• HSCs
  • However, both steps are critical in the case of primary cells, such as the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). (intechopen.com)
  • HSCs are a rare cell population present in the bone marrow (BM) of higher mammals, and it is the responsible for the maintenance and replenishment of all hematopoietic cells for the lifespan of the animals by means of two fundamental properties: self-renewal and multipotency. (intechopen.com)
  • Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a rare population of cells that are present in the bone marrow (BM) and are the responsible for the generation of all mature blood cells, including erythrocytes, platelets, and immune cells ( 1 ). (intechopen.com)
  • Recent data have suggested that human CD34 − hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exist, challenging the concept that HSCs necessarily and exclusively express the CD34 antigen. (wiley.com)
  • In mice, quiescent HSCs have been shown to be mostly CD34 − , but as a consequence of 5-fluorouracil treatment or cytokine stimulation, differentiate into CD34 + cells. (wiley.com)
  • Using a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, one of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, the breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) or ABC transporter G2 (ABCG2), was found to be highly expressed in SP cells as well as other primitive HSCs and to sharply drop with hematopoietic differentiation. (wiley.com)
  • The isolation of Bcrp/ABCG2 + cells appears to be an attractive tool to analyze and characterize HSCs, and may eventually allow for the purification of these cells for clinical purposes. (wiley.com)
  • Transplantation studies with injection of HSCs into myeloablated recipients allow for the analysis of the presence of donor cells and their capacity to proliferate and repopulate, thereby indicating HSC activity [ 1 ]. (wiley.com)
  • Dexter observed that mesenchymal stromal cells could maintain early HSCs ex vivo, and both Lord and Gong showed that these cells localized to the endosteal margins in long bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • HSC population is then the ideal target for the correction of hematopoietic genetic diseases and also for the knockout of the responsible genes to in vitro and in vivo model those hematopoietic diseases. (intechopen.com)
  • The β -globin gene cluster is packaged into inactive heterochromatin in nonerythroid cells, whereas the Hb- α genes are imbedded in open chromatin conformations in all cell types [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The activating E2Fs, namely E2F1, E2F2, and E2F3a, promote the G 1 -to-S phase transition during cell cycle progression ( 9 ), interacting with the basal transcriptional machinery to enhance expression of cyclin E, DNA polymerase α, thymidine kinase, and other genes that advance the cell cycle ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This protein plays a role in erythroid development by regulating a large ensemble of genes that mediate both the development and function of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct and significant effects of EpoR signaling specifically upon the induction of erythroid-specific genes such as beta-globin, have been mainly elusive. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to the Fanconi anaemia complementation group (FANC) family of genes of which 12 complementation groups are currently recognized and is hypothesised to operate as a post-replication repair or a cell cycle checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Both steps can be easily solved when the source of cells is extensive or can be expanded and manipulated in vitro extensively, such as immortalized cell lines or pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells). (intechopen.com)
  • Surprisingly, although HDAC1-RARα did act as a bona fide DN RARα mutant in cellular in vitro and in cell culture, this fusion protein, as well as other DN RARα mutants, did not cause a block in myeloid differentiation in vivo in TM and were not leukemogenic. (rupress.org)
  • Overexpression of E2F4 promotes terminal differentiation of cells in vitro ( 16 ), whereas E2F4-deficient animals show reduced neonatal viability, with very few animals surviving to adulthood ( 15 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It is widely anticipated that human embryonic stem (ES) cells will serve as an experimental model for studying early development in our species, and, conversely, that studies of development in model systems, the mouse in particular, will inform our efforts to manipulate human stem cells in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • Conversely, will our understanding of the molecular regulation of mammalian development based on studies in the mouse provide us with a framework to control hES cells in vitro, enabling us to develop the many important clinical applications that are envisioned for these cells in the future? (biologists.org)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • SWAP-70 deficiency impairs colony-forming unit erythroid (CFU-E) development, while burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E) development is normal, and significantly affects development of late erythroblasts in the spleen and bone marrow. (haematologica.org)
  • In 1978, after observing that the prototypical colony-forming stem cells were less capable at replacing differentiated cells than bone marrow cells injected into irradiated animals, Schofield proposed that a specialized environment in the bone marrow allows these precursor cells to maintain their cellular reconstitution potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a reported association between CNL and multiple myeloma, so the bone marrow biopsy may show evidence of a plasma cell dyscrasia with increased numbers of atypical plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, miR-223 expression suppresses the differentiation of osteoclast precursors into osteoclast thus making it a potential viable therapeutic target for a range of bone metabolic disorders with excess osteoclast activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), previously myeloproliferative diseases (MPDs), are a group of diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Depending on the nature of the myeloproliferative neoplasm, diagnostic tests may include red cell mass determination (for polycythemia), bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy, arterial oxygen saturation and carboxyhaemoglobin level, neutrophil alkaline phosphatase level, vitamin B12 (or B12 binding capacity), serum urate or direct sequencing of the patient's DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among those affected, the majority develops cancer, most often acute myelogenous leukemia, and 90% develop bone marrow failure (the inability to produce blood cells) by age 40. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with androgens and hematopoietic (blood cell) growth factors can help bone marrow failure temporarily, but the long-term treatment is bone marrow transplant if a donor is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As FA is now known to affect DNA repair, specifically nonhomologous end joining, and given the current knowledge about dynamic cell division in the bone marrow, finding patients are more likely to develop bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndromes, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not surprising. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, they developed 60% less myeloid and erythroid colonies in the bone marrow when compared to the wild type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, transgenic mice with overexpressed HOXA9 developed a 15-fold increase in the amount of committed progenitor cells in the bone marrow, indicating that overexpressed HOXA9 induces expansion of the HSC population without disrupting differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bone marrow of essentially all the bones produces red blood cells until a person is around five years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell is released from the bone marrow after Stage 7, and so in newly circulating red blood cells there are about 1% reticulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycythemia vera is an uncommon neoplasm in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The underlying mechanism involves replacement of normal bone marrow with leukemia cells, which results in a drop in red blood cells, platelets, and normal white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sideroblastic anemia or sideroachrestic anemia is a form of anemia in which the bone marrow produces ringed sideroblasts rather than healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • heme
  • After phagocytosis and subsequent disruption of the cell membrane, Hgb is converted to heme and globin. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Critical functions in the developing red blood cell (erythroblast) include the establishment of the erythroid cytoskeleton, enzymes that mediate heme biosynthesis, and polypeptide chains that constitute the hemoglobin tetramer. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The cells were lysed, and equal amounts of protein from each lysate were separated by SDS/PAGE and electrotransferred to Immobilon P, followed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • The E2F4 protein is involved in gene repression and cell cycle exit, and also has poorly understood effects in differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Erythroid transcription factor also known as GATA-binding factor 1 or GATA-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GATA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • EpoR is a 52kDa peptide with a single carbohydrate chain resulting in a n approximately 56-57 kDa protein found on the surface of EPO responding cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cells, FANCA involvement in this 'FA core complex' is required for the activation of the FANCD2 protein to a monoubiquitinated isoform (FANCD2-Ub) in response to DNA damage, catalysing activation of the FA/BRCA DNA damage-response pathway, leading to repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • With iron/sulfur cluster precursors as its substrates, this protein may play a role in metal homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferate
  • Instead, PCV cells often carry activating mutation in the tyrosine kinase (JAK2) gene, which acts in signaling pathways of the EPO-receptor, making those cells proliferate independent from EPO. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • As the embryo requires rapid oxygenation due to its high mitotic activity, these islands are the main source of red blood cell (RBC) production via fusing endothelial cells (ECs) with the developing embryonic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later, Choi showed that blast cells derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells displayed common gene expression of both hematopoietic and endothelial precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distribution of EpoR was different from Epo, specifically in some neuronal cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells of normal nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • We need to take these differences into account when we consider the embryological context in which the embryological counterparts of ES cells from the two species first appear (pre-implantation blastocyst) and then differentiate (early postimplantation period). (biologists.org)
  • The CLP then goes on to differentiate into more committed lymphoid precursor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stages
  • How useful a tool will these cells be for studying these developmental stages? (biologists.org)
  • Subsequent differentiation stages (proerythroblast to orthochromatic erythroblast) involve a decrease in cell size and eventual expulsion of the nucleus, and are likely dependent upon EpoR signaling only for their survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, some evidence on macrocytosis in hypoxic stress (when Epo can increase 1000-fold) suggests that mitosis is actually skipped in later erythroid stages, when EpoR expression is low/absent, in order to provide emergency reserve of red blood cells as soon as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, unlike for the pro-erythroblast and later stages of erythroid development, no truly reliable and unique positive flow-cytometric markers exist, though it is possible to use negative exclusion markers to deplete a cell population of other precursors and differentiated cells by cell sorting, thus greatly enriching it for the CFU-e activity (Prospective isolation and global gene expression analysis of the erythrocyte colony-forming unit, Terszowski G. et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, an earlier stage of erythroid differentiation may also yield colonies in Epo-only medium, but these colonies would likely be smaller and/or not hemoglobinized, since the stages before the CFU-e stage (MEP and BFU-e) require other factors (IL-3 etc.) and more time for growth that will also delay the terminal differentiation and hemoglobinization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, in the fetal and adult precursors, not all precursor stages display HOXA9 expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stages correspond to specific appearances of the cell when stained with Wright's stain and examined by light microscopy, and correspond to other biochemical changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colour of the cytoplasm changes from blue at proerthroblast and basophillic stages to a pinkish red as a result of the increasing expression of haemoglobin as the cell develops. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • If hES cell differentiation does not closely resemble mouse embryonic development, a more empirical approach will be needed to identify the signaling pathways that control hES cell differentiation, as we discuss later. (biologists.org)
  • GATA1 mutant mice die in early embryonic development due to inability to form mature erythroid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of this gene is up-regulated in some cancer cell lines, and in embryonic day 15 in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one study Epo stimulated neural progenitor cells and prevented apoptosis in the embryonic brain in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • As early as embryonic day 10.5 the lack of EpoR can affect brain development by increasing fetal brain apoptosis and decreasing the number of neural progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By exposing cultures of EpoR positive embryonic cortical neurons to stimulation by Epo administration, the cells decreased apoptosis, as opposed to the decrease in neuron generation in EpoR negative cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • These SP cells are mostly CD34 − , highly enriched for long-term repopulating cells, and durably engraft in sublethally irradiated non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. (wiley.com)
  • In a line of mice that expressed EpoR exclusively in hematopoietic cells, the mice developed normally had normal brains and brain function and were fertile, despite the lack of EpoR in nonhematopoietic tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly
  • Interestingly, one of the few cases where a "fate" assay approaches a "potential" assay is in the case of hematopoietic stem cells, where extremely long assay times are conventionally used, extremely large numbers of progeny are generated before the end point, and the intermediates include highly motile cells that can sample an unusually large number of in vivo environments before differentiating as scored at the assay end point. (jimmunol.org)
  • Interestingly, we find a strong up-regulation in the production of macrophage precursors in LRRK2 associated Parkinson patients. (michaeljfox.org)
  • colony
  • We propose that the colony forming cell assay has great potential to indicate and/or mirror pathogenic processes based on a constant crosstalk between the immune system and the brain. (michaeljfox.org)
  • By day 2 from the time of plating, each CFU-e colony will contain between 8 (minimum) and 64 hemoglobinized cells most of which are in their end-stage of erythroid differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to see a small spectrum of hemoglobinization level and possibly cell size, indicating that some cells in the colony have achieved the end-stage faster than others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell number in a colony is important because pro-erythroblast stage is also Epo-responsive (expresses Epo receptor), but the proliferative capacity of these cells is not as high, thus yielding a colony with fewer than 8 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are colony forming units that the cells follow during their formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast cells
  • most likely due to increased histamine from mast cells, but may be related to an increased susceptibility to infection with the ulcer-causing bacterium H. pylori. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Studies from our laboratory revealed that Hb is expressed by epithelial cells from cervicovaginal tissue of rabbit [ 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people with AML may experience swelling of the gums because of infiltration of leukemic cells into the gum tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • platelet
  • Because macrocytosis usually precedes a low platelet count, patients with typical congenital anomalies associated with FA should be evaluated for an elevated red blood cell mean corpuscular volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • the platelet count or white blood cell count may also be increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • In vivo, expression of Notch ligand with supportive cytokines, such as IL-7 and Kit ligand, gives the thymus its T cell inductive activity ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • For a typical uncommitted cell, the fates that its progeny actually adopt in vivo may be only a slice of the uncommitted cell's full potential, because environmental conditions are limiting. (jimmunol.org)
  • Together, these data suggest that EpoR in erythroid differentiation may function primarily as a survival factor, while its effect on the cell cycle (for example, rate of division and corresponding changes in the levels of cyclins and Cdk inhibitors) in vivo awaits further work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • This regulatory mosaic has notable implications for the hierarchy of relationships linking T lymphocytes to other hematopoietic fates. (jimmunol.org)
  • MicroRNA-223 is overexpressed in the T-lymphocytes cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients suggesting that its expression in this cell type could contribute to the etiology of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Hemoglobin Expression in Nonerythroid Cells: Novel or Ubiquitous? (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the significance of Hb expression in vaginal epithelial cells and its role in the recognition of pathogens thereby reducing the risk and/or severity of inflammation and/or infections and the possible mechanism by which Hb exhibits antimicrobial and antioxidative functions. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings emphasize the significance of E2F4 in controlling gene expression and cell fate. (jimmunol.org)
  • Interleukin- 4 induces the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex and Fc receptors on B - cells . (dictionary.net)
  • This process involves three levels of regulatory change, in which the cells' intrinsic transcriptional regulatory factors, expression of signaling receptors (e.g. (jimmunol.org)
  • Notch1), and expression of distinct homing receptors separately contribute to confirmation of T cell identity. (jimmunol.org)
  • For example, T cell potential itself depends on Notch1 expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • The overexpressed E2F1 could bind to the miR-223 promoter and in turn lead to a further decrease in miR-223 expression through a negative feedback loop followed by myeloid cell-cycle progression at the expense of differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As HOXA9 is part of the homeobox family, involved in setting the body plans of animals, it is likely that HOXA9 would display increased expression in cells with higher differentiation potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • In primitive erythrocyte precursors, HOXA9 expression is almost zero. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential expression of EpoR between erythroid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult erythrocytes are the most common blood cell type in mammals, and their characteristic biconcave shape, 7-8 µm diameter and enucleation are amongst the greatest commonalities between mammalian species. (wikipedia.org)
  • It increases slightly in the fetal stage, and then it is expressed highly in the adult erythrocyte precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • This leads to granular deposition of iron in the mitochondria that form a ring around the nucleus of the developing red blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • knockout
  • The availability of these tools has allowed a precise gene editing, such as knockout of a specific gene or the correction of a defective gene by means of homologous recombination (HR), taking advantage of the endogenous cell repair machinery. (intechopen.com)
  • blood
  • Hb is an iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein found majorly in the red blood cells (RBCs) of all vertebrates [ 7 ] except in the fish family Channichthyidae [ 8 ] as well as in some invertebrates. (hindawi.com)
  • CD36 is also a fatty acid translocase (FAT) necessary for the transport of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and therefore may play a role in atherosclerosis.Applications Reported: This eBioNL07 (NL07) antibody has been reported for use in flow cytometric analysis.Applications Tested: This eBioNL07 (NL07) antibody has been pre-titrated and tested by flow cytometric analysis of normal human perioheral blood cells. (fishersci.co.uk)
  • Based on this understanding we want to monitor LRRK2 function in LRRK2 mutation carriers using blood derived cells as easy accessible cellular system. (michaeljfox.org)
  • As these cells are short-lived, there needs to be a steady turnover of new blood cells and the maintenance of an HSC pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Ueno and Weissman provided the earliest contradiction to the hemangioblast theory when they saw that distinct ES cells mixed into a blastocyst resulted in more than 1 ES cell contributing to the majority of the blood islands found in the resultant embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased numbers of blood cells may not cause any symptoms, but a number of medical problems or symptoms may occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • While at birth, blood count is usually normal, macrocytosis/megaloblastic anemia, defined as unusually large red blood cells, is the first detected abnormality, often within the first decade of life (median age of onset is 7 years). (wikipedia.org)
  • the vertebrae, sternum, pelvis and ribs, and cranial bones continue to produce red blood cells throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • After one to two days, these ultimately become "erythrocytes" or mature red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, as red blood cells mature, the size of the nucleus decreases, until it finally disappears with the condensation of the chromatin material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the health concerns associated with polycythemia vera are caused by the blood being thicker as a result of the increased red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Most signs and symptoms of AML are caused by the replacement of normal blood cells with leukemic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • while the leukemic cells themselves are derived from white blood cell precursors, they have no infection-fighting capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A drop in red blood cell count (anemia) can cause fatigue, paleness, and shortness of breath. (wikipedia.org)
  • In sideroblastic anemia, the body has iron available but cannot incorporate it into hemoglobin, which red blood cells need in order to transport oxygen efficiently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic viewing of the red blood cells will reveal marked unequal cell size and abnormal cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pappenheimer bodies are present in the red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RDW is increased with the red blood cell histogram shifted to the left. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Other features of the Fanconi anaemia cell phenotype also include abnormal cell cycle kinetics (prolonged G2 phase), hypersensitivity to oxygen, increased apoptosis and accelerated telomere shortening. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Our preliminary data suggest that the proportion of different precursor cells is altered in patients with PD, but also in preSymptoms & Side Effects LRRK2 mutation carriers, as compared to controls. (michaeljfox.org)
  • pluripotent
  • A comparison of primate and mouse ES cells suggests that a common underlying blueprint for the pluripotent state has undergone significant species-specific modification. (biologists.org)
  • Our understanding of mammalian embryology, and of pluripotent stem cells, is based chiefly on studies in the mouse. (biologists.org)
  • Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)