted into a host environment in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the majority of isolated primary cells, they undergo the process of senescence and stop dividing after a certain number of population doublings while generally retaining their viability (described as the Hayflick limit). (wikipedia.org)
  • As hESC undergo apoptosis when cultured as single cells, EB formation often necessitates the use of inhibitors of the rho associated kinase (ROCK) pathway, including the small molecules Y-27632 and 2,4 disubstituted thiazole (Thiazovivin/Tzv). (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to the ECM deposition, EBs often form a cystic cavity, whereby the cells in contact with the basement membrane remain viable and those at the interior undergo apoptosis, resulting in a fluid-filled cavity surrounded by cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • Analysis of markers associated with pluripotency ( Oct4 and Sox2 ) and differentiation ( FoxA2, Brachyury, Goosecoid, Nestin, Pax6, Gata6 and Cytokeratin 8 ) confirms that cells in the spheres maintain their gene expression profile. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unfortunately, there are no unique markers for endothelial progenitors that are not shared with other endothelial or hematopoietic cells, which has contributed to the historical controversy surrounding the field. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • To that end, here we describe a functional genomics approach for examining the impact of gene depletion on cancer cell line spheroids, which more appropriately model human cancers in vivo . (jove.com)
  • osteogenic
  • The analyses of particular specific proteins expressed during osteogenic differentiation (calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and parathormone receptor (PTHR)) showed their decrease at D0 before any induction for MSC cultured with HPL mostly at high percentage (10%HPL). (biomedcentral.com)
  • cord blood
  • In contrast to adult BM, the stem cell compartment in cord blood (CB) is less mature. (rupress.org)
  • On October 27, 2014, it was reported that Case Western Reserve University will conduct a preclinical study of PLX-R18 cells in umbilical cord blood transplants for the treatment of blood cancers and genetic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • The aim of this review is to describe well established characteristics of stem cells and to delineate new advances in the stem cell field, in the context of burn injury and wound healing. (mdpi.com)
  • C166 cells exhibit normal endothelial characteristics, such as rearrangement into tubelike structures when placed on Matrigel and retention of cobblestone morphology at confluence. (atcc.org)
  • Stem cells characteristics of unlimited self-renewal and multilineage potential have led to efforts of developing clinical trials in a variety of biomedical disciplines. (eternamdregenerativemedicine.com)
  • While these cells display some endothelial characteristics, they do not form colonies. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphology
  • Stereotactic implantation of USSCs into intact adult rat brain revealed that human Tau-positive cells persisted for up to 3 mo and showed migratory activity and a typical neuron-like morphology. (rupress.org)
  • For the first one to three passages, cells grown in USSC growth medium ACF proliferate and maintain their morphology, but with continued passaging the cells form spherical cell aggregates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cells can be removed as liquid (to perform a smear to look at the cell morphology) or they can be removed via a core biopsy (to maintain the architecture or relationship of the cells to each other and to the bone). (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • The idea of undifferentiated cells capable of regenerate and repair many types of cell populations appeared as early as 1868 with Haeckels' concept of a stamzelle. (eternamdregenerativemedicine.com)
  • However, it is not yet clear how these culture conditions influence the phenotype and function of the expanded MSC populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular genetic analysis of early outgrowth putative EPC populations suggests they do indeed have monocyte-like expression patterns, and support the existence of a separate population of progenitors, the late outgrowth, or endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC). (wikipedia.org)