Loading...
  • HSCs
  • However, both steps are critical in the case of primary cells, such as the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). (intechopen.com)
  • Recent data have suggested that human CD34 − hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exist, challenging the concept that HSCs necessarily and exclusively express the CD34 antigen. (wiley.com)
  • In mice, quiescent HSCs have been shown to be mostly CD34 − , but as a consequence of 5-fluorouracil treatment or cytokine stimulation, differentiate into CD34 + cells. (wiley.com)
  • Using a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, one of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, the breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) or ABC transporter G2 (ABCG2), was found to be highly expressed in SP cells as well as other primitive HSCs and to sharply drop with hematopoietic differentiation. (wiley.com)
  • The isolation of Bcrp/ABCG2 + cells appears to be an attractive tool to analyze and characterize HSCs, and may eventually allow for the purification of these cells for clinical purposes. (wiley.com)
  • Transplantation studies with injection of HSCs into myeloablated recipients allow for the analysis of the presence of donor cells and their capacity to proliferate and repopulate, thereby indicating HSC activity [ 1 ]. (wiley.com)
  • Dexter observed that mesenchymal stromal cells could maintain early HSCs ex vivo, and both Lord and Gong showed that these cells localized to the endosteal margins in long bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • HSC population is then the ideal target for the correction of hematopoietic genetic diseases and also for the knockout of the responsible genes to in vitro and in vivo model those hematopoietic diseases. (intechopen.com)
  • The activating E2Fs, namely E2F1, E2F2, and E2F3a, promote the G 1 -to-S phase transition during cell cycle progression ( 9 ), interacting with the basal transcriptional machinery to enhance expression of cyclin E, DNA polymerase α, thymidine kinase, and other genes that advance the cell cycle ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This protein plays a role in erythroid development by regulating a large ensemble of genes that mediate both the development and function of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct and significant effects of EpoR signaling specifically upon the induction of erythroid-specific genes such as beta-globin, have been mainly elusive. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to the Fanconi anaemia complementation group (FANC) family of genes of which 12 complementation groups are currently recognized and is hypothesised to operate as a post-replication repair or a cell cycle checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • it is thought that vascular changes occur at an early stage and may include endothelial cell apoptosis, endothelium activation, inflammatory cell recruitment, intimal proliferation, and adventitial fibrosis, all of which may lead to vessel obliteration [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Increased expression in fibroblasts and endothelial cells has been demonstrated in SSc patients, suggesting that deregulating Eng expression and/or function may be related to the vascular manifestation of SSc [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This vasculopathy is caused by a number of soluble factors and involves a complex interaction between endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, extracellular matrix, coagulation factors, and circulating cells [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • As the embryo requires rapid oxygenation due to its high mitotic activity, these islands are the main source of red blood cell (RBC) production via fusing endothelial cells (ECs) with the developing embryonic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later, Choi showed that blast cells derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells displayed common gene expression of both hematopoietic and endothelial precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distribution of EpoR was different from Epo, specifically in some neuronal cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells of normal nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferate
  • Due to the high alkalinity of the capping agent, pulp cells display mild inflammation, proliferate, and increase in number and size and initiate mineralization. (hindawi.com)
  • Instead, PCV cells often carry activating mutation in the tyrosine kinase (JAK2) gene, which acts in signaling pathways of the EPO-receptor, making those cells proliferate independent from EPO. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The cells were lysed, and equal amounts of protein from each lysate were separated by SDS/PAGE and electrotransferred to Immobilon P, followed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, although HDAC1-RARα did act as a bona fide DN RARα mutant in cellular in vitro and in cell culture, this fusion protein, as well as other DN RARα mutants, did not cause a block in myeloid differentiation in vivo in TM and were not leukemogenic. (rupress.org)
  • The E2F4 protein is involved in gene repression and cell cycle exit, and also has poorly understood effects in differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Erythroid transcription factor also known as GATA-binding factor 1 or GATA-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GATA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • EpoR is a 52kDa peptide with a single carbohydrate chain resulting in a n approximately 56-57 kDa protein found on the surface of EPO responding cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cells, FANCA involvement in this 'FA core complex' is required for the activation of the FANCD2 protein to a monoubiquitinated isoform (FANCD2-Ub) in response to DNA damage, catalysing activation of the FA/BRCA DNA damage-response pathway, leading to repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • With iron/sulfur cluster precursors as its substrates, this protein may play a role in metal homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • The repair of dental pulp by direct capping with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ] or by implantation of bioactive extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules implies four sequential steps: a moderate inflammation, the commitment of adult reserve stem cells, their proliferation, and terminal differentiation [ 3 ] (Figure 2 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult erythrocytes are the most common blood cell type in mammals, and their characteristic biconcave shape, 7-8 µm diameter and enucleation are amongst the greatest commonalities between mammalian species. (wikipedia.org)
  • It increases slightly in the fetal stage, and then it is expressed highly in the adult erythrocyte precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, in the fetal and adult precursors, not all precursor stages display HOXA9 expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • heme
  • After phagocytosis and subsequent disruption of the cell membrane, Hgb is converted to heme and globin. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Critical functions in the developing red blood cell (erythroblast) include the establishment of the erythroid cytoskeleton, enzymes that mediate heme biosynthesis, and polypeptide chains that constitute the hemoglobin tetramer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In these areas, extensive cell death and tissue necrosis, also called coagulation necrosis, may also occur. (hindawi.com)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a line of mice that expressed EpoR exclusively in hematopoietic cells, the mice developed normally had normal brains and brain function and were fertile, despite the lack of EpoR in nonhematopoietic tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people with AML may experience swelling of the gums because of infiltration of leukemic cells into the gum tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • stages
  • Subsequent differentiation stages (proerythroblast to orthochromatic erythroblast) involve a decrease in cell size and eventual expulsion of the nucleus, and are likely dependent upon EpoR signaling only for their survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, some evidence on macrocytosis in hypoxic stress (when Epo can increase 1000-fold) suggests that mitosis is actually skipped in later erythroid stages, when EpoR expression is low/absent, in order to provide emergency reserve of red blood cells as soon as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, unlike for the pro-erythroblast and later stages of erythroid development, no truly reliable and unique positive flow-cytometric markers exist, though it is possible to use negative exclusion markers to deplete a cell population of other precursors and differentiated cells by cell sorting, thus greatly enriching it for the CFU-e activity (Prospective isolation and global gene expression analysis of the erythrocyte colony-forming unit, Terszowski G. et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, an earlier stage of erythroid differentiation may also yield colonies in Epo-only medium, but these colonies would likely be smaller and/or not hemoglobinized, since the stages before the CFU-e stage (MEP and BFU-e) require other factors (IL-3 etc.) and more time for growth that will also delay the terminal differentiation and hemoglobinization. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stages correspond to specific appearances of the cell when stained with Wright's stain and examined by light microscopy, and correspond to other biochemical changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colour of the cytoplasm changes from blue at proerthroblast and basophillic stages to a pinkish red as a result of the increasing expression of haemoglobin as the cell develops. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • These SP cells are mostly CD34 − , highly enriched for long-term repopulating cells, and durably engraft in sublethally irradiated non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. (wiley.com)
  • The hemangioblast theory, which posits that the RBCs and ECs derive from a common progenitor cell, was developed as researchers observed that receptor knockout mice, such as flk1-/-, exhibited defective RBC formation and vessel growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • GATA1 mutant mice die in early embryonic development due to inability to form mature erythroid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of this gene is up-regulated in some cancer cell lines, and in embryonic day 15 in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • colony
  • By day 2 from the time of plating, each CFU-e colony will contain between 8 (minimum) and 64 hemoglobinized cells most of which are in their end-stage of erythroid differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to see a small spectrum of hemoglobinization level and possibly cell size, indicating that some cells in the colony have achieved the end-stage faster than others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell number in a colony is important because pro-erythroblast stage is also Epo-responsive (expresses Epo receptor), but the proliferative capacity of these cells is not as high, thus yielding a colony with fewer than 8 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are colony forming units that the cells follow during their formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast cells
  • most likely due to increased histamine from mast cells, but may be related to an increased susceptibility to infection with the ulcer-causing bacterium H. pylori. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Other features of the Fanconi anaemia cell phenotype also include abnormal cell cycle kinetics (prolonged G2 phase), hypersensitivity to oxygen, increased apoptosis and accelerated telomere shortening. (wikipedia.org)
  • By exposing cultures of EpoR positive embryonic cortical neurons to stimulation by Epo administration, the cells decreased apoptosis, as opposed to the decrease in neuron generation in EpoR negative cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • platelet
  • Because macrocytosis usually precedes a low platelet count, patients with typical congenital anomalies associated with FA should be evaluated for an elevated red blood cell mean corpuscular volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • the platelet count or white blood cell count may also be increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Lymph node biopsy findings at diagnosis were typical of NLPHL, including macronodular architecture with a predomi- nance of small lymphocytes, lesser numbers of histocytes, and a minor population of admixed lymphocyte-predominant (LP) cells (Figure). (onclive.com)
  • MicroRNA-223 is overexpressed in the T-lymphocytes cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients suggesting that its expression in this cell type could contribute to the etiology of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • This leads to granular deposition of iron in the mitochondria that form a ring around the nucleus of the developing red blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Together, these data suggest that EpoR in erythroid differentiation may function primarily as a survival factor, while its effect on the cell cycle (for example, rate of division and corresponding changes in the levels of cyclins and Cdk inhibitors) in vivo awaits further work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • knockout
  • The availability of these tools has allowed a precise gene editing, such as knockout of a specific gene or the correction of a defective gene by means of homologous recombination (HR), taking advantage of the endogenous cell repair machinery. (intechopen.com)
  • pluripotent
  • How to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells? (brainscape.com)
  • Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Furthermore, we found that the CLEC-2/PDPN interaction induces BM FRC-like cells to secrete chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) to facilitate proplatelet formation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Interleukin- 4 induces the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex and Fc receptors on B - cells . (dictionary.net)
  • myeloproliferative
  • The same mutations in exon 2 of GATA1 present in almost all Down Syndrome-associated transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) or transient leukemia (TL), a precursor condition that evolves into AMKL in 30% of patients, that as many as 10% of Down Syndrome children may develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • neoplastic
  • However, a clonal genetic abnormality has not been detected in these myeloma-associated cases of CNL, raising the possibility that the neutrophilia is a reaction due to the neoplastic myeloma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • hyperplasia
  • Five normal bone marrow samples from rib resections and 15 bone marrow biopsy specimens from the iliac crest of patients with breast carcinoma (5 cases), metastatic anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (1 case), multiple myeloma (2 cases), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4 cases), Hodgkin disease (2 cases), and reactive erythroid hyperplasia (1 case) were also studied. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Air-dried bone marrow aspirate smears from 6 patients with breast carcinoma (2 cases), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2 cases), multiple myeloma (1 case), and reactive erythroid hyperplasia (1 case), and smears of bone marrow obtained from 2 normal ribs resected during nephrectomy were fixed in 95% ethanol for 10 minutes and postfixed in 10% buffered formalin for 30 minutes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • bone marrow failure
  • Among those affected, the majority develops cancer, most often acute myelogenous leukemia, and 90% develop bone marrow failure (the inability to produce blood cells) by age 40. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with androgens and hematopoietic (blood cell) growth factors can help bone marrow failure temporarily, but the long-term treatment is bone marrow transplant if a donor is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As FA is now known to affect DNA repair, specifically nonhomologous end joining, and given the current knowledge about dynamic cell division in the bone marrow, finding patients are more likely to develop bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndromes, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not surprising. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34
  • Inhibition of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 expression by short interfering RNA abrogated δ-tocotrienol-induced mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation and clonogenicity, and increased γ-H2AX foci formation in irradiated CD34 + cells. (haematologica.org)
  • Conclusions Our data indicate that δ-tocotrienol protects mouse bone marrow and human CD34 + cells from radiation-induced damage through extracellular signal-related kinase activation-associated mammalian target of rapamycin survival pathways. (haematologica.org)
  • immature
  • The first division is between its acute and chronic forms: Acute leukemia is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of immature blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for future studies to explore the role of DNA replication in immune cell generation and function. (jci.org)
  • LILRB 1-5 transduce signals via ITIMs that recruit phosphatase SHP-1, SHP-2, or SHIP, leading to negative regulation of immune cell activation. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • The activation of LILRBs on immune cells by their ligands may contribute to immune evasion by tumors. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Antibodies can be used to deliver certain molecules, for example, a toxin or an immune stimulatory moiety, for example, a cytokine, to a cancer cell expressing the marker so as to selectively kill the cancer cell. (google.es)
  • GD2 is a disialoganglioside that is normally only expressed at a significant level on the outer surface membranes of neuronal cells, where its exposure to the immune system is limited by the blood brain barrier. (google.es)
  • In association with ZFP36L2 maintains quiescence on developing B lymphocytes by promoting ARE-mediated decay of several mRNAs encoding cell cycle regulators that help B cells progress through the cell cycle, and hence ensuring accurate variable-diversity-joining (VDJ) recombination and functional immune cell formation (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • 3 A dose of ionizing radiation above 1 Gy in humans poses a risk of injury to the bone marrow and hematopoietic system, which leads to long-term compromised immune function and increased susceptibility to infection and internal and external hemorrhage. (haematologica.org)
  • Besides phagocytosis, they play a critical role in nonspecific defense ( innate immunity ) and also help initiate specific defense mechanisms ( adaptive immunity ) by recruiting other immune cells such as lymphocytes . (pre-diagnostics.com)
  • This divides leukemias into lymphoblastic or lymphocytic leukemias and myeloid or myelogenous leukemias: In lymphoblastic or lymphocytic leukemias, the cancerous change takes place in a type of marrow cell that normally goes on to form lymphocytes, which are infection-fighting immune system cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast
  • most likely due to increased histamine from mast cells, but may be related to an increased susceptibility to infection with the ulcer-causing bacterium H. pylori. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neoplastic
  • However, a clonal genetic abnormality has not been detected in these myeloma-associated cases of CNL, raising the possibility that the neutrophilia is a reaction due to the neoplastic myeloma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • This manuscript illustrates a protocol for efficiently creating integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from peripheral blood using episomal plasmids and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. (jove.com)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells stained with FITC-conjugated mouse anti-human myeloperoxidase (MPO). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Human peripheral blood from normal donors was stained using a combination of anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody (clone: S4.1) for the cell surface antigens, and anti-human/mouse ZAP-70 monoclonal antibody (clone: 1E7.2), for intracellular detection. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • leukemia
  • We further elucidated unique signaling downstream of a representative ITIM-containing receptor in leukemia cells. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • These data suggest that ERG is a hematopoietic oncogene that may play a direct role in myeloid leukemia pathogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The same mutations in exon 2 of GATA1 present in almost all Down Syndrome-associated transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) or transient leukemia (TL), a precursor condition that evolves into AMKL in 30% of patients, that as many as 10% of Down Syndrome children may develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • These white blood cells are not fully developed and are called blasts or leukemia cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immediate treatment is required in acute leukemia because of the rapid progression and accumulation of the malignant cells, which then spill over into the bloodstream and spread to other organs of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic leukemia is characterized by the excessive buildup of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subtypes include precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia, precursor T acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Burkitt's leukemia, and acute biphenotypic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Typically taking months or years to progress, the cells are produced at a much higher rate than normal, resulting in many abnormal white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic viewing of the red blood cells will reveal marked unequal cell size and abnormal cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult
  • This is a single-center, single arm, open-label study of oral lenalidomide monotherapy administered to red blood cell (RBC) transfusion dependent adult subjects with Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA). (stanford.edu)
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Potential uses of human iPSCs include modeling pathogenesis of human genetic diseases, autologous cell therapy after gene correction, and personalized drug screening by providing a source of patient-specific and symptom relevant cells. (jove.com)
  • This chapter will review and discuss how researchers are trying to solve them, all attempts that are ongoing and the potential application of the technology to the patients affected with hematopoietic genetic diseases. (intechopen.com)
  • Additionally, the diseases are subdivided according to which kind of blood cell is affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • Mutations involving the FANCA gene are associated with many somatic and congenital defects, primarily involving phenotypic variations of Fanconi anaemia, aplastic anaemia, and forms of cancer such as squamous cell carcinoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood cells
  • Most of the health concerns associated with polycythemia vera are caused by the blood being thicker as a result of the increased red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While at birth, blood count is usually normal, macrocytosis/megaloblastic anemia, defined as unusually large red blood cells, is the first detected abnormality, often within the first decade of life (median age of onset is 7 years). (wikipedia.org)
  • As these cells are short-lived, there needs to be a steady turnover of new blood cells and the maintenance of an HSC pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms occur due to a lack of normal blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In sideroblastic anemia, the body has iron available but cannot incorporate it into hemoglobin, which red blood cells need in order to transport oxygen efficiently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pappenheimer bodies are present in the red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • While they normally produce digestive fluids for the stomach, they can revert into stem cells to make temporary repairs to stomach injuries, such as a cut or damage from infection. (wikipedia.org)